Exam 1 Study Guide w/ answers
Exam 1 Study Guide w/ answers GEOG 3230
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Janey Lyon on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 3230 at University of Utah taught by Carter in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 117 views. For similar materials see Pyrogeography in Geography at University of Utah.
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Date Created: 03/03/15
Pyrogeography Spring 2015 Study Guide Exam l 1 What elements are necessary for combustion Oxygen fuel and ignition 2 Why was oxygen a limiting element What changed this Oxygen didn t come around until blue green algae started producing it around 23 billion years ago They took a few billion years to create the amount of oxygen we have today SO with out oxygen there weren t any plants to fuel the fires 3 What is the story with fuels What happened to make them available 23 billion years ago blue algae began producing oxygen on planet earth However it wasn t until about 500 mil years ago that oxygen levels got to where they are today to allow plant life to sustain That s the story of fuels oxygen brought plant life which was the first fuel that could ignite fire 4 Sources of ignition Which is the most consistent Why Anything that creates a spark this can happen in volcanism meteors falling rocks caused by humans and lightening which is the most consistent fire source 5 Lightning and fires explain the geography Florida has the most days with thunderstorms however the western states have higher ignition south east soils are saturated so there are no fires 6 ENSO and fire explain the relationship and the processes Southern oscillation is the pressure gradient differences where the low pressure and high pressure are set up During normal pacific conditions there is high pressure of the coast of S America and high off the coast of Australia Low pressure is going to follow the warm current and above it will create vapor it will cool and condense and create clouds Wet in the west pacific dry in the East During La nina we have invigorated normal conditions Trade winds from the east blow warm currents further west Low pressure follows that High pressure is still up on the coast of South America This will effect fire activity in the western states Desert SW has drier conditions that trigger more fire events El Nino is just the opposite A weakening of the trade winds that cause a reversal blowing from the west to the east That heat is moved west and the low pressure follows to the coast of south america Not as much fire activity in the El nino years La Nina brings more dryness and fire 7 Monsoon and fire explain the relationship and the processes Monsoons are heavily driven by the difference of the temp over the ocean and over the land Warm air on land will rise and as a result air flow from the south is drawn inland to fill it up If it has moisture it will cause precipitation Because conditions are so dry in summer it evaporates pretty quickly We see a lot of dry lightning happen with these summer monsoon events 8 What is a fire island Why are they important Uninhabited islands or remote areas in the desert where humans have not modified the land These can be used to observe natural occurrences in the landscape These places are very rare 9 Phases of combustion Chemical energy is transformed to thermal energy radiant energy and kinetic energy in the rising convection column 10 Photosynthesis vs Combustion equations Photosynthesis C02H20solar energy gt C6H1005nO Combustion C6H1005n O ignition temp gt C02H20heat they are almost exact opposites 11 Intrinsic vs Extrinsic fuel properties Intrinsic Fuel Properties describe plant parts cellulose hemicellulose lignin Extrinsic fuel properties describe fuel components and relate to fire behavior rather than fundamentals 12 Mechanisms of heat transfer Examples Significance of each to wildfire Heat transfer is when energy is moved from one source to another The basic mechanisms are conduction molecule to molecule convection movement of air mass and radiation which is energy in waves 13 Three types of fires Ground fires that smolder surface fires and crown fires that flame in the canopy 14 Different categories of fuels Living or dead fuels living fuels can control their internal moisture and dead fuels cannot 15 Changes in fuel state causes and time scales Changes in fuel state are related to moisture content and can be abrupt diurnal seasonal annual or successional These can be caused by disturbance weather and biological cycles Time scales can be anything from abrupt to long time ecosystem evolution 16 Within a plant or tree how does fuel moisture affect fire Greater fuel moisture means greater difficulty to spark fire When there is less fuel moisture plants and trees are much more vulnerable to fire spreads 17 How does relative humidity affect fires How can RH be measured Humidity increases fuel moisture Relative humidity is measured by the amount of water vapor in the air 18 What is stability How does it affect fire How would an inversion affect fire Stability is when there are no upward motions of air This affects fires because it keeps air from moving upwards lnversions are very stable air and it diminishes the likeliness of fire to spread You need that unstable upward lifting air for the flame to progress 19 How do thunderstorms occur Why do we care about thunderstorm activity Thunderstorms are caused by cumulonimbus clouds that are very electromagnetically charged In the right conditions this can cause lightning strike the most consistent ignition to start fires 20 How does wind affect fire Why are the different types of wind that can affect fire Wind fuels fire Winds that influence fire can be general large scale upper sky winds or they can be local winds 21 What is a fire season What determines it The season that a fire is expected to happen usually summer It comes down to fuel moisture snow pack less moisture longer season 22 What are the critical fire weather conditions Strong and shifting wind low humidity cold fronts high temperatures unstable atmosphere dry lightning Foehn winds santa ana chinook intense high pressure winds being drawn inland by a strong low pressure 23 What is duff small fine organic matter 24 What are some plant adaptations to fire Many wood species have seeds that are dormant until heat or a flame cracks open the shell Longleaf pine increase carbohydrate intake during low fires and it increases their growth and strength 25 Define fire severity and fire intensity Fire severity organic matter loss lntensity energy released 26 Define biomass phytobiomass total fuel potential fuel available fuel Biomass organic matter used as fuel Phytobiomass plant material above mineral soil Potential fuel material on sight that might burn in a most intense fire Total fuel entire mass of material on sight Available fuel fuel available for combustion in a given fire 27 The Bessie and Johnson 1995 reading what did they do What was their question What did they decide What do you think They wanted to assess the relative roles played by weather