Final Exam Review
Final Exam Review amh2020
Popular in American History since 1865
Popular in History
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Final Exam Study Guide Key Terms 1913 Alien Land Act Japanese farmers compete with American farmers and were never meant to o Meant to be laborers Anyone who was not eligible for citizenship can not buy land Since children were born in America they were allowed to buy land through their children 1920’s Jazz Age Often called America’s 1st cultural export Changes music entirely, Jazz has influence on most other types of music When white people go into black neighborhoods, politicians pay attention to conditions in black neighborhoods. o Why it's important: Jazz music brings White Americans into black neighborhood Jazz Age starts to offer positive black role models on a national level. Black musicians infuse political messages into their music. o The successes of the civil rights movement are connected to economic power in the black community Significance: o Brings white Americans into black neighborhoods and black clubs to hear the best Jazz music. Influx of white money enriching black economy. Successes of the Civil Rights Movement are because of the economic success. Great Negro Migration 191540 ½ million African Americans move out of the South. From the beginning of WWI to the beginning of WWII This is the beginning of women getting jobs African Americans get into factory work ∙ Harlem Renaissance Intellectual, Social and Cultural Movement Prior to WWI, Harlem was a white community The same time as the Jazz Age. In 1904, a subway line was built that connected Harlem to downtown Manhattan. People living in Harlem were able to travel to Manhattan for jobs. o Rather than white clientele, many African American. during the great migration come live here for the cheap rent and then able to commute to work Gives black Americans a voice, the entire world is listening. o The world is listening for the 1st time White Americans can’t ignore what is being said in Jazz music because the rest of the world is paying attention. Significance: o The major figures of the Civil Rights Movement are growing up now, learning how to make their voices heard. o Black Americans aren’t asking for rights, they’re demanding rights that belong to them. ∙League of Nations Was formed from Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points They believed that WW1 could have been avoided so they formed the League to avoid future conflict. U.S doesn’t join because we wanted sovereignty(power to rule). It would drag us into foreign problems and we couldn’t make some decisions ourselves (isolationism). o Henry Cabot Lodge is the person who opposed the Treaty of Versailles being incorporated to the US constitution and ultimately won when Wilson fell ill (stroke) from overworking himself on the whistle stop tour and couldn’t defend his own position. o First Lady Edith Wilson takes over the president's duties and was called “de facto presidentress”. Henry was willing to negotiate, but Wilson was ill and stubborn. Polls showed that most were for the treaty. ∙Washington Naval Conference Agreement to discuss disarmament Europe wants disarmament and limit construction of Naval ships As WWI become a distant memory, the countries at the Conference focus on their own agendas and their own interests instead of disarmament. France refuses to disarm because they are still scared of Germany. Significance: o This was supposed to be the 1st step of disarmament, but there was never a second step. ∙Reparations Inter Allied Reparations Commission Wilson has a choice to make Germany pay reparations: o Reparations: US gets money back, European economy is ruined, and Europe resents the US o No reparations: US paid for the war. o Wilson decides Germany must pay reparations. Set amount Germany had to pay back after WWI. Germany was making payments until 1987 Crippled German economy (hyperinflation) because their was an excessive printing of money. Britain and France wanted to make sure Germany is weakened to prevent them from going into war again. Significance: o The reason Britain and France demanded reparations is because of their war debt. Britain and France will use these reparations to repay their credit from the US. ∙Versailles Dictat Hitler is going to attack the Treaty of Versailles It was an abuse of power by the winning side War guilt clause says that Germany started the war o Hence the blame on them o Hitler argues that this is not true and other countries are realizing this is true This makes him popular because he argues it ∙Dawes Plan Helps to stabilize German economy which will help Germany and Europe. US invests in German economy which allows the German economy to pay back Allies’ war debt, then the allies can pay the US credit. And US gets returns and interest from investment in Germany Significance: o This is successful the first few years but it doesn’t last because German economy is tied to the US Stock Market Crash End of Jazz Age Bank foreclosures leave millions homeless and unemployed (UNE) Unemployment rates for the country are going to reach 25% Unemployment hit certain sections