HD202101 (3) HD 202
Popular in Human Development Infant and Toddler
Popular in Human Development
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brittany Pierson on Tuesday March 3, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HD 202 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Hernandez-Reif in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Human Development Infant and Toddler in Human Development at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 03/03/15
106 0 What does prenatal mean gt before birth 0 What are your reasons for having children 0 view table 31 for complete list 0 Conception and Implantation O Asslsl39a nce from Ferliilllima ani and Im pilla nitration propagation of g sperm li lll 7 Head of the 5 m Msperms Sperms come Tn l39o mammal Dlmmlbn Of binds 0 3P3 per reached the owm oonl39acl39l39o lllZorona a Reac on Corona RodTo l39a 39 r H mm LONE at the Am pu Ila of Radla la cells of lthe Gamma 350963 05 5 forming 1 the Pe mcld 39 leur lldl m a llnce Sperm conres Release of Acrosin lCells undergo ro old me nishesthe 2a FusTon of Chum and Tm mmm 39 Elliquot lm ifmm39d mitotic division imeTo l39TchVlsloin t Sperm plasma 39lquot W 39 tom17mg lBlas lm39bates forming a membmi e rele g e WHEN mewhm mm emzwne lo makeElP Iona Pelluclda 39 impermeable to The cells cam pact Dmergpem Tinslde llhe Lorna lP ellucha utn ll r y Release PIDTIFEGWK gens mge 39 5 an quot enzyme dl39tgies ng l39hre lErldklme lrlloll MOTUlG15lt3 ll5 a Blas l39ocvs39lslona TmRh39QRlGRR wall stage inner cell 3 lPethchza 4f m h degmemm 391 Trooholslaslioind r g I 3mgqu pro lerulerapidlf n Dill Slaye39l FHIEI V V Formar cnof m hm muggy Release of Human Plateauu Charltonlic I Still l l l l 39 Gonodorioehin O In the third week of pregnancy there are THREE layers of GERM cells that begin to form I Ectoderm the outer layer becomes the skin and nervous system I Mesoderm the middle layer becomes the muscles bones circulatory system amp other internal organs l Endoderm the inner layer becomes the digestive system lungs urinary tract and glands Q the chart below is a summary of what the text in the book says gt it may help it helped me while reviewing my notes TABLE 2312 Derivatiirea cf the Flritttaryr Germ Layers Eaeeefa Meefefa interfere tll nenrcua ti eeue Epiderrnia pi alcin and epidermal deriaatiaee ihaire ha ir fpl liclee eebaceaua anal sateat glanda nails Carnea and lens of eye Epitl reliur n pi era and naaal caaitiee pf paranaaal ainueea and cf anal canal Teeth enamel Epithelium pi pineal and pituitary plantie anal adrenal rnerjlulla Melanecatee Scrne cranial banea and tarancitial cartilagee riderived frarn neural creetj Skeletal empath and cardiac muscle Cartilage leane and ether ccunnec tiaE tieeuea Bleed bane rnarraw and lymphpicl tiaauea Endathelicrn at bleed eeeaela anal lymph atica Serceae af ventral lavclay cavity Filarcuua and aaacular tunice pf eyee Synctrial rnen39rlara nee pfjaint cavities Drgane pf u re genitaleyatem iuretere kidneKae gpnacie and reprpductiae ducts Epithelium digeetiae tract except that at era and anal cavitiea Glandular der iaatiaea at dig eatiae tract liean pancreaa Epithelium af reapiratclry tract aucli39tprjy tube and tensile Tharpici parathyrpicl and thymua glancie Epithelium atquot reprpductiae aucte ancl glancie Epithelium pf urethra anal bladder Ecpynghl til acet Paarauirr Edueahert Inc publishing ae Benjamin Cameraage 0 Third Week Development cont 0 Around the 3rd week of pregnancy the ectoderm folds over to form a groove that develops into the neural tube which eventually becomes the central nervous system CNS 0 The front part becomes the brain main control center and the spinal cord connects the brain to other parts of the body made up of a bundle of fibersnerves O neural tube a tube formed by the closure of ectodermal tissue in the early vertebrate embryo that later develops into the brain spinal cordnerves and ganglia Q Periods of Prenatal Development 0 zygote l lasts two weeks I fertilization the joining of a male s sperm and female s egg l implantation the movement of cell s to a new arms legs face organs muscles all develop region I start of placenta O embryo l six weeks I I heart begins beating O fetus I thirty weeks I growth and finishing Q Teratogens 0 Agents that cross the placenta and may harm the fetus are called teratogens and include smoking alcohol Xrays drugs like cocaine pesticides and certain diseases 0 Prenatal Environmental Influences O teratogens l influenced by factors such as 0 dose 0 heredity 0 negative influences 0 age 0 examples of teratogens I caffeine 0 five or more cupsglasses a day may lead to miscarriage 0 an 8 ounce counts as a cup I cigarettes Q 14 of pregnant women smoke especially among 1525 year olds increases risk for spontaneous abortion preterm birth children of women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to fail in school 0 children with a mom smoked have a less likely chance of graduating high school I environmental hazards 0 radiation during pregnancy exposure to radiation xrays can lead to mental retardation and physical defects l chemicals 0 mercury in fish lead paint auto emissions pesticides pollution may result