Study Guide for the Final Exam
Study Guide for the Final Exam Art H 111
Popular in Ancient through medieval art
Art H 111
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This 52 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joanna Nawn on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Art H 111 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Bruhn in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Ancient through medieval art in Art at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Monument List for the Final Exam Roman • Pompeii (aerial view). You should also be familiar with the overall plan of a house and the sorts of decoration that would be found there. • The main rooms of an atrium house in Pompeii were grouped around an atrium • An atrium was a large space with a pool in the floor for catching rain water (impluvium) • These houses also had a peristyle- a closed garden court surrounded by a colonnade • The exterior of the house was much less important than the interior • Shops brought in income to the home • Vestibule- a small doorway that would lead to the private interior and were decorated with a mosaic with the words cave canem (beware of dog) • After the vestibule was the atrium which was one of the most public spaces in a Roman house. Nonfamily members would be received here • Between the atrium and the peristyle was the tablinum- a formal reception room or office. Family records were kept here • Erotic images were often found in homes and in public • Triclinium- dining room, often had images of fish scenes showing a variety of food available • The triclinium also refers to the 3 sided couch that diners would recline on around a Roman dining table • A peristyle can be more than an enclosed garden; it can be an outdoor living space complete with furniture, statues, fountains and decorative wall paintings. Some were decorated with mosaics on floors, walls and fountains • Pompeii, Villa of the Mysteries (frescos) • Rites of mystery cults were performed inside private homes as well as special buildings and temples • Wall painting depicts initiation rites possibly into the cult of Baucus • All of the action takes place in an illusionistic stage like space above a painted dado zone beneath an illusionistic frieze painted to look like colored marble • The figures project strongly against the deep red background, which was a popular color for Roman painters • Figures are all life size with the action taking place on all 4 walls • First scene- a young boy is reading to a Roman matron while another women points to the words • Second scene- a woman with a loaded tray looks out at the viewer • Third scene- a woman with her back to us opens the lid of a container by a servant on her left and on her right a servant pours water from a jug • Fourth scene- Cyleanus the sater is playing the lire • Fifth scene- shows a male pan and female panista. The male plays the pipes while the female nurses a goat with her breast • Sixth scene- a woman is drawing back in alarm reacting to the scenes on the next wall • Seventh scene- another Cyleanus is holding up a pot that is being examined by a young sater behind them another young sater holds up a mask • Eighth scene- this is the damaged portion of the wall that shows a drunken Baucus sprawled across the lap of Ariandri his wife • Ninth scene- a semi nude woman plays with an object in front of her while balancing a pole across her shoulders. Some scholars say it is a mystical phallus draped in cloth. Behind her are two women with a tray • Tenth scene- a winged female figure rears back her whip to strike a figure on the next wall • Eleventh scene- this is the wall before the window and shows a kneeling semi nude woman exposing her back to the winged woman’s whip, she is supported by a seated fully clothed woman • Twelfth scene- a nude dancer strikes castanet above her head and a fully clothed woman holding a wand (associated with Baucus) peaks out from behind her • Thirteenth scene- this wall is separated from the main action showing a woman having her hair braided by a servant while a cupid holds up a mirror. On the wall next to it a cupid is contemplating the scene on the other side of the door • Fourteenth scene- shows a seated woman contemplating the action in the room • Arch of Titus, Rome • A triumphal arch commissioned by the emperor Domission nd (Vespasian’s 2 son) in memory of his late brother Titus • Titus had succeeded Vespasian as emperor • Triumphal arch- a monument erected to commemorate a Roman triumph • The triumph was a formal victory celebration granted to a victorious emperor or general in which they were paraded through the city with their troops, catives and spoils of battle • The earliest triumphal arches were not permanent, they were used as a temporary ceremonial gate to the city of Rome • The arch celebrates the victory in Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple while also celebrating the late emperor Titus • Titus was believed to have become a god after his death • The inscription reads “the senate and people of Rome dedicate this to the divine Titus Vespasianus Augustus son of the divine Vespasian” • Consisted of a concrete and rubble core barrel vaulted structure that is sheathed in marble • Originally a statue of a 4 horsed chariot and driver decorated the top of the arch • Quadriga- a chariot symbol of a Roman triumph • Another symbol of triumph was the Roman personifications of victory • Reliefs at the top opening of the spandrels of the arch • Apotheosis- when a Roman emperor became a god after his death • Sculpture on the inside of the barrel vault shows Titus being carried to the heavens on the wings of an eagle • The relief below the springing of the barrel vault shows the spoils from the temple in Jerusalem being displayed in a triumphal procession upon Titus’ return to Rome • Roman soldiers are shown without armor because it was inappropriate to wear armor in a triumph • The soldiers crowd together and carry signs that follow each major piece of loot • Recognizable spoils: menorah and possibly the arch of the covenant • Colosseum, Rome (Flavian Amphitheater) • The name comes from it being next to a colossal portrait of Nero • It was the 1 permanent amphitheater built in Rome • Vespasian died a year before it was completed • Today it is in ruins due to earthquakes • The central oval was a locker room area with spaces for wild beasts. Gladiators and other performers beneath the wooden