Human Geogrpahy Final Study Guide
Human Geogrpahy Final Study Guide GEOG102
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Haley Stanko on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG102 at University of Delaware taught by Dr. April Veness in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Human Geography in Geography at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Language used to describe location and pattern, used throughout the semester: latitude/longitude—know degrees of latitude/longitude, locations of tropics, equator, circles, poles absolute locations—know regions, countries, physical features (fixed/accepted reference points) relative locations—describe locations according to their position “relative to” an absolute location spatial patterns—describe distribution patterns using the detailed vocabulary geographers use spatial correlation—look at when two or more phenomena share a similar pattern/location spatial analysis—try to explain reasons for spatial patterns and correlations Terms and concepts to help explain differences in pattern, used throughout the semester traditional livelihood types (and what environmental type they are associated with) o Hunting/gathering extensive subsistence agriculture All environmental types Slash and burn o Shifting cultivation extensive subsistence agriculture Tropical rainforest o Pastoral Nomadism extensive subsistence agriculture Desert and tundra-- lots of land needed to graze animals where conditions do not support crops Not supportive of large population o Sedentary agriculture & mixed farming intensive subsistence agriculture Savannah -- distinct microenvironments = crop specialization, ability to trade nearby Use of smaller amount of land, periodic market, innovations environmental types (and what traditional livelihood types located there) demographic transition (stages and what is involved in moving between stages) o population pyramids (what they reveal/say about a society) o Visual representation of age and gender composition of a population used for descriptive and predictive purposes o Makes it easy to anticipate needs of certain age groups o Gives some sense of overall changes in birth/death rates, gender inequalities o Gives a clue to what stage of the demographic transition a country might be in o migration/colonization (push-pull, typical colonial policies, impacts on native populations) o development (agricultural/industrial, prerequisites of, uneven impact on society and environment) o Rostow’s model of development (as way to describe modernization process) o Traditional Society-- subsistence activity, bartering, agriculture most important o Transitional Stage (preconditions for takeoff)-- increased specialization generates surpluses, transport infrastructure, savings/investments o Take Off-- industrialization, switch from agricultural to manufacturing, concentrated growth Growth is self-sustaining, as investment leads to increasing incomes generating more savings to finance further investment o Drive to Maturity-- economic diversification, technological innovation, goods & services, urbanization o High Mass Consumption-- extensive technology but slower expansion, service sector increasingly dominant, income transcends basic food/shelter/clothing, increased interest in social welfare sectors of the economy (primary, secondary, tertiary, and what they tell you about development) o Primary-- economic activity with direct extraction of natural resources from their environment Fishing, mining, lumbering, agriculture o Secondary-- economic activity involving processing of raw materials and their transportation into finished industrial products Manufacturing o Tertiary-- economic activity associated with provision of services Transportation, banking, retailing, education, routine office based jobs o Quaternary-- service sector industries concerned with collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital Finance, administration, insurance, legal services infrastructure in general (how it is tied to development) o Colonizers invest in transportation infrastructure to make it cheaper to get ot goods and transport them around, do not benefit locals--- sometimes destroying residential areas to build transportation Part 3: Geopolitical factors behind uneven development in Africa and South Africa Key resources for industrialization and/or development in Africa/S Africa (& global map of coal, iron ore, petroleum, African and S. African maps used in class—Maps 8-12) o Coal-- South Africa, S/East o Iron Ore-- South, North, North East o Petroleum-- North, West coast, Gabon area Measures of development & Maps 13—18 on Sakai that provide evidence of WHERE development is (or is not) occurring: This is all occurring in a L shape from the west coast through central Africa, North/South Africa countries are much better off o GNP, % pop in poverty, degree of infrastructure o Infant mortality rates, % children below age 15, etc. o Access to education, health care, jobs, clean/useable environment Lesser Developed Countries (where are they, what are the key characteristics