of the economy harder than others o Women and minorities were the 1st to lose their jobs ∙Herbert Hoover Herbert Hoover is going to run as a republican for president 1928 "Prosperity" was his campaign slogan Vote republican for prosperity Hoover becomes president and in 6 months the Great Depression hits Stock market is going to crash on black Tuesday America's fortune is lost overnight There are people who are jumping out of skyscrapers Millionaires are penniless overnight Financial Genius Elected off "Prosperity Platform" Used innovative methods to deal with Depression Ultimately unsuccessful o The normal ways to fix a depression were not working ∙SmootHawley Tariff Passed by Hoover Raise the Tariff o Tariff= tax on imports o Buy America Demanded by the American people o Hoover knows this is a bad idea because once we put a tariff on another country, another country will put a tariff on us Makes the depression worse. Hoover passed this in order to gain votes for the midterms? Going to cost America jobs rather than help our jobs ∙Hoovervilles Based off of Herbert Hoover A shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s. ∙Franklin Roosevelt Fireside chats says we are the “Arsenal for Democracy” Dec 29, 1940 Over the course of WW2: 16 million American men and women serve in the US military Women increase in the work force during WWII (Great Migration 19151940) African Americans increase in the work force during WWII (The second migration 1940 1970) Really important that black Americans are moving out of the south: these issues stop being a southern thing and make it a national problem ∙New Deal New relationship between Government and People o Redefining the role of government o Before this, the government did not interfere o When society fails, the government can step in and help you survive The way to do that is have the government invest in the economy To fund all of these programs, the government has to take out loans Government is run on the belief on a Balanced Budget before the new deal FDR's platform o Platform = the main thing they are bringing to the candidacy ∙Election of 1932 Herbert Hoover Rep: NO CHANCE Franklin Roosevelt Dem: Anyone’s better than hoover throughout the depression ∙Fireside Chats FDR One of the 1st politicians that utilizes the radio Going to endear him to the american people o When he talks, people feel reassured by him o A good speaker ∙Lausanne Conference 1932 America is in the great depths of the Great depression The Dawes plan is going to drag Europe into the depression with us Europe is going to have a conference in Switzerland Propose Reductions of reparations by 90% if U.S. will reduce war debt by 90% This is important because FDR is just elected president but not quite president yet because he has not been inaugurated Hoover wants to accept the 90% reduction o It is better to get 10% then nothing o The worry is that the European states are going to default on their loans They won't pay back their loans FDR does not agree with this proposal o FDR does not want to go against popular opinion Never does anything that is unpopular o And this proposal is not popular U.S. is going to turn this down o by 1934 all European states except 1 (Finland) have defaulted on their loans What this means is that the U.S. paid for WWI America is furious about this This is going to affect how we deal with WWII ∙Kellogg Briand Pact 1928 Aristide Briand Noble peace prize winner French foreign minister Going to make a proposal to the U.S. o Wants the U.S. to sign an agreement that outlaws war o Renounces war "as an instrument of national policy" o and if one is attacked, the other must protect the other o Is trying to entangle the U.S. o He believes that U.S. is stupid, he is trying to trick us into an alliance. Frank Kellogg's Counterproposal o U.S. secretary of state In charge of the foreign policy o Open to all countries (62 sign) o Make sure everyone is involved Which makes it meaningless. o It shows that the U.S. is maturing as a world leader o Japan, Germany, Italy, Soviet Union These are the 4 countries that break the peace; end the peace; they show how worthless this agreement is Im Westen Nicht Neues (All Quiet on the Western Front) 1927 Published by Erich Maria Remarque A novel based on what he experienced as a soldier in WWI. Erich is German o He is on the losing side in WWI Places blame on the elders for making the young generation fight their war ∙Merchants of Death 1934 Helmuth Engelbrecht and Frank Hanighen What it argues is that bankers and arm manufacturers maneuvered America into WWI for war profiteering o They wanted us to fight so they can make money In the Great Depression we are blaming the banks, wall street, etc o During the Great Depression, being on wall street is bad o People are ready to believe this argument ∙Nye Committee 19341936 Investigate the claims of Merchants of Death o The major corporations are going to go on trial. Public Hearings Connection not proven o Even though no connection is made, the America people still believe that company manufacturing were still war profiteering Ends when Nye goes after Woodrow Wilson o He goes too far and