floor • Steeped seats gave everyone a good view • Romans were enterained with athletic events, battles and other spectacles • Used barrel vaults and groin vaults in its structure which improved its function • Barrel vault- is an arch that has been elongated into the shape of a tunnel • Groin vault- is formed at the crossing of 2 barrel vaults and where they come together is called the groin • Stairways had barrel and groin vaults over them which made movement efficient • Much of the interior was made of concrete faced in brick • Exterior was made with travertine, a local white limestone that can be polished up to a marble like texture • It had 67 entrances • The exterior was made up of 3 levels of arcades with the upper most story called an attic story • Each arcade level had different column orders • The Tuscan order was on the bottom • The ionic order on the middle • The Corinthian order on the top • Attic story had pilasters with the Corinthian order • Pilasters- are engaged columns that have been flattened out • Trajan's Forum and Market (including the Column of Trajan), Rome • Instead of a temple Apolladorus made a basilica as the focal point • The temple was at the end of the forum only seen when a person walked through the basilica Ulpia • Used 2 rows of hemicycles like the ones around the forum of Augustus • The basilica ulpia had hemicycles and apses (semicircular projections) • Could be courts of law, indoor exercise facilities for military troops, or could be adapted to any other civic function • This basilica served as a court of law • The apses would held judges when court was in session • Only the ruins remain today • The floor was made up of circles and rectangles covered in marble, this was made throughout the forum • The Trajan market complex was due to the unstable hillside • During the Reinssance the market was converted into residences • Built on multiple levels and consisted of various shops spaced out onto streets and courtyards • Food stores, offices on the upper levels and halls on the lower levels • The market hall was the main hall and was roofed by a groin vault • Above each doorway is a large window that allowed light to illuminate the interior of the shop • The column of Trajan was a relief that would have been more accessible to see if the libraries were still standing today • It still stands because a law was made that no one could damage the column or they would die • In the 16 century the pope placed a staute of Saint Peter on the top of the column where an image of the emperor once stood • The column comemerates Trajan’s victory over the Dascians • Either erected around the time of the basilica ulpia or after Trajan’s death • Hadrian his successor ordered Trajan’s ashes to be placed in the base • It became Trajan’s tomb, breaking the Roman tradition of burying the dead outside the walls of Rome • The temple of the Divine Trajan was built after his death of the orders of Hadrian • The column is covered in a long spiraling band of reliefs, giving a continuous narrative of Trajan’s Dascian campaigns • The band is larger at the top than on the bottom making the top reliefs more visible • Includes over 2500 individual figures set into landscapes and architectural settings • Trajan appears multiple times emphasizing his continuing role the Dascian campaigns • The bottom of the column shows Trajan’s army crossing the River Danu on a pontoon bridge to give the 1 Dascian campaign • The river Danu is represented as a river god • Moving up the column you see Trajan troops building their battlefield headquarters • Sculptors were meticulous in showing accurate details • The army is always seen within a landscape context • Also showed details of dress for both sides • It even showed types of pots and pans soldiers carried for their meals • It was a piece of propaganda, a constant reminder of Trajan’s military exploits while being a demonstration of his courage and strength of character • Pantheon, Rome • A temple to all the gods • Pan means all and theon refers to the gods • Built of brick and concrete • The inscription reads Marcus Agrippa son of Lucius having been council 3 times, built it • Another inscription talks about renovations done • Both inscriptions honor him • Originally preceded by a large courtyard which prevented visitors from seeing the rounded sides of the temple • Oculus- round cut circle on the center th • The pantheon dome was the largest in the world until the 15 century • The walls had 7 exedra (nitches) that housed statues of gods, each one preceded by a pair of columns • Between the exedra are places for additional statues, pedestals with architectural canopies over them • Colored marble on second story breaks up the wall into a series of complex shapes and colors, making it appear less solid • Coughers- square indentations of the dome • Most likely decorated with gilded bronze star or rosettes • Also serve to make it visually lighter • The coughers lighten the dome by cutting into its inner surface • Oculus eliminates the apex of the dome and lightens the structure • Massive piers support the dome on all sides • Dome becomes progressively lighter at the top • The heaviest areas are closest to the vertical supports of the dome • Relieving arches- arches that are built directly into the exterior brick wall and act to relieve some of the pressure exerted by the dome • The dome is thinner towards the top and thicker towards the bottom • All concentrates the pressure and weight downward onto the supports • On the lowest level the rubble in the concrete consisted mainly of travertine • Next level has concrete with travertine, tufa and brick • Then tufa and brick • Then brick • Concrete on the very top of the dome was rubble made of pumus (an extremely light volcanic stone) • Unswept Floor mosaic • By Heraclitus • Decorated the floor of a Roman triclinium (dining room) in a wealthy house on the Aventine Hill in Rome • Shows images of seafood, fruit, vegetables, poultry, bones, shells, cherries, grapes, crablegs, and sea urchins • Individual objects are shown with small shadows giving the impression that the floor needs to be swept up after an evening meal • Also includes depictions of miniature Egyptian statues and water foul • Dramatic masks set in a landscape, where the artist signed his name • Tromalcio feeds his guests all of the finest and most expensive food in an attempt to show off his great new wealth • This attempt comes off as boorish and bad mannered • He orders the servants to sweep up the broken dishes, wasting the food • This piece probably served 3 functions for whoever commissioned it • 1- it was based on a famous Greek painting by Sosos, which demonstrated his taste and followed the fashion of copied works • 2- it shows the food to be expected at this home • 3- demonstrates his familiarity with literature and a sense of humor • Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli • Consisted of many buildings, lakes and gardens • Planned out like a Greek sanctuary with each building taking advantage of the landscape around it • Wanted to recreate his favorite places • Poyculai is inspired by the painted stoa in the agora of Athens, which unlike the original it contained a big pool • The canopus was named for the Egyptian city that lays on the western most mouth of the Nile • Consists of a long pool surrounded by a colonnade containing statues • The sculptures are all copies of works from the Greco-Roman world and reflected his love of Greek art and culture • Columns supported an entablature that alternated between semi-circular and straight • Sculptures were placed between the columns • The other end of the pool ended in front of an outdoor dining room with concrete couches facing the pool • Had a copy of the Dycobolus by Myran • Equestrian Portrait of Marcus Aurelius • Only complete bronze statue to survive from antiquity • Originally gilded with some of it remaining on the horses head, emperors face and drapery • It wasn’t melted down because during the Middle Ages it was thought to represent Constantine (the 1 Christian emperor) • Compared to other portraits of him we can confirm it is Marcus Aurelius • Shows his power and fitness to rule • Holds out his hand addressing a crowd, probably troops • Originally had a crouching barbarian beneath the horses hooves, demonstrating his military prowess • Dressed as a military commander without armor or weapons • Represented as someone who conquers based on the power of his personality • He is above weapons • Commodus as Hercules • Curls made with a drill • Made to look like Hercules • Wearing a lion skin on his head and shoulders meant to be from the lion that Hercules slew • Carries a club and the golden apple of the hesperities (a reference to Hercules labors) • Extremely soft facial features • Shows he lost his fathers military gains • Baths of Caracalla, Rome • Contained cold, warm and hot bathing rooms • Hot bath- caldarium • Contained a changing room(s), tepidarium (warm bath), frigidarium (cold bath) • Most complexes also contained a natatio (swimming pool) • Large bath complexes also contained libraries, gardens and gymnasiums with exercise areas • Typically a Roman would enter and pay a fee to the bath keeper • Then go to the dressing room and strip before exercising • Exercise in the gymnasium • Next move to the tepidarium (warm bath) to relax after exercising and to be oiled all over by a slave • Then progress through 3 rooms from tepid to hot • The first room tepidarium- relaxed for an hour while being anointed with oils • Then move to little bathing stalls in the caldarium with a choice of hot or cold water for bathing (usually built along the periphery of the main bathing room) • Hottest chamber called the laconium afterward primed for a massage followed by the scarping off of dead skin by a skridgel • A thorough scrubbing and cool dip in the frigidarium next • Then went to the outer areas of the baths where a library or assembly room that encouraged intellectual pursuits • Caldarium was heated by a hypocaust system- means that it is heated from below in Greek • The hypocaust system was put up on a platform so a furnace could heat the water • Tetrarchs statue, Venice • All of the tetrarchs look almost identical • Augusti are bearded embracing their partner Caesars • All of them wear military clothes • Shows a unified whole for the empire • Made in porphyry • Porphyry- hard purple stone only found in a single quarry in Egypt and very difficult to carve • The color purple was reserved for the emperor and his family • Arch of Constantine, Rome • Erected during his lifetime to celebrate a crucial victory • The defeat of his rival Maxentius at the battle of Milvean brigde • A work of propaganda • Took worls associated with Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius • Most come from earlier monuments • Newer works from his time are the reliefs above the arches • Used other emperors work to associate himself as a great ruler like they were • Next to the inscription of his own military success inscription is Marcus Aurelius’ military success, which then follows standing figures of Dacians deafeated by Trajan • The Hadrian roundels replaced Hadrian’s face with Constantine’s face • Meant to remind people of his great predecessors and indicate that Constantine shares in their greatness Early Christian, Jewish and Byzantine • Synagogue, Dura-Europos Located in Syria Natural defenses due to landscape The vulnerable side was strengthened by a massive wall Hellenistic fortress taken over by the Romans in 165 CE Later destroyed in 256- 257CE by assassin Persian invaders o When they attacked the Romans strengthened the wall by filling the holes with earth and rubble o Acted to persevere these buildings very well Found a Jewish synagogue and Christian church as well as other religions that worshipped an afterlife during excavations Jewish Synagogue Located originally in what was a private house The main rectangular room was where the worshippers assembled o Preceded by a four court You could only enter by going through one of the houses surrounding the synagogue Torah shrine- a place where the Jewish holy books were kept The wall images are unusual because there are many images of human beings o Not unusual for this time period o The images were meant to instruct The images illustrate the people and events of the Jewish holy books Western wall of the synagogue Includes the Torah shrine All of the images depict scenes from the Jewish scriptures, many of which Christians consider make up the Old Testament • Good Shepherd, Orants, and story of Jonah, Catacombs of Peter and Marcellinus, Rome • Located outside the walls of their cities because they believed that the dead carried corruption and decay • Generally were along major roads • Maze like underground tomb complex dug out of the tufa around Rome • Tufa- is a very soft volcanic stone that is easy to carve and hardens when exposed to air • Started a generally small plot of land with grave sites excavated below 1 As more people were buried there the site would expand underground • Churches were often built on top of catacombs that had a significant number of Christian graves • Jewish and pagan people were also buried in the catacombs • Many of the people buried in the catacombs were entured in rectangular niches dug into the walls called loculi 1 Loculi would be sealed and covered in decoration • Sometimes a wealthy family would have a room in the catacombs it would be decorated on the walls and ceiling and hold all the family graves 1 Consists of a central medallion with lunettes on all four sides inside a circle 2 It shows the good shepherd, which is an example of syncretism- an image from one tradition is given new meaning by another 3 The shepherd could also be seen as the pagan god Apollo or Hermes • Another type of catacomb room is a cubiculum (room) Cubiculum room • Held an entire family • Enterd in the bench like projections and covered over in stone slabs • Arcosolium/arcosolia- a semicircular niches and built in grave for the body 1 2 visible in this cubiculum • Painted in the 4 century 1 After Christianity became the official religion of the empire • Shows more overtly Christian images than the syncretic images from before • Ceiling has an image of Christ with a halo • Flanked by the Greek letters Alpha and Omega- signify the beginning and end • Arcosolium on the left is decorated with an image of the apostle Peter performing a miracle associated with him when he was imprisoned 1 - He miraculously brought back water from a rock in his cell in order to baptize his fellow prisoners and jailers • Arocosolium on the right- is the central image 1 - Decorated with an image of Christ flanked by the Roman marytrs Fliex and Aductus • House Church, Dura-Europos Occupied a Christian house along the western wall of the city A house church- a private house used for Christian worship Layout is typical of a modest sized Roman house with rooms grouped around a central courtyard Two rooms of the house were significantly modified for Christian function A dividing wall was removed in order to create a large assembly room on one side of the house (left side) A room on the other side was converted into a baptistery with a covered basin on the western wall for the baptism of converts (right side) Baptistery The basin had a design close to an arocosolium in the catacombs Basin located in the same space that would used for housing the dead body Wall paintings in here refer to christs death and resurrection and to the good shepherd The Three Marys The right wall has a damaged painting of the three Mary's at the tomb of Christ o Mary the mother, Mary Magdalin, and a third Mary the sister of Martha o Tomb in the painting is adjacent to the baptismal basin- making the connection between death, resurrection and baptism very clear Painting Above the Basin Represents the good shepherd carrying a lost sheep on his back and accompanied by the rest of his flock Represented christ’s promise of salvation • Church of Sta. Sabina (including wooden doors), Rome • One of the most well persevered churches • Built at the top of the avintine hill built at the site of the temple Juno raygina using many of its materials • Was an expansion of a Roman house church owned by a woman named Sabina • She persevered the title of her name in the church by adding Saint to her name • We know the exact date due to an mosaic inscription on the wall above the doors of the church • Built without a transept • Consists of just a nave flanked by aisles and ending in an enormous apse • Spolia- refers to spoils, pieces of other monuments reused in a new context • Contains 24 Corinthian columns and bases which were spolia reused from the temple of Juno • The spandrels of the closely spaced arches have inlaid marble designs in green and purple depicting chalices and patons to represent the Eucharist • The original doors were made of cypress wood in the 420s and were carved • The frame around the doors is made of 3 century marble spolia • 18 panels of narrative carving, most depicting biblical scenes 1 They are not in there original order and 10 others have been lost Ascension of Elijah Wooden Door Panel Elijah was one of the Old Testament prophets who worked great miracles and counciled Kings Elijah was taken into heaven instead of dying a natural death Walking with another prophet Elicha A fiery chariot with horses came down from heaven and separated the two men Elijah was taken up to heaven in a huge whirlwind Elicha and some of Elijah’s followers at the bottom of the panel Elicha is in the posture of surprise with one arm pointing up to the sky The composition is designed to lead the eye upward • Sta. Costanza, Rome Originally built as a mausoleum for Constantine’s daughters Constantina and Helena Constantina was later venerated as a Saint Santa Constansa was originally attached to a basilica (the basilica of Saint Agnes or Santa Neasea) The basilica functioned as a covered graveyard where Christians seeking to be buried close to the grave of Saint Agnes sought burial Santa Constasa is the largest tomb among many at Santa Neasea o Rather than being enclosed within the basilica, it is its own building Entered by way of a narthex, which originally connected into the large cemetery basilica of Santa Neasea o Inside it consists of a round central rotunda topped by a dome and lit by a high clear story o This is surrounded by an ambulatory- a barrel vaulted passageway that encircles it There was a large bay at the opposite of the entrance o Scholars believe that the bay originally housed the sarcophagus of Constantina The ambulatory vault was completely decorated with mosaics and there were mosaics in the large niches in the ambulatory as well Mausoleum was constructed entirely of Roman brick The alter is located at the center The dome is held up with pairs of columns The large windows from the clear story provide a great deal of light for the space Sarcophagus of Constantina Consists of garlands and vine scrolls along with animals Made of Porifery- purple marble stone Ambulatory *Vault mosaic shows harvest scenes and vines surrounding a portrait bust o Alternate geometric designs and scenes of wine making on white ground o There are scenes of wine making in the ambulatory 2 of them, one of the portrait bust of Constantina at the center and the other with a portrait bust of her husband *Constantina