of LDCs—Map 13) o Criteria that define least developed countries: Low income, human resource weakness, economic vulnerability ( unstable agricultural production), lots of internal conflict High percent primary workers, percent of population under age of 15, infant mortality rates, areas at risk of malaria transmission Low daily calories per capita Legacy of colonization-- Africa carved up by European powers o Geography of Wealth and Poverty Map 14—Sachs et al. (Reading). What was the main argument o Physical geography of a region can influence its economic performance-- geography plays and important role in shaping the distribution of world income and economic growth o An areas climate can affect its economic development Nations in tropical climate zones generally face higher rates of infectious disease and lower agricultural productivity than nations in temperate zones The poorest regions in the world are handicapped by distance from sea trade and a tropical/desert ecology o General physical features of Africa/S. Africa (major rivers, mountains, deserts, best agricultural lands for intensive subsistence, location of resources—coal, iron ore, petroleum, gold, diamonds, copper, areas of highest development) Maps 19-22 o Colonization: European powers in Africa Map 10—colonial landholdings; Guns, Germs and Steel argument (see questions to consider, on syllabus); o Europeans had most productive crops and animals-- were able to develop guns, germs, and steel to use as tools in colonization European proximity to livestock allowed development of new diseases and resistance to those diseases-- other people around the world did not have the resistance to the new diseases Used steel to build railroads to extract natural resources o Stages of colonization in S. Africa (paths that Afrikaners/British took into the interior—when, where and why. Impact on natives) Map 20 and Terms G & H o Stage 1: Colonization of Cape Town area 1652-1700, Cape Town as symbolic hearth "White Tribe of South Africa" tried to build legitimacy as a white tribe First 150 years = no competition for the WTA, Khoi and San did not have numbers, organization and technology to compete Erase them Inscribe "us" -- first true settlers "charter culture" New types of migration and settlement process Role of new technologies in transportation and defense development of "Afrikaner" identities, place connections and privilege o Stage 2: Expansion diffusion 1700-1835 Staking claims, settling the land & encountering resistance British arrive in 1795 and annex Cape Colony. Enact policies designed to undercut authority of Afrikaners British stake claims in South Africa "crashing" WTA Outlaw slavery-- undercuts Afrikaners economy and enlists support of African tribes British offer free land/passage to British people o Government pays for migration of English citizens... increased number of British, established coastal cities (Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban) Make investments in infrastructure o Funds construction of transportation and urban infrastructure to increase international trade, open interior for settlement/exploitation o Further weakens Afrikaner power and causes resentments, eventually black tribes are aslo subjugated British take over Cape Town area, push Afrikaners inland Migration to interior in search of grazing lands for their cattle Came into conflict with Khoisan and Xhosa tribes near Great Fish River After British annexed the Cape, trekboers moved further into North and conflicted with Zulu o Stage 3: Great Trek 1835-1870 Contests over development rights & development paths & land holdings African tribes, Afrikaners, and British each try to lay claim to the rich agricultural lands located in HighVeld Bantu speaking Africans engaged in tribal warfare and disruption = sets up for divide and rule by Europeans Afrikaners and British are in a contest to see who will acquire land, resources, and power first-- focus on the Highveld land Impact of British Colonization on the African Tribes: Disruption of traditional livelihoods due to warfare, loss of land/culture Introduction of English culture (language, religion, education) Impact of British colonization on the Afrikaners/Boers Intense nationalism, solidarity, independence, resistance, resentment of British Movement of Afrikaners/Boers to interior, removing land from natives Establishment of 2 republics: Orange Free State and Transvaal o Stage 4: Discovery of Resources: Consolidation of land, labor, power 1870: British divide land, give Boers Orange Free State and Transvaal African tribes put in horseshoe on periphery of Transvaal Mineral riches of South Africa 1870s-early 1900s British capital used to develop mining, railroads, industry Discoveries of diamonds, gold, coal, iron ore Native tribes used as cheap labor (slaves) to work in the mines 1899-1902: Anglo-Boer war-- victors, victims, and architecture for "separate development" Afrikaners and Boers fight for the right to control the country Disrupt communities, send armored trains into the interior Impact of white privilege, Afrikaner resentment