begins to say in Congress about Wilson, who is dead. o It is seen as incredibly distasteful to attack someone who can not defend himself. This is public theater to show that congress is looking after America's best interest o It looks better to look like they are doing something, rather than America seeing that they are not doing something ∙Ludlow Amendment In 1935, America is going to consider this Amendment to the US constitution o Change how America goes to war Any declaration of war, we need to have a national referendum o This is where the American people have a say if we go to war or not o 75% of Americans support it o Opposed by FDR, US military, veteran organizations They oppose this because time matters in war Entire wars are decided in minutes Its tiny details that make or break the war? The military does not have the time for America to make up its mind This would be incredibly chaotic The legalistics of it makes it to look good on paper, but impossible in reality Also, American people are ignorant We are not experts on foreign policy or military things This is going to remain an issue until 1940s ∙Neutrality Act of 1935 Establishes mandatory arms embargo against both sides of any military conflict Warnings against traveling on ships of states involved in wars because of Lusitania Prevent “protection of neutral rights” as a justification for war ∙Cash and Carry (Neutrality Act of 1937) In response to Japan invading China o China is one of the US’s greatest allies Because of Merchants of Death Strengthens Neutrality Act of 1935 Warring states can only purchase nonmilitary goods Products must be paid in cash and must be carried on the ships of those who purchased FDR opposes but signs anyway because it was popular FDR makes sure president gets to determine which nations are at war o FDR says SinoJapanese war is not a war, it is a border dispute ∙ ) SinoJapanese War China vs. Japan 1945: Japan still has over 1 million troops invading China after Japan surrenders. ∙Sudetenland Hitler begins annexations (Rhineland, Austria, Sudetenland) ∙Munich Conference Hitler gives Britain and France a guarantee he doesn't want any more territory in Europe Britain and France worried about Hitler gaining all the territory in Europe British Prime minister Chamberlain thinks he created “peace in our times” ∙ Anschluss Unifies Germany and Austria ∙HitlerStalin Pact (MolotovRibbentrop Pact) Signed August 23, 1939 Nazi Germany and Soviet Union agree to divide Poland between themselves Also a nonaggression pact o Agreement to not attack each other, but not an alliance to fight each other’s enemies America First Committee Isolationist group in the US formed in September 1940 One of the largest antiwar organizations in American history Included many celebrities o Charles Lindbergh being the symbolic leader Dissolved December 10, 1941 (three days after Pearl Harbor) ∙Charles Lindbergh Sexiest man alive, symbolic hero of American First Committee Admired Nazis before WWII International hero Crossed Atlantic in 33 hours nonstop ∙Fall of France June 25, 1940 Everyone thought that France was going to stop Germany because Germany's military was no good o France’s army is seen as the best in the world It takes Germany 6 weeks to defeat France o Pinnacle of Blitzkrieg (German tactic of “lightning warfare”) Compeigne: Hitler pulls out the railroad cart that Germany signed the November Armistice in 1918 (after WW1) so that France was sign their defeat there too o This is important because Hitler has “undone” the Armistice The fall of France shocks America o Isolation and Neutrality of America begins to end ∙Battle of Britain AugustDecember 1940 Hitler wants to convince Britain to stay out of the war o Hitler bombs Britain with his airforce (Luftwaffe) Hitler actually likes Britain and feels that they should be allies and they are just brainwashed The bombings do the opposite of what Hitler thinks will happen; the bombings unite Britain against Germany They are fighting for a stalemate o The fact the Battle of Britain is not a victory is important 1st time Hitler's forces aren't victorious. 1st time Hitler has not gotten his way The only people in war is Germany and Britain o Everyone is either deflated, neutral, or allies of Germany Germany halfheartedly attacked Britain ∙BurkeWadsworth Act 1st peacetime military draft in US history We are not in war It is because we can not afford to wait another year to mobilize because France was defeated. ∙LendLease Churchill (British Ambassador) asks for more aid in Dec. 1940 o Churchill is worried that without aid, Britain will fall FDR gets it passes on 3/11/41 o 1st time that he goes out and tries to convince people against what they believe o Many Americans do not want to get involved in the war FDR argues that the best way to stay out of the war is to ensure that GB wins the war o It happens because of the successes of the Nazi We will either lend out neighbor the material they need or lease it to them o This replaces cash and carry ∙Atlantic Charter August 14, 1941 (before US joins war) Winston Churchill (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) and FDR establish goals for