in mental retardation and physical deformities 0 using roachwasp spray is harmful to pregnant women 0 Diseases l rubella a form of measles Q blindness and deafness as well as death 0 effects are worse in early in development 0 if it is contracted at the end could be less severe than in the beginning I syphilis bacteria 0 blindness growth retardation liver damage I HIVAIDS 0 may be transmitted during delivery or breastfeeding 0 causes impaired brain growth weak muscles cognitive deficits infections death 0 taking ARV during pregnancy reduces a risk of transmission but also poses risks 0 in the US it is advised not to breastfeed O jury is still out on whether or not breastfeeding can pass on HIVAIDS 0 near delivery an extra dose of ARV is given to help suppress the disease 0 Prenatal Development and Later Health I low birth weight 0 greater chance of 0 heart disease 0 stroke 0 diabetes l high birth weight 0 greater chance of 0 breast cancer 0 prostate and other cancers I figure 36 in the book shows ratio of birth weight to breast cancer risk in adulthood O the larger you are at birth greater the chances are of having breast cancer 0 Maternal Factors for Healthy Pregnancies l excercise I nutrition l prevention and treatment I emotional stress I Rh blood factor if the baby is incompatible with the mom s blood a shot can be given before the delivery I maternal age older the mother is the higher chance of down syndromemiscarriages idea age is under 35 but above 18 l previous births Q Emotional Stress on Developing Fetus 0 stress hormones cross the placenta causing a dramatic rise in fetal heart rate and activity I fetal neurological functioning can be permanently higher O Maternal emotional stress predicts anxiety short attention span anger aggression and overactivity in young children 0 is related to high blood pressure I leads to fetal death I older the mother is the higher the chance of having high blood pressure 0 Prenatal Care 0 monthly checkups with your doctor to track the babies development 0 who is least likely to get prenatal care or late in the pregnancy I adolescents I hispanics and african americans have higher chance of no prenatal care compared to white individuals 0 Reasons Women Delay Prenatal Care I financial hardship I situational barriers I personal barriers I many are engaging in high risk behaviors that they do not want to reveal to health care professionals 0 drinking or unprotected sex I low SES ethnic minority expectant and new mothers were not receiving warm prenatal care and expressed difficulty getting questions answered I group prenatal care offers a sensitive alternative 0 less low birth weight 0 less complications I typically a the OB is a 0 Prepare for Parenthood I expectant parents 0 seek information 0 get to know the baby as a reality 0 look for models of effective parenthood Q adjust couples relationships 0 conflicts and stress on a marriage is common 1013 Chapter 4 Birth and the Newborn Baby 0 Labor CRH cortisol releases and causes stress the stress hormone is required to get the body going as the CRH rises it crosses over the placenta now the fetus is swimming in the cortisol which results in the fetus producing his own causing his own stress OOOO 0 False Labor uterus is exercising practicing for actual day starts weeks before actual labor uterine contractions Q Lightening baby s head drops to the uterus baby s head starts to soften the cervix GO 000 0 Bloody Show 0 mucus plug has been dislodged O the bloody show shows that it is time for the baby to be delivered 0 The Three Stages of Labor 0 stage one I dilation and effacement of the cervix Q contractions of the uterus cause dilation and effacement of the cervix I transition 0 transition is reached when the frequency and strength of the contractions are at their peak and the cervix opens completely I view diagram in the book for pictures I can last for 1214 hours of labor first child I the more children the woman has the less amount of time labor may last 0 stage two I the baby is actually delivered during stage two I pushing Q with each contraction the mother pushes forcing the baby down the birth canal and the head appears I birth of the baby 0 near the end of stage two the shoulders emerge followed quickly by the rest of the baby s body I crowning the process of seeing the baby s head I episiotomy small cut to prevent tearing of the woman down to the anus O diagram in the book for visual reference 0 most common medical procedure performed on women 0 performed to prevent tearing when the baby is being delivered 0 stage three I the delivery of the placenta I the placenta is then inspected to make sure all pieces of the placenta are pushed out l mild contractions are still present even though the mother may not realize the contractions Q The APGAR Scale view table 41 l Aappearance l Ppulse l Ggrimace l Aactivity l Rrespiration 0 developed by a woman named Virginia Apgar O done typically at one to five minutes since the baby was born 0 lowest score a baby can receive is O 0 highest score a baby can receive is 10 I score of three or lower requires urgent medical attention 0 TESTABLE FACTS 0 girls tend to be longer than boys 0 head is