and black oppression Beginnings of industrialization in South Africa Location of key minerals, urban areas o Stage 5: Apartheid-- Organizing space, Justifying Inequality (1900-1990) o Stage 5: Transition from Apartheid to Democratic Elections (1990-1994) o Stage 7: Post-Apartheid South Africa (1994--Today) o Site/situation (what they are, why they are important, examples of) o Site is the actual location of a settlement on the earth and is composed of the physical characteristics of the landscape specific to the area Landforms, climate, vegetation types, availability of water, soil quality, minerals, wildlife o Situation is the location of a place relative to its surroundings and other places Accessibility of the location, the extent of a place's connections with another, how close an area may be to raw materials if they are not located specifically on the site Cape Town was an excellent situation for a "refreshment station" Opportunity to benefit from additional trading with other traders passing through Site offered access to: fresh water, agricultural possibilities, defense Defensive city sites make use of the natural protection offered by the physical features such as water and elevation o Erasure/inscription (as geopolitical process to assert authority, legitimacy, power of European colonization in S. Africa) o Erase "them- the others" from the landscape by saying: We don’t see indigenous people here, using this land, they must not want it/need it (didn't understand hunter/gatherer livelihood) Maybe indigenous on the land, but they are not using it as productively as us, therefore we have greater right to it The people on this land are not equal to use, are "savages" and thus not entitled to the land It is out God-given duty to subjugate and civilize these savages before they will ever know how to use the land o Inscribe "us-our group" onto landscape by saying: Cut ties to old world, permanently relocated to Africa, occupants of new place White tribe belongs to Africa, legit occupants of African land First true settlers = "charter culture"-- everyone else will adopt our language, religion, laws, way of life Created legal titles of land ownership Desire and physical might to defend the land It is our destiny to be here Key groups in S. African: Dutch/Afrikaner/Boers; Khoi-San; British, native Africans, Colored, Asians—what is the relative % of S. African population is in each group over time). o Khoi and San people: hunter gatherers and pastoralists involved in extensive subsistence agriculture-- low population density = no competition for "White Tribe" allows for 150 years of establishment of a sense of belonging for WTA o 2011: 75% African, 9% White, 9% Colored, 2.5% Indian/Asian Geopolitical factors that lead to uneven development in S. Africa: policies/actions in 1800s Apartheid years, 1948-1994 Maps 23-25 (See Reading l in syllabus) o construction of apartheid Creating differential access to land and opportunity The idea of white privilege and exclusive land use can be traced to: 1600-1700s during settlement of SA when white tribe erased the others to appropriate the native lands and laborors as Boers trekked into interior, self identified as Afrikaners Development regions 1870-- more valuable lands in the agricultural and resource frontier for whites; Independent Black Areas envisioned as future black homelands (Bantustans) o The black/African population is the majority being ruled by the white minority Establishing policies to support white privilege 1948 Afrikaner National Party is elected to power o White tribe comes to power- quickly formulates the division of South African into white & nonwhite lands under a policy called Apartheid (separate development) o The ultra-right National Party creates fear and hatred among the country's whites Distribution of black/African population away from places the white wanted-- horseshoe around HighVeld, densely concentrated in eastern part of the country (Whites near diamond mines of Vaal River) Enabling legislation that supported apartheid in early 1950s Enabling legislation in 50s-60s that creates a new geography dictated by race Forced Removals-- 1960s-early 70s Blacks evicted from areas whites wanted 3.5-4 million black Africans dispersed/relocated from the Orange Free State and Transvaal States o Settled in over 250 bantustans located on the periphery of the eastern half of the country o Bantustans did not border eachother-- creates isolation, inhibits ability for assembly o Located near whites-- needed to keep labor supply, economy developed on exploited black labor o Put competing/conflicting tribes together to distract them Maintaining Apartheid Denied non-whites access to best land, schools, health care, jobs, housing... now SA governemtn enacted additional policies intended to support the structure of apartheid Control ownership of land and where non-whites can live o Limit people's access to the means of subsistence and production, limit ability to become in jobs that have upward mobility o Deny non-whites full citizenship and civil rights in areas controlled by whites o Control