the war This is a secret meeting off the coast of Canada in Nova Scotia o Really dangerous because Germany is hitting British ships They establish a joint set of goals for the war Word does get out and this is going to drag America closer to war ∙Japanese Oil Embargo Neutrality and isolationism begins to decline because of the fall of France 1940: Scrap iron and aviation fuel embargo to Japan o That does not work July 1941: (1) Oil and scrap metal embargo (2) Freeze Japanese assets (In american banks) (3)Close the Panama Canal o Japan does not have the natural resources o America is going to deny them of those natural resources o The thing that is driving Japanese expansion is the search for natural resources. o Its at this point that the Japanese government gives the green light for an attack on the US o At this point, Japan is still negotiating with out while they are making those military plans ∙USS Reuben James US ship German UBoat sinks this ship This is an attack on a US military vessel; this is a clear attack on the US This is the end of America's neutrality laws o Congress by the end of the November removed all neutrality laws o undeclared war on Germany ∙Pearl Harbor Attack begins at 7:53 AM (Dec. 7th, 1941) o Surprise attack o two waves of planes Ended 90 minutes later USS Shaw o Japanese is trying to knock out the US pacific fleet o 18 ships sunk, including 8 battleships o 188 US planes destroyed, most on the ground o Japanese lose 29 of 350 planes o No third wave (Nagumo) Does not want to push his luck He thinks that a 3rd way pushes it too far important because Pearl Harbor Naval Base is not destroyed Infrastructure: oil depots, repair facilities, etc Harbor operational in less than 6 months o Aircraft carriers of the pacific fleet are going to escape damage because they were moved before pearl harbor An admiral decided to go on a training with the crafts and that's why they were moved o America is in an undeclared war Japan is also attacking around the Pacific o Philippines, etc o for 6 months, Japan's attack on the pacific was successful US took 6 months to repair the harbor Ended with the Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942) ∙Isoroku Yamamoto He is educated in the US He plans the attack of Pearl Harbor He spoke English fluently, had a lot of American friends, well respected, knew America very well He believed that it would be a mistake to attack America o He thought that Japan had to knock us out in one punch, if not Japan had to run away quickly He is attacking on a Sunday (sailors at Church or sleeping in) Attack on Pearl Harbor: o 2,403 Americans dead, 1,178 Americans wounded ∙Ozawa v US Ozawa challenges that he is white o He should be classified as white, not as Asian Supreme Court rules against him o Not only is he not white, but as an Asian man he can not assimilate. Because he can not assimilate to white culture, he can not be naturalized (a citizen of the US) Japanese Americans are going to be denied citizenship ∙Executive Order 9066 February 1942 Because of Pearl Harbor, there would be a lot of racism against the Japanese JapaneseAmericans do not fight this order America justified this: o Military necessity Belief that the JapaneseAmericans would act as a “5th column “ 5th columns are hidden groups that help the enemy People believed that Japanese would be loyal to their homeland rather than the USA o Reality: This is a response to fear and racism and not military need Japanese government believed JapaneseAmericans were traitors; so Jap government was not going to use them o Not a single act of sabotage happened by Japanese Americans War Relocation Authority o Order Japanese Americans to report to camps for the remainder or the war 40k Issei o 1st generation The immigrants 70k Nisei o 2nd generation 1st generation american MarchMay 1942 ∙ 44 Regiment Famous Japanese unit o Segregated unit It is the most decorated unit in American history Motto: "Go for Broke!" o Balls to the wall Suffered high casualties o Since they weren’t white, they were sent into the difficult positions and were the front line This unit did not fight in the Pacific o Mostly in Europe Specifically Italy ∙Battle of Midway June 37, 1942 Isoroku Yamamoto plans attack on the Midway Islands (west of Hawaii/American owned) America cracks the Japanese codes o Americans know Japan is planning an attack and hear a code word for some island again and again Americans falsely radio that a water tank is broken on Midway Americans here the Japanese use the same code word saying a water tank is broken on that island Americans know Japan is planning attack on Midway now o One of the reasons this fails When the Japanese attacks at Midway, America was ready for this fight unlike Pearl Harbor Americans sink all 4 Japanese carriers (Soryu, Kaga, Akagi, & Hiryu), lose 1 carrier (USS Yorktown) o Japanese lose experienced airmen and can’t rebuild carriers for a long time o US builds 124 carriers during the war versus Japan’s 18 ∙Lt. Commander Wade McCluskey 9:30 am Spotted Japanese destroyer o Destroyer is heading away from midway (heading towards the carriers) o Followed the destroyer to the Japanese fleet 