Ambulatory Vault Mosaic Shows grapes being harvested, transported to the press and sopped- all part of the process of wine making Vines curl and twine over the entire composition At the top center is a well rendered bust of Constantina Cupid type figures are climbing the vines o This could be a pagan mosaic depicting scenes associated with Bacus o The syncretic subject probably appealed to Constantina’s husband who was not a Christian The giveaway that this is a Christian mosaic is the fact that the apsidal niches in the ambulatory contain overtly Christian decoration The references of wine are symbolic to the Eucharist Apse mosaic showing Christ enthroned Located in the apse of one of the semicircular niches in the ambulatory Shown handing a scroll of the law to Saint Peter Peter receives the law with veiled hands showing the preciousness and holiness of the law Christ is dressed in imperial purple and is seated on a globe representing his role as ruler of the universe Uses imperial imagery in a Christian context • Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, Ravenna A small brick structure One of the oldest monuments in Ravenna According to tradition this building was meant to house the tomb of Galopotchinia, daughter of the emperor Theodojus I and half sister to Annorius She became a powerful virtual ruler of the western world for 12 years as regent for her young son Valinteniun III Scholars believe that she probably commissioned this building but was never buried there The mausoleum was attached to a church (Sata Croche or the Church of the Holy Cross) which was also bthlt by her Only the name survives from the early 5 century church The mausoleum is a crossed shaped building was sarcophagi housed in each one of projecting arms of the cross The sarcophagi was once believed to be those of Galopotchinia, her husband and her brother o It was actually dedicated to St Laurence Each of the cross arms has a barrel vault over it and a free standing stone sarcophagus underneath Windows are made of thinly cut alabaster that lightens the space with a warm glow Above the stone half wall the interior is entirely decorated in colored mosaics The mosaic below the dome shows 2 apostles in togas making gestures associated with Roman orators o Between them beneath the Windows is a small fountain flanked by doves o Symbolizes eternal life in heaven *Mosaic of St Laurence The mosaic opposite to the entrance depicts the martyrdom of St Laurence o Grilled alive by an enormous grid iron, which is represented at the center of the mosaic o An open cabinet displays the four gospels Mosaic includes tesserae of colored glass and of gold leaf sandwiched between the pieces of clear glass Mosaic Above the entrance Lunette(semi circular area) above the entrance way Has a barrel vault decorated with floral designs above it Framed by patterns of rolling waves in gold and dark blue Depicts Christ as the good shepherd seated in a rocky landscape o Shown in a gold imperial robe complete with a cloth of imperial purple draped over his shoulder and across his lap o No way to confuse him with a pagan God but still an image of syncretism because we have a Christian use of Roman imperial imagery Highly illusionistic • Hagia Sophia, Constantinople Represents a dramatic change from the typical churches that had been built before Justinian’s reign o The most common beforehand was the timber roofed basilica with or without a transept Centrally planned churches were less common This church combines some characteristics from both types There was an earlier site that had been built around 360 and remodeled early in the 5 century In 532 that church was destroyed during a week of violent riots in Constantinople Hagia Sophia was built very quickly over a period of just 5 years Was seen as a victory monument for Justinian Hired two men who were architects and scientists to design the building o Anthibious- had written a tridus on geometry and was an inventor who dabbled in steam power o Isadorus- taught physics at the university of Alexandria and then at the university at Constantinople. Also the author of a tridus on vaulting Hagia Sophia means holy wisdom Central dome (naos)- partially adheres to the plan of centrally planned churches There is a clear focal point in the apse which is reached by means of a long central open space that resembles a nave People gathered in the aisles and galleries which were very large The central space was reserved for the clergy and the emperor There were two ceremonial entrances that took place in the liturgy. The lesser entrance and the greater entrance o Lesser entrance- the clergy entered followed by the faithful o Greater entrance- the vessels for the celebration of the Eucharist were brought in by deacons in a procession Most of the service took place inside the apse and out of the view of the gathered faithful The central space was a performance space where portions of the service that were visible to the faithful took place The central space was covered by a dome Hagia Sophia Dome Placed windows around the perimeter of the dome Dome supports were placed in a way so they wouldn’t appear massive Your eye goes to the half domes surrounding the central space o Have semicircular exedra that billow outward from them The original dome collapsed in 558 with the new dome completed in 563 Flying buttresses were added in the 9 century- added to support the weight that the new dome exerted on the walls In 1453 the church was converted into a masque with minerettes added Interior of Hagia Sophia The dome rests on pendentives- triangular sections that form the transition between the round base of the dome and the square formed by the four arches supporting it Changes to the interior were made after the Turkish conquest of 1453 when it was transformed into a masque o Now it serves as a museum The yellow paint on the pendentives, side walls, half domes and exedra covers up mosaic decoration and was added after 1453 o The mosaics were figural and were added after the time of Justinian Another changes was the addition of 4 enormous medallions with qufic script on them • San Vitale, Ravenna Built under three different bishops of Ravenna Construction was financed by a local banker Bricks used are long and thin like the ones used in Constantinople rather than local bricks The vault of the dome was built with hollow tubes inserted into each other which serves to make the dome lighter Is octagonal and centrally