and fuel load in forest fire behavior There questions included understanding relative roles of fuel and weather in each of surface fire intensity and crown fire initiation They wanted to know how strongly fire behavior variation relates to weather variation with out the effects of fuels And lastly how does the potential for high intensity fires relate to fuel variation among stand ages when the effects of weather are excluded Results showed that surface fire intensity was determined more by the weather than byfueL 28 Be able to define fire frequency fire event fire interval fire rotation fire cycle fire episode fire regime Fire frequency an expression of fire occurrence The time intervals between fires or number of fires in a time Fire episode when charcoal accumulation rates exceed sedimentary charcoal by a present threshold ration Fire event a single fire or series of fires within and area at a particular time Fire interval of years between two successive fires Fire rotation length of time necessary for an area equal size to the study to burn Fire cycle avg stand age of a forest whose age distributions fit a mathematical distribution 29 How do we get fire history data Fire scars stand age charcoal dendrochronology 30 Be able to explain how we get data from fire scars stand ages and sedimentary charcoal Fire scars reveal the exact year the fire happened Stand age analysis provides and age of past disturbance events Charcoal can help identify the region of the fire age and even pollen involved in the fuels 31 How do fire scars form Heat from the fire penetrates the bark and eventually scars the cambium layer 32 Why is an area likely to rescar The already exposed scar is weak cambium so it ignites more easily It tries to heal itself with sap or pitch that is very flammable The bark is thinnest over the scar so it can t protect itself 33 What are the characteristics of fire scars how do we identify them Wide based triangle extended all the way to the base of the tree 34 Why would the upslope side of a tree scar preferentially over the downslope side Because fires tend to move upward and follow the fuel upwards to burn the upside of a tree is going to be a lot more vulnerable to scarring than the downslope 35 What are some other ways trees can scar besides by fire Humans animals and disease can cause scars on trees You can tell they are not from fire because they are usually above the base of the tree 36 How can we tell the difference from fire scars and other things that can scar trees The easiest way to tell is if the scar runs down to the base of the tree If it does then it is a fire scar If it starts higher up the tree or the scars are in odd patterns than it is safe to say it was not a fire but rather animals or disease 37 In what fire regime are fire scars helpful Low intensity low severity regimes that don t kill the trees 38 In what environment would you use stand age How does stand age work Regions of severe fires because the forest structure provides an age on past disturbance events 39 What are two ways we can collect tree scars What are the pros and cons of each Tree cores and cross sections Tree cores are great because they don t harm the tree and give you a great idea of each ring Cross sections give you a bigger story of the whole tree but you have to kill the tree 40 The Whitlock and Larsen 2001 reading what is the significance of the two charcoal sizes What do they tell you Microscopic charcoal The exact source of this charcoal is generally vague and further away from its source Macroscopic charcoal is found near the local sites of the fire 41 What is the rationale for looking at larger particle sizes of charcoal to reconstruct a local fire history The bigger pieces of charcoal stick around the scene of the fire 42 What is the ultimate goal of counting charcoal particle What are we trying to reconstruct Accumulation rates of particles have been used to calculate fire frequency and reconstruct ecosystems of the region before the fire 43 What are the advantages and disadvantages of Dendrochronology vs Sedimentary Charcoal Dendrochronology and Sedimentary charcoal can both date fire history Dendro uses trees that have not been completely burned down and shows years of struggle and flourish Charcoal reveals higher intensity fire histories and shows us what kind of pollen was associated with the fuel that burned down Dendro has a lot more standardized methodologies than charcoal dating 44 What are the principles of Dendrochronology What is the fundamental principle How does it work cross dating uniformitarianism site selection limiting factor ecological amplitude replication aggregate tree growth 45 The Diaz and Swetnam 2013 reading what conditions created the Big Blowup of 1910 Relatively dry conditions especially in the Rockies Abundant slash and burn fuels near frontier logging ignitions from human sources and lack of fire detection and protection created the Big Blowup 46 What was the most recent year of fire activity had strikingly similar in magnitude conditions to the Big Blowup March of 2012 47 Dr Mitchell Power s guest lecture He discussed the 5 biggest and smallest fire years since the 1900s What conditions caused the 5 biggest fire years What conditions caused the 5 lowest fire years Big fires caused by warm spring summer draught and low snowpack Lowest years had very high relative humidity and moisture rates 48 Dr Mitchell Power s guest lecture He discussed the influence of high pressure in the Northern Rocky Mountains How does high and low pressures influence fire activity Fire likes to move from an area of high pressure to low pressure Just like wind these pressure gradients keep fire moving 49 Dr Zach Lundeen s guest lecture He discussed the influence of seasonality of precipitation and fire activity Explain this relationship It shows when the fire season is going to begin Snow pack influences the beginning of the fire season vegetation and moisture 50 What does Historical Range of Variability mean Why is this phrase important to land managers This term is equal to saying what were the conditions like before industrial people There is a natural range of variability over our history So we need to understand those years when variables change and may effect the land one might be managing 51 How is cheatgrass changing the natural fire regime in the Great Basin and surrounding foothills Cheatgrass is drought tolerant and creates a more continuous fuel bed for fires This extends the fire season and contributes more frequent and larger fires 52 What are some effects to air and soil from fire What is the main product of concern of fire to human health Effects caused by fire on air is mostly particulate matter smoke carbon dioxide sulfur dioxide ozone and Nitrogen dioxide Fires account for 15th the carbon dioxide Fire effects on soil is a function of fire severity It is difficult to understand the effects of fire on soil because each soil has such a unique mixture of organic matter 53 What does it mean if a soil is hydrophobic Hydrophobic soil repels water
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