10:2510:30 sinks 3 Aircraft Carriers (not personally) o Akagi, Kaga, Soryu, Hiryu This is the decisive turning point of the Pacific War o This was the elite of the Japanese navy From this point on, the Japanese navy will always be at a disadvantage to the US navy He was one of the 1st hero of the war for us ∙Battle of the Atlantic 19411944 German UBoots are sinking supplies o Called the “Happy Times” o If the Germans control the Atlantic, America does not matter in this fight o Germans were sinking US supplies faster than they could make it A lot of US and UK boats in the Atlantic By 1943 & 1944 Allies begin to win this fight ∙Operation Torch November 8, 1942 Attempt to control North Africa so we can then attack Italy Initial Landings Unopposed American Troops "Blooded" o 1st time they’re getting real battlefield action US and UK push the Germans out of North Africa by May 1943 ∙Italian Surrender Invasion of Sicily on July 9, 1943 (Operation Husky) o Allies capture the island by August 17 Invasion of Italy comes on September 3, 1943 o Three pronged amphibious assault (by water) Operation Avalanche lands near Naples (Salerno) Operation Baytown crosses the Straits of Messina (where the boot of Italy kicks Sicily) Operation Slapstick lands at Taranto (major Italian Naval Base between tip of the boot of Italy and the heel of the boot) Italian forces surrender September 8, 1943 o German forces flood into Italy to keep resistance up until VE Day in 1945 o Mark Clark takes Rome on June, 5 1944 (DDay the next day steals his glory) ∙Dwight Eisenhower Commander of DDay Invasion He was not the obvious choice but becomes commander b/c he is a great administrator Need someone who is a people person o Dealing with alpha males Later 34th US President (195361) ∙Operation Overlord Codename of the DDay assault Dday: June 6,1944 o 6500 ships, 1500 tanks, and 176,000 men landing on 5 beaches all at once in France o This is a multinational invasion US Omaha and Utah Beaches UK Gold and Sword Beaches Canada Juno Beach o This is the largest from water to land assault (amphibious assault) o A lot of death and devastation (Allies take ~225,606 casualties) At the same time the Normandy Invasion happens, America had just captured Rome DDay was not needed to win the war o We did this because we did not want the Soviet Union to take over Europe ∙Ludendorff Bridge March 7, 1945 Near the town of Ramagen US gets to the bridge before it gets blown up We drive our forces to the other side Huge break for the US Now there is no actual barrier between us and Berlin ∙Yalta Conference Feb 1945 Southern part of the Soviet Union Allies agree to let Soviet Unions have Berlin Stalin agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the Pacific War 3 months after the defeat of Germany By the time we get to Yalta, FDR is dying o He is incredibly weak FDR dies in April Decides how to end the war and what happens after the war Trying to prevent the US and Soviet Union from fighting each other o Hitler believes if this happens he will win the war The stopping point (the boundary) is going to be the West of Berlin o We do this because we believe that the Soviet Union will get there 1st ∙Battle of Berlin April 16, 1945 May 2, 1945 (Victory in Europe Day on May 8) This was not going to be an easy target (according to Eisenhower) Germans o 125k KIA o 500k Captured Soviets o 81k KIA o 280k WIA (wounded in action) This is the culmination of the brutality of the eastern front Soviet Union is going to have their final revenge on the Germans o 100k rapes o They destroy Berlin ∙Manhattan Project Started with “Einstein’s” letter to FDR in August 1939 Centered in Oak Ridge, TN To create nuclear weapons ∙Trinity Bomb World’s 1st atomic bomb Dropped near Alamagordo, NM July 16th 1945, 5:30 AM ∙Hiroshima August 6, 1945 Atomic Bomb nicknamed “Little Boy” dropped Kills 90k to 166k people (20k soldiers, 70k146k civilians) Japan did not surrender ∙Nagasaki August 9, 1945 Atomic Bomb nicknamed “Fat Man” dropped Kills 39k80k people Japan surrenders after this America is ecstatic about the bombs o We won and we do not care about what just really happened ∙John Hersey He is a journalist “A Noiseless Flash” o Published in the New Yorker o Published as a series of articles on August 31, 1946 o Follows the stories of 6 people who survived the attack in Hiroshima Incredibly graphic and gruesome o Horrifying to the readers People begin to look at the victims not just as numbers but people humanizes the victims Called Hiroshima today After this article, the scientist that worked on the atomic bomb, some of them began to make public statements that the bombs were a mistake o The bomb was made for Japan, not civilians o The only reason we picked Hiroshima as a target was because it was the largest city that had yet to be hit o They did not sign on for Japan or civilians scientist to be used ∙Henry Stimson Harper's Magazine He is the Secretary of War during WWII Feb 1947 Creates official line and "one million casualties" o Alternative to the bomb o He lied about this number (1st problem with his argument) Harper's permits free reprint The bombs were horrible but were necessary