usually large compared to rest of the body 0 typical length is 20 inches 0 Approaches to Childbirth O attitudes and practices molded by society western society 0 western society I before late 1800s gt home births l postindustrial revolution gt hospital births I 1950319603 gt movement toward natural childbirth l today gt birth centers and some home births Q Childbirths around the world gt listed in textbooks 0 two indian tribes treat childbirth as a way of life I whole community watches her have her baby 0 puka puka l girls use coconuts under their shirt to pretend pregnant I celebrate their birthing by pretending 0 elements of natural or prepared childbirth 0 classes 0 relaxation and breathing techniques 0 labor coach I social support 0 the DOULA 0 Other natural childbirth practices 0 positions for delivery might include sitting upright or using a birthing stool 0 water births are associated with shorter labors and a greater likelihood of a medicationfree delivery than other approaches 0 north american women choosing home delivery remain a small percentage 1016 0 Medical interventions in childbirth 0 fetal monitoring l normal fetal heart rate is 100140 beats per minute 0 medication I analgesics pain medications given in mild doses 0 demerolpain meds Q morphinepain meds l anesthetics stronger pain killers and block sensa ons 0 most common epidural 0 given into the lower spine 0 limits the pressure below the waist l babies born using the above drugs tend to have lower APGAR scores than a baby born without 0 instrument delivery I forceps used since the 16th century I vacuum extraction 0 plastic cup placed on the baby s head 0 less risk of brain damage 0 515 o may have some bleeding under the eye or scalp 0 induced labor I breaking the amnion or water bag I giving synthetic oxytocin to move labor along 0 oxytocin is the bonding hormone O cesarean delivery also known as a csection make a cut in the woman s abdomen rare 40 years ago now account for 31 of births in the US about 13 of women are going to have a csection used in medical emergencies Q Rh incompatibility Q premature separation of the placenta from the uterus 0 infection 0 such as HIV 0 strep infection in vagina 0 baby in breech position O breech is feet first instead of head I reasons for csections Q unfavorable shape of pelvis O breech position 0 placenta previa placenta is attached near the opening 0 if the cord is wrapped around the baby s neck 0 eclampsia pregnancy induced hypertension high blood pressure 0 prolonged labor 0 diabetes 0 anoxia l oxygen deprivation at birth can lead to brain damage or later cognitive language problems 0 cerebral palsy l causes include 0 squeezing by umbilical cord 0 placenta abruptio placenta previa Q failing to breathe after birth 0 respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants 0 preterm and smallfordate babies I preterm Q born 3 3 weeks before their due date 0 may be appropriate weight for length of pregnancy I small for date 0 may be born at due date or preterm 0 below expected weight for length of pregnancy 0 some smallfordate babies have weakened abilities to manage stress 0 see figure 44 for the rates of survival and disability by length of pregnancy 0 preterm infants l seven more days in a womb from 34 to 35 weeks can benefit 0 interventions for preterm infants isolette basically a baby bed respirator feeding tube intravenous medication special infant stimulation 1021 I kangaroo skintoskin contact I parent training in caregiving health care for parents and newborn babies 0 per 1000 babies born the US is doing poorly on how many babies die birth complications parenting and resilience O Kauai study indicates that as long as birth complications not severe a supportive home environment can restore children s growth 0 some children with poor home environments able to overcome birth complications with outside support 0 innate resilience is an important factor in development of all children 0 one out of ten children born preterm I one of four africanamerican are born preterm precious moments after birth 0 oxytocin causes the breasts to let down milk heightens the mother s response to the baby 0 firsttime fathers also show hormonal changes that are associated with positive emotional reactions to infants l fathers estrogen levels increase when holding their child for the first time 0 but parentinfant relationship not dependent upon immediate bonding Q newborn reflexes eye blink withdrawal rooting sucking swimming moro falling reflex when the infant feels heshe is falling palmar grasp tonic neck stepping babinski infant states of arousal O regulardeep sleep I eyes closed tv can be playing but the baby will OOOOOOOOOO remain asleep 0 irregularREM sleep rapid eye movement 50 of time in REM sleep eyes moving underneath their eyelid active sleep l lots of twitching l around 5 it decreases to about 20 O drowsiness O quiet alertness O waking activity and crying 0 ways to soothe a baby 0 around 6 weeks the baby becomes more calm at home 0 parents learn how to deal with crying infant etc 0 swaddling helps process of wrapping child in a blanket I stop at 4 months 0
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