freedom of speech & expression of thought, any activity that would challenge the authority of the government--- police activities to control anyone poised to challenge the authority of the government, SA becomes a militarized state i. Observe, monitor, intimidate, harass, batter, jail, torture, kill dissenters until submission guaranteed Control information flows to people outside of SA so that the rest of the world does not know what is going on inside South Africa o policies involved 1912 Native Lands Act gives less than 13% of the country's land to black South Africans who comprise 75-80% of the population at that time... template for racially segregated space for Bantustans 1936 Representation of Natives Act undermines black South African political rights in some regions, placing them on separate voting rolls and allowing them to vote only for white representatives Mixed Marriages Act banned mixed marriages and sexual relations between races-- gets rid of integration, prohibits crossing racial lines to form alliances Population Registration Act every person has to regiser/identify from birth into one of four categories (white, colored, black, other), race reflected in an individual's identity number, racial catefory determines every aspect of life Bantu Authorities Act establishes 10 bantustans, dictates blacks cannot own land in white farming areas, political rights confined to bantustans-- blacks had no political rights in SA Natives Act (Pass Laws) designed to control movement of blacks by requiring all black males over 16 to carry a reference book that contains personal info & employment history, no black person could leave designated area without permit from local authority (blacks in rural areas, white/asians/coloreds in urban areas) Group Areas and Separate Amenities Act creates racially segregated area for housing and amenities... people can only use/be in spaces assigned to them, ownership of property and civil rights limited to one's group Bantu Education Act creates a separate educational system for blacks, focused on training for unskilled jobs, each race had its own school system and curriculum-- ensured no competition for whites, continuity of labor force, no trained blacks to assume positions of power Native Labor Act and Criminal Law Amendment Act denied blacks right to collective action (strikes), declares states of emergency, imposes penalties for protesting existing laws-- fines, imprisonment, whippings o geographical patterns Spatial manipulation Blacks assigned to homelands strategically located away from or closer to certain jobs Laws set up to restrict mobility of blacks (pass laws) Railroads linking mining regions and cities, bypassing bantustans Homelands surround major industrial region of Witwatersrand Segregation of public spaces... beaches, sports arenas o understanding of who benefited from this White populations always felt threatened as the population minority so they had to use so much force to sustain the racial regime Model Apartheid City, c.1980 White upper class surrounded by a buffer of white middle/lower class to separate them from other races Education: free and compulsory for whites, fees and non compulsory for non-whites Health: nonwhite population extremely high infant mortality rate Shantytowns for some; skyscrapers, suburbs, chateaux for others Internally whites are benefiting; externally, countries outside SA are benefitting from cheap commodities coming out of SA SA largest producer of gold, diamonds, chromite, ect. Biggest buyers were Japan, UK, USA, Switzerland, West Germany, France... these countries benefiting were silent during apartheid, apologetic politics, don't mess with apartheid that would mess with economy, willing to turn a blind eye o resistance to apartheid Passive resistance: sit-ins, demonstrations, distributions of information Active resistance: protests, strikes, refusal to vote, civil disobedience, non-cooperation o dismantling under what type of pressure, from whom? International pressure from other parts of the world looking on with concern o Ask yourselves: what happened, when, where, and why there. **Terms H handout on Sakai—pay attention to these plus any others discussed in class** ** Make sure that you have read the materials in blue hyperlinks in syllabus ** ** Make sure that you review your Sakai exercise and quiz from this part of the course ** Part 4: Geopolitical factors behind uneven development in the US Basic geographical components of US: Maps 26-27: major rivers, mountains, lakes, & agricultural regions. o Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, Rio Grande, Red Rivers o Appalachian, Sierra Nevada, Rocky Mountains o Great Salt Lake, Great Lakes o Corn Belt, Cotton belt o 100 degrees longitude divides arid west and humid east o 35 degrees north = south of this line is the frost free region Native American experience Maps 30 and Terms I: what livelihood types at time of European colonization, where they were clustered in 1500 (see questions to consider on syllabus) o Tribal boundaries of varying shapes/sizes determine the livelihood patterns (both extensive/intensive) Intensive subsistence agriculture on east coast-- lots of fresh water sources, high population densities Extensive subsistence agriculture further into interior Construction materials based on climate and available resources o Highest population densities: Northwest, SoCal, 4-corners, Upper Great Lakes, East Coast (Boston to NC), Northern Florida o Appropriation of Native American's rights to land and autonomy by 1st wave of immigrants Dominant immigrant group was WASP-- formed charter culture Expanding plantation system (with use of slaves) putting pressure on NA lands-- cash crops in the south o Forced removal/resettlement of Native Americans onto reservations Some tribes tried to assimilate into charter culture; others signed treaties to give government authority to "assist" them to move to Indian Territories west of Mississippi River Cherokee's resisted, were forcibly removed-- Trail of Tears moved from No. Georgia to Oklahoma From 1770-1870s the federal government tried to resolve relationship with various native tribes by negotiating treaties (that were inevitably broken) o Sales of native lands by US government Dawes Act of 1887 o Indian Boarding School o Gaining Citizenship o Uneven development, social and spatial exclusion Erasure/inscription: policies that led to the dislocation/erasure of Native Americans, timing & location of westward movement of Native Americans— map. o Some natives here, but they are not using the land as it should be used, they are too uncivilized to hold that land o We are civilized people, the charter culture. o Natives will have to forfeit lands and rights if we want/need those lands o 1756: US government establishes first NA reservations Each tribe is defined as a separate nation (denies NA citizenship rights) o 1803: President Jefferson suggests it is time to encourage NA to abandon their traditional livelihoods-- assimilate to charter culture Jefferson's plan: 1. Encourage abandonment of traditional livelihood in favor of intensive subsistence agriculture a. Move them on to less land, get them out of extensive forests b. Opens up land for other uses (millions of immigrants coming in) 2. We can trade with them and open them up to development a. Abandon hunting/gathering-- taking up too much valuable land b. Adjust your way of life to accommodate our wants/needs Louisiana Purchase opens up interior of country for settlement o 1830 Indian Removal Act forced displacement from lands east of Mississippi River o 1887 Dawes Act declared that tribes no longer separate, independent governments Placed tribes under guardianship of federal government Allotted reservation lands to individual Indians in units of 40 to 160 acres... land that remained sold to whites to pay for Indian education Supposed to encourage Indians to become farmers, but most of the allotted land was unsuitable for farming, plots too small to support livestock ranching Industrialization: o ingredients of--resources, labor, infrastructure, investment, site & situation; Transportation infrastructure and spatial connectivity, c. 1860 1. Differences in spatial connectivity... northern railways & canals create a web of interconnectivity, southern railways are often disconnected/fragmented = south not set up to aid industrialization, gives north advantage of transportation Key resources for industrialization: iron, coal, oil, gas 1. Iron and coal located around Great Lakes = transportation infrastructure to move resources to cities 2. Petroleum on Texas coast 3. Nearly inaccessible trifecta in Rockies 4. Oil in SoCal o where are key resources for industrialization and where did industrialization take place Manufacturing in the Rust Belt (1870-1970) o Map 29, 32-33 (see questions to consider on syllabus) o FYI. Industrialization occurs approximately 1870-1970; after 1970 the US economy deindustrializes and factories close in Rust Belt. Factories open for a time in Sun Belt, then leave the country. Urbanization: when, where, why; pre-industrial, concentric ring and sectoral models that describe how people moving into the city sorted themselves out in space. Maps 35-36 (see questions to consider on syllabus) o Number and size of cities increased dramatically between 1790 and 1890 as the coutnry's population grew and became increasingly urban... reflected a shift from a rural, agrarian society to one focused on industrial production, epecially in Northeast and around the Great Lakes o Social and spatial patterns at the urban scale Uneven development and differential access to opportunity occur at the scale of the region, state, country, and parts of the city Pre-Industrial Urban model (Pre 1860s) 1. Key features 1. Two main groups or classes: upper class (elites) and lower class 2. Largely pedestrian: central location is premium real estate ( CBD must be in walking distance... no cars/infrastructure) 3. Compact, high density 4. Mixed land use: noxious activities next to residential/recreational activities... undesirable next to desirable New York City, 1880s-90s: remnants of pre-industrial city are seen in the mixed land use