o It was either we drop the bomb or we invade o Bombs were a mercy Because the atomic bombs killed less; had we invaded Japan would have lost more people in the invasion Estimates o Stimson (Secretary of War) 500,000 deaths o Joint Chiefs of staff (JCS) 46,000 deaths 2nd problem o He created a false choice either invasion or the bomb but those weren't the only choices that US had Negotiation We give Japan the one thing they wanted after the bombs ∙Harry Truman An unknown entity Came from no one in politics, became VP and the President because FDR dies April in 1945 he became president He didn't know much about the atomic bombs o Knew about rumors but didn't really know about it until he becomes president ∙GI Bill of Rights Passes in 1944 after the US govt recognizes a potential problem with reintegrating veterans into society Allows servicemen to go to college o Reshapes higher education o Creates community colleges Open to all GIs regardless of race o Record number of Black men applying to colleges o Beginning of integration at universities 5220 Plan o GIs can draw $20 for 52 nonconsecutive weeks Low interest rates on homes o Creation of suburbs o Levittown (cookiecutter towns) ∙Joseph Stalin Leader of the Soviet Union from 192252 ∙George Kennan Author of the Long Telegram Senior Diplomat to the Soviet Union (USSR) Urges a policy of containment of the USSR ∙Long Telegram: Author: George Kennan. Senior diplomat at US embassy in Moscow Feb 1946 Sent Truman his assessment of Soviet Union. Truman liked his report so much he sent it to all diplomats States that the Soviet Union will only be stopped when met by “unanswerable force” Said US should follow policy of containment o Everywhere the Soviet Union shows signs of encroachment, we should stop them Kennan is angry how Truman interprets it. It was only applied in a military sense, not a holistic sense. ∙Truman Doctrine: Truman’s response to the Long Telegram States that the US will give assistance to all democratic nations under threat from external or internal authoritarian (communist) threats o First use comes with Greek Civil War o Truman asks for $300m for Greece Reversal of postwar spending cuts “If we want to be the leader of the world, we must pay” ∙Marshall Plan Created by Secretary of State George C. Marshall Passes in March 1948 $13bn in aid in 1st four years Offered to everyone including Eastern Europe (USSR Sphere of Influence) o USSR does not allow Eastern Europe to accept aid Grows contempt for USSR in Eastern Europe USSR sees this as US trying to gain foothold in their turf ∙Berlin Airlift June 24, 1948 May 12, 1949 Soviets cut off Berlin in response to Marshall Plan US flies 272k missions to bring supplies to Berlin o 2.5m tons of food and fuel (~1 ton per citizen) American propaganda victory, Soviet humiliation ∙NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Formed April 4, 1949 Originally the democratic governments of the Allies joined o Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, UK, and USA Military Alliance o If one member is attacked, others must come to their aid ∙Warsaw Pact Military Alliance of Eastern European Communist governments Response to NATO Formed May 14, 1955 ∙Joe1 Tested August 29, 1949 Soviet Union’s 1st Nuclear Weapon Created with stolen information from the US Nuclear Program Creates paranoia in the US ∙Mao Tse Tung Chinese Communist Leader Won Civil War in 1949 forcing democratic forces to Taiwan Proclaims the People’s Republic of China on October 1, 1949 o Americans blame Truman (perhaps he sabotaged or allowed this to happen) o China had been a close ally to America once ∙Chiang KaiShek Chinese Democratic Leader Lost Civil War in 1949 and lead forces to Taiwan proclaiming an independent nation ∙Korean War: June 25, 1950 July 27, 1953 US and Soviet Union divide the expense of occupation. o Just like Germany when we divided Korea we never expected them to stay separate South Korea (American occupation) is democratic; North Korea (Soviet occupation) is communist o When Americans and Soviets end their occupations, they leave opposing governments fully capable of making war June 25, 1950 N Korea invades S Korea N Korea pushes S Korean forces to Pusan o Syngman Rhee (Leader of S. Korea) begs Truman for help UN Peacekeepers help out S Korea o Truman declaring war without declaring war (Manipulate the constitution) o Soviet Union is boycotting the UN, so the UN is on our side during the time o Most peacekeepers were Americans Ends in a Stalemate o No treaty signed ∙Inchon Offensive: Massive amphibious assault on September 15, 1950 at Incheon Successful attack by UN peace keeping forces that reached the southern border of China ∙United Nations: Similar goals to League of Nations US and all nations join Has “teeth” o UN peacekeeping force can ensure members abide by its rules ∙(Second) Red Scare : Fueled by McCarthyism Attack on “Liberal America” “Guilt by association” The Crucible (1953) was written as a metaphor o Tale of the Salem Witch Trials of 1692/3 o Relates the search for witches to search for communists Neither are actually there, but people think they are ∙Joe McCarthy: Lincoln Day Speech (February 2, 1950) o Claims that there are “205 known communists working in the State Department” This number changes constantly o Taps into the paranoia of the time (begins to explode, pun intended, with Joe1) Holds Senate hearings, which grows his popularity 1954: claims communists are in the United States Army and holds hearing o Famous quote by Joseph N. Welch (counsel for US Army at the Hearing): “At long last, have you left no sense of decency?” o Ends in his embarrassment and infamy Dem’s obviously hate him but now REPs are against him as well ex: Trump ∙Dwight Eisenhower ∙HBomb Ivy Mike (American) tested November 1952 o 10.4 megatons (10400 kilotons → Trinity yielded 20 kilotons, so 520x stronger) Joe4 (Soviet) tested August 1953 o 0.4 megatons (400 kt → Joe1 yielded 22 kilotons, so >20x stronger) American public believes the USSR is catching up with their nuclear weapons ∙Space Race Takes off (pun intended) with Sputnik1 Americans and Soviet compete to do the “firsts” involved with space o First to make it to space, first to send a person to space, first to make it to the moon, etc. Soviets win first two victories: first to space (Sputnik) and first to send a person (Yuri Gagarin) o Also technically send the first woman to space (Valentina Tereshkova in 1963) Americans win the grand prize by making it to the moon first (Apollo11 on July 20, 1969) Time of mass paranoia o This was a way each country showed they could hit the other with missiles (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, or ICBMs) ∙Sputnik First human made satellite in space Huge Political victory for the Soviet Union Launched by the USSR on October 5, 1957 Created mass paranoia in America o If USSR controlled space they could drop anything on the US ∙Interstate Highway Act Enacted June 29, 1956 by President Dwight D. “Ike” Eisenhower Marked a huge growth in federal power 1945: 25m Americans own a car → 1965: 75m Americans own a car ∙“Crisis in Education” March 24, 1958 (Part 1) and March 31, 1958 (Part 2) editions of Life Magazine Compare a Soviet student and an American student (Part 1) o Soviet student is reading advanced literature and performing complex Physics experiments o American student is doing more basic education and is more preoccupied with theatre and girls Talk about the struggles of teachers in America (Part 2) o Overworked, undertrained, and underpaid Leads to education reform and expanded education budget in America o US Education Budget doubles between the 1950s and 70s ∙Yuri Gagarin Became the first human in space on April 12, 1961 aboard Vostok1 23 days later, American Alan Shepard made it to space Another Soviet Victory during the Space Race ∙Kitchen Debate July 24, 1959 Between US Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev o Happened in from of kitchen display at the Trade and Culture Fair at Sokolniki in Moscow during a visit by Nixon Impromptu debate o Both call for exchange of ideas o End to lies about each other’s system Nixon becomes the first person to criticize communism on Soviet television Khrushchev travels to US in September 1959 and speaks with Eisenhower o Talks about what capitalism does wrong and communism does right ∙Fulgencio Batista o He is overthrown by Fidel o Was considered corrupt and backed by U.S o Takes Cuba's money and flees the country ∙Fidel Castro Comes to power in 1959 Overthrows Fulgencio Batista Highly publicized trials and executions of Batista officials (they were accused of corruption) Upsets Americans with his land reforms o Took private companies that Americans owned and Nationalized them (they were under control of the Cuban government) o He was anticapitalist o His argument was that the American people were making money off of the Cuban people. He wants to keep the wealth in Cuba He shuts down all the hotels and resorts o Doesn't want Cuba to be America’s playground Raul Castro o Explicitly open communist o Fidel is not a communist when the revolution starts Many Americans do not believe him because he believes in revolution and wants it to spread throughout latin American When F. Castro starts his revolution, many Americans support it o He travels to the U.S after the revolution (1959) and has many supporters o Tries to meet with the President (Eisenhower), however, Eisenhower refuses to meet with him o He meets with Nixon (VP) instead & tells him all that Cuba needs. Nixon doesn’t say anything. Castro believes that U.S did not want American’s help, so he goes to the other world power, the USSR He becomes a communist in Dec. 1961 ∙John Scali o ABC News correspondent o He sets up communication with the Soviet Union by his friend Alex Feklisov((KGB Chief in America) Allows for “Quiet Diplomacy” o Both sides back down during Cuban Missile crisis Soviet Union removes missiles from Cuba Kennedy removes missiles from Turkey ∙John F. Kennedy o Becomes president in 1961 o Responsible for Bay of Pigs Major American humiliation o Cuban Missile Crisis Major diplomatic accomplishment ∙Bay of Pigs o April 15th19th, 1961 o Plans to remove Castro from office o Not planned by JFK but happens under his presidency o U.S trains Cuban exiles Tried to keep it low