planned The apse and the choir that precedes it are the clear focal point o Set a part from the ambulatory The central space billows out into the semicircular exedrae that surround it Second story of the exedrae is the gallery level Colored marble veneer originally decorated the piers and walls o Made of heavily pattered vein stone that was thinning sliced and placed in patterns that were made up of four pieces so that they mirror each other Apse Mosaic San Vitale Shows a youthful Christ in imperial purple robes trimmed with gold seated on a huge globe o Indicates that he is the divine ruler of the world and the universe On either side he is flanked by angels, beside the angels being lead by them are San Vitale (left) and Bishop Aclasius (right)- started the building campaign Christ holds a martyrs crown out to Saint Vitale passing it across in front of the angel Also holds a codex symbolizing the new Christian law in his left hand Bishop Aclasius offers a model of San Vitale to Christ The figures are shown against a backdrop of a glittering gold sky Around the mosaic is mosaic decoration that includes representations of old testament prophets, angels, lambs and rich decorative boarders of scroll work The vault above the sanctuary is decorated with an image of the lamb of god inside a medallion supported by 4 angels who stand against fields of vine scrolls All the mosaics and designs are examples of christ’s Eucharistic sacrifice Justinian Mosaic at San Vitale Justinian is accompanied by soldiers, priests, courtchers and Bishop Maxemian Justinian carries a paten for the bread of the Eucharist Next to him Bishop Maxemian holds a cross Priests carry the gospel book and incense This represents the great entrance that took place before the service where the clergy and congregation would process in with the offerings of bread and wine o Wine is missing in this mosaic because Theodora is holding it in the accompanying mosaic Only one inscription of Bishop Maxemian is here but all identities are clear because of the clothing indicating their status Theodora Mosaic at San Vitale Located on the apse on one of the sides next to the windows. Justinian’s mosaic is on the other side of the windows Theodora is shown holding an elaborate chalice for the wine She is accompanied by courtchers and female attendants Scholars believe that the couple are shown in two separate parts of the church o Justinian in the central part of the church and Theodora in the curtained doorway and fountain outside the church Clothing indicates everyone’s status Reference to the magi representing how important the king and queen are giving gifts to Christ Illusion of 3 dimensionality depends on the use of different colored tesserae next to one another Islamic and Early Medieval • Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem • Located in Jerusalem on a site sacred to Islam • Oldest existing Muslim monument • Meaningful site for Jews and Christians as well • Draws from the plan of a centrally planned martieria of early Christian and byzantine periods • Martierium- a church or shrine built over a holy place • The rock projects upward as part of the central dome space • Has a double ambulatory • The central dome space is simple • An arcade of piers alternating with sets of three columns separates the central dome space from the inner ambulatory • It does not have a sanctuary or an apse • The focal point is the rock at the center • Ornate exterior • Gilded bronze dome and the rest of the exterior walls are covered in ceramic tiles of turquoise, blue, white and yellow • The tiles are 16 century • Originally the exterior was covered in mosaic • The marble veneer on the lowest portion is original, but frequently restored • Piers and columns are spolia from other monuments in Jerusalem • Interior mosaics are mainly coiling plants • Muslims avoid figures in their works of art • Dark except for the central domed space, the most sacred area in the building • Great Mosque, Cordoba th • Significant expansions took place up until the 13 century • In the center is the cathedral of Cordoba • Had a hypostyle plan consisted of a rectangular prayer hall and enclosed courtyard • The prayer hall has a system of columns supporting double arching arcades of piers and arches is an unusual treatment that had the practical advantage of providing greater height within the hall • Muhrab- a niche set into the outer wall of a masque to indicate the direction of mecca 1 -Focal point of the interior of the masque 2 -New kalieff and his son made the muhrab and three bays preceding it -The dome of one of the bays is decorated with mosaics of vegetables and had inscriptions from the Quran • Book of Kells (more than one image) • One of the most famous Hiberno-Saxon gospel books • Pages are covered in ornament with a variety of decoration • Show the Cyro Ioda- first letters of Christ’s name • A detail shows two mice eating at the Eucharistic host with two cats who have come to defend the host 1 Symbolizes the struggle between good and evil 2 Also shows the problems monasteries had with mice eating the hosts • Emeterius and Ende, Colophon Page (figure 9-9) • The earliest known Betus manuscript • Produced at the monastery of San Salvador • It is a page at the end of a manuscript that gives information about its production • This page features a representation of the monastery of San Salvador 1 Consisting of an elaborately patterned bell tower with horseshoe arches and an adjacent building depicting the scribe and monk 2 In the room next to them is a helper making pages 3 At the bottom of the tower there is a monk pulling the ropes for the bells while other men climb to the top • Palace Chapel of Charlemagne, Aachen • Charlemagne’s architect Odo of Metz incorporated Roman and Byzantine spolia into his design • The chapel is 16 sided and the central space is octagonal • Made to look like San Vitale 1 Both had second story galleries 2 The gallery here was a private section for Charlemagne where he could participate in the mass without mingling with the people below • Decorations emphasize the octagonal shape of the central domed space • The walls were decorated with thin veneers of colored marbles • The columns on the gallery level are granite, marble and porphyry that were reused from Roman and Byzantine monuments • Westwork- entrance that is a two storied façade 1 It served as an auxiliary building for Charlemagne 2 On the ground floor it was just an entrance to the church