and social groupings along 5th Avenue 1. Shanty towns, Central Park sheep, mansions, tenements 1880-1910 Expanding Streetcar Networks in American Cities 1. Leads to increased differentiation of space 2. Land uses and social groups become more segregated 3. Higher populations move away from CBD... opens up space in the inner city for newcomers (immigrants, migrants from south) 4. In Chicago... concentrated wealth along Lakeshore Drive, southern sector reserved for low income Concentric Ring Model, c. 1920 1. CBD 2. Zone of Transition 3. Zone of independent workers houses 4. Zone of better residencies 5. Commuters residence 1. Space inside the city becomes differentiated, less mixing of land Sector Model, c. 1930s 1. Rapid growth, combined with increased segregation of land uses & social groups meant that people who live in one part of the city may have little knowledge/interactions with people in another part of the city Development: historical patterns of wealth and poverty at the national scale—who, where, why. o Marginalized and Uneven Development: Experiences of Native Americans, African-Americans, Hispanics, and poor whites, c. 1990-2000 Highest poverty rate counties in: South Dakota, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Kentucky \ o Counties with over 20 households on the social register, c. 1988 New England, Florida, Arizona, California (Old Wealth in northeast, Retirement in south, New Wealth throughout west/emerging around cities) Immigration: o push/pull behind immigration; o four waves of immigration—who, when; North and West European-- Colonization and frontier expansion Southern and Eastern European-- Industrialization and urbanization Shift from European to Latin American immigrants (1970)-- Post-WW2 economic growth Latin American & Asian-- Post industrial growth where those immigrants settled at regional level, historically Map 28, 31. Hispanic southwest Scotch-Irish in Appalachian Region Blacks in south (slavery) Slavic clustered in midwest German through Ohio, Indiana Scandinavian between North Dakota/Wisconsin/Canada Assimilation: what is it, how is it tied to where immigrant groups settled in the city; Map 39 & 40 (see questions to consider on syllabus) Differentiation of social groups in the city; according to difference from host population-- if wealthy families move out of city... who takes their place? Model of Cultural and Spatial association, c. 1960 1. Little difference from host = dispersed (Irish) 2. Moderate difference = colony; initial clustering, subsequent dispersal (Italian) 3. Large difference = enclave/ghetto; initial ethnic area, eventual expansion on one side (African Americans) Socio Economic Class: what are the components to class structure c. 1960. How is class position tied to where different ethnic groups settled in the city? Map 37 and 38 o Residential segregation of social groups in the city aided by the location of natural features like roads and creeks, location of protected lands like state parks o Class position determined by economic situation & ethnic heritage (both achieved and ascribed statuses) Greater social distance = greater spatial distance between the two groups o Geopolitical actions that secured the WASP privilege & reinforced social and spatial segregation 1917 Immigration Act implemented a literacy test that required 16 year olds to demonstrate basic reading comprehension in any language. Also increased tax paid by new immigrants upon arrival and allowed immigration officials to exercise more discretion in making decisions over whom to include. Established "Asiatic Barred Zone" that excluded people born in that geographic area from entry into the country Immigration Act of 1924 created quotas for immigration from certain parts of the world-- "national origins quota" completely excluded Asia. Quotas were made from census data from 1890, used proportions of the total number of each nationality at that time to determine quotas in 1924 1. African American experience: forced and voluntary migration; policies that led to containment/banishment/residential segregation, uneven development (see syllabus) o Forced containment, segregation, banishment, and repression 1860s: many freed slaves living in North Jim Crow laws in South 1870s-1890s = US styled apartheid African Americans separated from whites in public places/accomodations Plessy v Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court ruling required separation of races... separate but equal o Voluntary out migration-- push pull in Great Migration Great Migration (what, where, when, why, impact on South and North) Over 6 million African Americans move from the south Pull to north = industrial cities expanding, labor needed, factory jobs providing stable income, additional opportunities for the family Push from south = expansion of KKK, lynchings, post civil war promises by government never kept, sharecropping in debt bondage terrible living condition o Social and spatial distancing / Segregation in the city via manipulation of land, capital, opportunity Routes to freedom, c. 1860 1 Delmarva Peninsula had dense