key, but it was the Worst kept secret Journalists were writing about it o Thought the invasion would be supported by the Cuban people, but they did not o U.S air force was supposed to give them air support JFK does not send air force because he didn't want it to look like the U.S was leading the invasion o Huge defeat for U.S U.S looks terrible in international media Castro looks like a hero Jupiter Missiles Nuclear missiles put in Turkey as a threat to the Soviet Union Completely irrelevant and unnecessary because we have nuclear submarines just as easily o Only put there to reassure Europe & upsets the Soviets o Makes Nikita Krushchev look weak so he puts them in Cuba People believe that Soviet Union is catching up, however, they were nowhere close to the U.S ∙Cuban Missile Crisis October 1428, 1962 US spy planes spot a nuclear site in Cuba o Soviet setting up nuclear weapon sites in Cuba Kennedy’s options: o Invasion(would tie us up) o Air Force strike (no guarantee of success) o Quiet Diplomacy (too soft/slow;time won't be on our side) o Naval Blockage We respond with quiet diplomacy and the blockade o It was quiet diplomacy that ended the crisis o John Scali (ABC Correspondent) sets up communications with Soviet Union via his friend Alex Feklisov (KGB Chief in America) ∙Zoot Suit Riots 1943 in Los Angeles Group of Americans fight people wearing Zoot Suits (minorities/African Americans and Mexican Americans) in a bar and get beaten up Sailors rally hundreds of other sailors to beat up anyone wearing Zoot Suits o Eventually they are essentially attacking any minorities they find When the police intervene, they arrest the people wearing Zoot Suits After 5 days, US declares Los Angeles off limits to sailors Eleanor Roosevelt calls it a race riot o Local LA newspaper claims she is stirring up racial discord ∙Braceros 19421964 Jointly created by US and Mexican governments o Originally meant to replace men off at war o Farmers loved the program so it sticks around Mexican laborers work menial jobs (agriculture) under contract 5 million workers who earn very low wages and work in poor conditions Deportation of these workers at the end of the program creates the term “illegal immigrants” Joe McCarthy: Lincoln Day Speech, 1950: o Claims that there are “205 known communists working for the state” o That number is always changing o Junior Senator so there’s no media involved Leads Congressional Hearings to find communists Claims communists are in the Army Army Hearings of 1954 o Famous quote by Army defense counselor Joseph Nye Welch “At long last, have you left no sense of decency sir?” o Leads to his downfall Favorable ratings plummet ∙Military Desegregation Harry Truman’s Executive Order 9981 on July 26, 1948 ∙Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, Kansas Lynda Brown's parents wanted her to go to the school in her neighborhood All white school. One of several court cases that deal with segregation in schools o Only a few made it to the supreme court In 1896 the Supreme Court ruled Segregation legal if “Separate but equal” o Brown v Board of Education overturns Plessy v Ferguson “Separate is INHERENTLY unequal” Some complaints from the black communities o They believed that Black children going to White schools would be bullied and make Black lives more difficult Schools have to be desegregated/integrated “with all deliberate speed” o Ambiguous as to timeframe for integration ∙Montgomery Bus Boycott Rosa Parks: even before bus boycotts she was a civil rights activist o Secretary of NAACP, arrested before trying to vote, and kicked off of many busses o Not spur of the moment, planned action of not getting up Result: immediately after her arrest boycott is organized by Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) o MLK (leader of SCLC) becomes nat’l figure through this Key example of black economic power because the majority of people who rode the buses were black By end of 1956, bus system caves in and desegregates for fear of going bankrupt ∙Orval Faubus Governor of Arkansas during Crisis in Little Rock Ordered Arkansas National Guard to prevent Little Rock Nine from getting in the high school ∙Crisis in Little Rock 1957 Response to Brown v Board of Education, 1954 o Topeka, Kansas o Ruled that “separate is inherently unequal” The schools in Arkansas are to be desegregated Select nine “perfect” black students (Little Rock Nine) to be the first to integrate schools Entrance to Little Rock Central High School is blocked by white citizens and the Arkansas National Guard o To prevent the Little Rock Nine from entering One of the Little Rock Nine, a 13 y/o girl isn’t told not to try to go to school o Harassed and intimidated as she tries to go to school o Internationally Televised Desegregated by Federal Government o Arkansas had tried to prevent integration Eisenhower is NOT a civil rights supporter: o Calls in 101st Airborne Division to force these students allowance to go to school 2 Reasons: Eisenhower has to demonstrate federal power by enforcing the Supreme Court ruling and the situation looks horrible internationally (bad PR)
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