for the public 3 Above it contained a throne room that opened up onto the gallery level for his participation in the mass 4 It also had a balcony were he could make speeches to his citizens • His throne is situated on the west side of the gallery directly across from apse • This was the coronation throne of the holy roman empire 1 Several kings and queens after him were crowned here, but Charlemagne was crowned in Rome • The throne is now seen as a relic of Charlemagne since he was venerated as a saint • Equestrian Portrait of Charlemagne or Louis the Pious (supplemental image) Represents Charlemagne or his son Louis the Pius Represents his succession to Constantine as the next Christian Roman Emperor Shows the ruler dressed in the garb of a Frankish royal with neatly trimmed hair, no beard and a mustache Controls the horse with little to no effort The orb in his left hand is a symbol of his rule • Gatehouse, Lorsch (supplemental image) • An example of early medieval architecture under the Carolingians • It combines Roman inspired architectural forms with patterns that recall Germanic metalwork • Has a triple arch entrance • The capitals of the engaged columns and pilasters imitate the Roman Orders • Plan of St. Gall • Life revolved around the cloister- a place resembling a parastyle garden in a Roman house, around which the church and living spaces for the monks were placed • Provides for every possible aspect of life in a large Benedictine monastery 1 From the animals on the farm, the gardens, kitchen, brewery, the education of novices and the care of sick monks • Visitors and the poor were also provided for • There are places set aside for the production of ceramics, metalwork and manuscripts • The dormitory for the monks was adjacent to the transept of the church • There was a large westwork on the church with two towers and its own choir • Shows a wealth of detail • The eastern end of the church includes a vaulted crypt beneath the sanctuary and stairs that lead to the elevated sanctuary 1 All of the alters are indicated according to their dedication • The monastery was never rebuilt to this exact plan • St. Matthew, Ebbo Gospels • Made for the archbishop Ebo of Rouns • Executed in a distinctive energetic style • Both images of this evangelist show him seated with an inkwell in his left hand and a feather pen in his right • Doesn’t look composed made in a quick sketch like linear style • This image shows his symbol at the top right of the page- an angel holding a scroll • Lindau Gospels cover • Repousse images on the cover are executed in a style close to the Ebo Gospel • The subject is the crucifixion with Christ depicted as alive and triumphant on the cross • His eyes are open and his body does not sag • Although he is triumphant the figures around him depict emotional torment • Above the arms of the cross the angels are contorted in agony • Above Christ’s head on the cross the sun and moon hide their faces in recognition of Christ’s suffering and the importance of this event • Below the cross arms are the mourning Mary, John, Mary Magdalian and Mary Cliaphus who twist and turn throwing up their arms and tearing off their garments in sorrow • All around the crucifixion and frame of the book cover are cabochons, pearls, gold granulation and filigree • The clusters of jewels between the cross arms in the border are raised up on tiny cast lion’s feet • Stave Church, Urnes Due to the abundance of timber most churches in Norway were built of wood 28 surviving stave churches today The stave church in Ornez is the oldest and most elaborately decorated Three churches were built on the site The decorated areas on the exterior wall are from the first church Carved Portal at Ornez Carved showing animal interlace It is a large quadruped animal struggling with a snake o Thought to be a representation of the struggle between good and evil o The beast is like a deer with a long neck This style of interlace is called the ornez style o It is characterized by long elegant shapes Borgund Stave Church and Stave Construction • Made of entirely timber but placed on a stone foundation preventing contact from the timbers and damp ground • Staves- the major uprights on the interior that form the framework of the nave • At the top of each stave is a carved head • Pincer beams on either side of the nave hold the staves firmly in place • Diagonal cross beams named after St. Andrew (who was crucified on an X shaped cross) provide additional support • The external wall planks were set upright inside a frame that enclosed them at the top and bottom • Stave churches did not have many windows • Light entered only through small round openings that resemble port holes • The church never underwent any major renovations and most of its timbers are original • The church was dedicated to saint Andrew • St. Cyriakus, Gernrode • Was a basilica planned church • The apse on the west side is not original, it replaced a portal that was flanked by two towers forming a westwork 1 Scholars believe that towers on westworks could have been for defensive reasons • Funding and land was given by a local noble Earl Gero who was also promised protection for his church and attached convent from Otto I, Otto II and the Pope 1 This made the abbey answerable only by the Pope meaning that local landowners including himself could not impose taxes • He went to Rome to secure relics of St. Cyriakus so that his alter could be consecrated 1 It is believed that he had thieves take the relics from the catacombs • The door on the west side was an entrance for the nuns • The towers have thin pilasters and a blind arcade on the exterior • Blind arcade- called this due to the fact that the arches do not open onto anything, instead are only applied to a wall surface • The interior has an alternation of support between columns and piers • The piers divide up the nave into two square volumes that are the same size as the crossing of the church • Additional piers are on the gallery level dividing one arcade from the other • The choir in the east is elevated and reached by a set of stairs due to the large crypt beneath the raised apse • Earl Gero appointed his widowed daughter in law Hathaway as its first Abbess • Bronze Doors of Bishop Bernward, Hildesheim • Originally made for the church of St. Michael in Hildeshiem • A work associated with Bernward • The doors are covered with scenes from the old and new testaments • Left door shows 8 scenes from Genesis (top to