cluster of freed blacks in 1860 2 4,000 slaves fled to North by 1860 Movement of African Americans to the city and creation of black neighborhoods 1 Counties in which African Americans were banished (Mason- Dixon line)-- violent purge of blacks 2 American apartheid: use of violence to keep blacks in their place 1900-1930 a. Violence against individuals and property destruction were the most common strategies keeping blacks out of white neighborhoods-- wave of violence created during the 1920s b. Move from overt, individualized to build the ghetto, to covert, institutionalized ways after 1930-- middle class whites turned to more civilized and institutionalized methods to build the ghetto and keep blacks out of white areas Efforts to keep African-Americans in their place: know the different geopolitical actions taken by individuals, organizations, businesses, and government. Make sure you know when, where and how these efforts were undertaken. o Racial violence Efforts by whites to retain racial privilege and power Northern cities saw the greatest pushback against integration Whites use violence, intimidation, property damage, physical assa o Containment separating and enveloping the neighborhood with railroad yards and industry Railroad yards surrounding neighborhoods makes the ghetto undesirable South side of Chicago-- stockyards, RR yards, factories, warehouses, low income housing; southwest occupied by unassimilated recent immigrant groups Elite neighborhoods on the Golden Shore on the north side, middle class also in northern half and western suburbs o Racially restrictive covenants used to keep unwanted social groups out of white neighborhoods The group being excluded by covenant changed depending on the city and perceived threat of the excluded group National Housing Act of 1934 reinforced the use of covenants to ensure racial segregation 1948 Supreme Court declares that racially restrictive covenants are unconstitutional o Homeowners associations Petitioned neighbors to write racially restrictive covenants on the deed to their properties Banded together to keep unwanted groups, such as local grocers, realtors, and hotels Purchased vacant properties in their neighborhoods and then selling them to the "right people" Pressured unwanted neighbors to move-- bribes Today: homeowner associations cannot practice these types of overt discrimination, but there are economic ways to ensure that a neighborhood or development is homogenous that are legal: expensive housing, high membership fees, lots of rules/regulations, fines o Job Discrimination Blacks in Chicago (1930) unable to secure a proportionate share of the good jobs even though they qualified for them, instead they were confined to job positions at the bottom of the pay scale Without jobs that pay well and offer promotions; blacks were unable to accumulate the capital needed for improved housing, higher education, and savings -- this has long term impacts on the black communities o Banking practices HOLC appraisal categories: federal agency in charge of helping homeowners avoid foreclosure o HOLC created maps for 229 cities to classify neighborhoods o Access to bank loan was determined on basis of the appraisal maps o Black neighborhoods were red-- dangerous-- these residents were not eligible for low-interest, government subsidized loans o Four colors used in appraising neighborhoods a. Green-- new housing, desirable, Anglo- Saxon/NorEuro, professionals, Episcopalians/Catholics b. Blue-- older housing, established whites, Catholic Irish upper class, some Jews c. Yellow-- aged housing, white ethnics, Jews-- transitional, careful lending d. Red-- dismal housing, blacks, recent unassimilated immigrants-- "dangerous" for lending i. Lack of conventional loans brought in speculators ii. Redlined neighborhoods deemed "bad" where banks would not lend money iii. Discriminatory lending practices kept blacks in their place-- illegal, but lack of government diligence allows it to exist Efforts to even the playing field/keep the playing field uneven: know when, where and how efforts to give African Americans improved places/positions were undertaken, as well as how those efforts were resisted by whites. o Role of government policies in creating and leveling the playing field Government sponsored and funded urban renewal projects to keep blacks in their place 1 Urban redevelopment programs destroyed more housing than they built Ghetto creation by condemning and eliminating black housing scattered around a city Displaced black families moved into new housing in parts of the city "created" for blacks-- intentionally segregated neighborhoods are isolated and cut off from opportunities Black residents are steered into all black neighborhoods and public housing projects that increase segregation Manipulation of land uses, capital flows, opportunities that impacted blacks o Restrictive/exclusionary zoning Large minimum lot requirements, minimum multifamily zoning, and age restricted zoning which restrict lower income families and families from moving to the suburbs... increased physical separation between whites and people of color, artificially inflate housing prices Differential access to opportunities o Housing vouchers/subsidized housing Housing vouchers allow African American families to change places, move to opportunity 1 Families that move to suburbs are able to achieve more in school and work, not having to worry about surrounding povery/violence o Educational opportunities Busing black children to better schools and white neighborhoods-- Brown v Board of Education... fueled white flight and growth of private schools in an attempted to maintain the uneven playing field o Mortgage lending and access to homeownership o See concepts (in green) in syllabus and examples from links in syllabus. Review Sakai exercise #4 and lecture notes from last 2 weeks. There are many examples of creating, leveling, resisting changes to the playing field that could be used. In your last Sakai exercise and my lectures you have learned about the following. Pay attention to concepts in green type in your syllabus. Redlining Suburbanization and white flight in residential segregation Racial steering in the housing/real estate industry Gentrification Milking rental properties of value and the destruction of urban neighborhoods Patterns of divestment/investment in the city: know how and where actions and policies contributed to spatial inequality in the city. Pay attention to processes and case studies discussed in lectures and examples from links in syllabus. o Government policies & real estate practices make it attractive for whites to flee the city Interstate highway construction (paid for by taxes) made moving to the suburbs easy and inexpensive Tax breaks on mortgage interest gave renters an inducement to own, and homeowners more reason to trade in their old house for one more "up-market" Many black families moved into vacated homes opening up in once-white neighborhoods Blockbusting-- realtors using panic about racial integration to encourage white homeowners to sell, often at reduced prices which realtors bought bargain-priced and sold/rented at inflated price to black families o Many urban black areas lots their neighborhood shopping districts and successful small businesses as freeways were built through core areas of black settlement o Deurbanization of manufacturing jobs to suburbs results in: Shrinking tax base for the City of Chicago, thus less money to spend on public services for city residents Growing unemployment for families dependent on low skill jobs Increased transportation costs for lower income minorities having to commute longer distances for work Implications of segregated, socially-divided spaces in the city: know the geopolitical actions/policies from the individual to institutional level that collectively created and maintained an uneven playing field, or geography of inequality based on race/ethnicity and class. Pay attention to the Boston Opportunity Mapping tutorial- Reading m. See examples from links in syllabus. o Mt. Greenwood and Roseland.... shows strength of white neighborhood, white flight in Roseland in the 60s-70s leads to decline in services and infrastructure due to disinvestment o Boston Opportunity Mapping Tutorial: a look at how restrictive zoning shapes access to opportunity Multiple indicators of opportunity/lack of opportunity, the Boston metropolitan area is characterized according to the degree of opportunity residents would experience in different places 1 Economic opportunity examples: access to employment, well- paid employment, investment capital 2 Educational opportunity examples: access to good schools (low absentee rate, low drop out rate, high college admissions rate) 3 Neighborhood/housing opportunity examples: access to public libraries and recreation, access to healthy food, access to safety Correlation between minority status and living in places with lower opportunity Towns & suburbs can shape opportunity by restrictive zoning-- permitting certain land uses and prohibiting others, costs of acquiring land can vary substantially in one place versus another High land and construction costs lead to higher housing costs and house values, thus higher taxes = better goods and services, more opportunities 1 Lower income people cannot afford to live in these places, thus zoning regulations effectively "keep them out" Patterns of wealth and poverty at the national level: see Islands of Wealth and Poverty, Intera ctive Graphic on last page of syllabus and questions to consider from syllabus and Map) and wealth/poverty. Patterns of wealth and poverty at the urban level: see links in last pages of the syllabus, and include the role of gentrification discussed in the last lecture. You DO NOT need to know the concepts below from TERMS I—because we did not get to them. Social practices -- spatial patterns—don’t need to know how sexism, heterosexism, ageism and other “isms” that are embedded in some policies and lead to discrimination and segregation. Multiple-nuclei urban model Practices that shape spatial patterns and opportunity in the city: Gerrymandering
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