bottom) beginning with Adam and end with Cane murdering Able • Right door shows 8 scenes from the gospels (bottom to top) beginning with the annunciation ending with Christ’s ascension into heaven • The scenes are set up as problems and solutions • The doors were intended to educate the viewer • Doors were cast in one piece and used the lost wax technique • The scene of god confronting adam and eve is one of the most effective • Bronze Column, Hildesheim (supplemental image) • Image associated with Bernward • Now stands in the transept in the cathedral in Hildesheim • Meant to hold the candle that is lit at Easter • A Christian victory monument • The band runs from the base to the top depicts the life of Christ beginning with the baptism and ending with Christ entering Jerusalem before the crucifixion • 34 scenes • The column itself symbolizes the suffering of Christ • Otto III enthroned (Luithar Gospels) • Shows Otto III enthroned against a gold background and is enclosed in a mandorla • Made at a monastic scriptorium • It is the dedication page to the manuscript • He holds an orb with represents his earthly power • His throne is being held up by Tellus the Roman earth goddess • Above Otto’s head is a representation of the hand of god reaching down to place a crown on his head • Around Otto’s body are four beasts representing the 4 evangelists • At the foot of his throne are two male figures representing the kingdoms under Otto’s rule • At the bottom of the page are 4 figures 1 2 are soldiers with shields and 2 are bishops 2 They represent Otto’s control of both worldly and secular power • It is an image of propaganda with Otto as a Christ like figure • 2-page image of Otto III from Gospels of Otto III (supplemental image) Another propaganda image that spans 2 pages Made in the same scriptorium as the Lothar Gospels Shows Otto III enthroned flanked by bishops and military receiving tribute He carries an orb to show is earthly power The page next to Otto shows 4 barefoot women bringing tribute o They are personifications of the 4 corners of Otto’s empire Otto is the largest figure The Gospels of Otto III – Christ page Depicts Christ washing his disciples feet Peter is seated on the left protesting because he is unworthy Artist used gold leaf in the area behind Christ transforming the space into a heavenly realm o Also shows that Peter is unworthy to be inside of the heavenly space surrounding Christ Romanesque • St. Vincenc, Cardona st An example of 1 Romanesque architecture Stone vaulted masonry churches These types of churches are fireproof and help with acoustics Compact and simple in design Interiors are vaulted The X’s on the plan show groin vaults in the aisles The dotted lines in between the piers are transverse arches that separate bays in the nave The nave at St. Vencenc is covered in a barrel vault Pilaster strips- a pilaster without a capital and associated with Lombard bands o Can be used to thicken a wall at a point that needs support Lombard bands- a series of two or more blind arches supported by corbels Corbels- wedge shaped supports The nave is vertical meeting in the middle to create a transverse arch Brick-based masonry- small stones the size of bricks placed evenly Small windows Vertical articulation Southern tradition: Brick-based masonry Vertical articulation Pilaster strips Lombard bands Barrel-vaulted interior Small windows • St. Philibert, Tournus (supplemental images) st • Combines the southern and northern styles of 1 Romanesque (pre-Romanesque) architecture • Narthex was built in the southern style 1 Made up of brick-based masonry 2 Has wide pilaster strips and long Lombard bands 3 The interior consists of two stories like a westwork and each story is vaulted • Choir was built in the northern style 1 More complicated 2 Use of frame-and-fill masonry • Nave was built in both styles 1 The southern tradition used brick-based masonry in the round piers and the emphasis on vertical articulation. Transverse arches divide the bays a part 2 The northern tradition used frame-and-fill masonry on the nave wall, arches above the aisles and on the transverse arches. Also used larger windows at the clearstory level 3 The nave was not covered with a barrel-vault, instead vaulted each bay of the nave with a transverse barrel vault that runs perpendicular to the nave 1 The transverse barrel vaults are unique to this site • St. Foy reliquary • Arinisdus- took the relics during a feast day procession • Core of the figure is made of wood • Many of the decorations are spolia • All of the items decorating the reliquary were seen as evidence of her miracles to pilgrims • Cluny III (also look at Paray-le-Monial in supplemental images) • Built into an already complex monastery complex • The dying monk Gonzo was shown the plan for the new church by saints • A hugely expensive project to build draining the finances of Cluny • Construction took over 30 years • Once the choir was built the old Cluny II church was mostly dismantled and made part of an enlarged cloister • It was dedicated to saint Peter • Designed with double side aisles and a projecting transept • It had a huge choir and radiating chapels • During the French Revolution the building suffered and was used as a stone quarry afterward • Only the south side of the smaller transept still stands today • What is left of the nave is a few compound pier bases • The problem of light, height and vaulting was fixed due to • The nave was covered in a barrel vault made with a pointed arch which acted to better concentrate the forces of the barrel vault downwards rather than outwards 1 The barrel vault was not buttressed at its springing • The nave wall was opened up to allow for enormous windows in the clearstory 1 The nave wall despite its thickness was weakened by the presence of so many large windows • Shortly after it was constructed the nave vault collapsed and had to be redone • The crown of the vault was extremely high • The ribbed vault is the second vault built, not the original • The church had a three part elevation consisting of a high nave arcade, a blind arcade with pilasters and a large clearstory with three windows • The southeast transept that still stands has Roman architectural elements 1 The arches are separated by fluted pilasters toped by Corinthian capitals 2 The horizontal stringing course passes over the vertical engaged column rather than behind it • One of the capitals that
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