PSYC Exam 2 Study Guide
PSYC Exam 2 Study Guide Psych100
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
PSYC 100 Exam 2 Study Guide Chapter 6 (pg 228255) Sensation and Perception Part 1 Bottom up processing starts at the sensory receptors and works up to higher levels of processing Topdown processing constructs perceptions from the sensory input by drawing on our experience and expectations Transduction converting one form of energy into another that our brain can use Psychophysics studies the relationship between the physical energy e can detect and its effects on our psychological experiences Absolute threshold minimum stimulation needed to detect particular stimulus (light, sound, pressure, taste, odor) 50% of the time Signal detection theory predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise) Difference threshold (aka just noticeable difference, or jnd): minimum difference a person can detect between 2 stimuli half the time Weber’s law to be perceived as different, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage rather than a constant amount Part 2 The eye Pupil adjustable opening through which light enters Iris expands and contracts controlling size of pupil opening Lens sits behind pupil, fine adjustment, main focusing Retina image gets projected onto the retina: peripheral focus Rods detect black, white, and gray Cones function in daylight or welllit conditions, detect fine detail Optic nerve carries neural impulses from eye to brain Blind spot point where optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spot Fovea central focal point in retina, cones cluster YoungHelmholtz trichromatic theory: retina contains 3 different color receptors (red, green, blue) Opponent process theory opposing retinal process (redgreen, yellowblue, whiteblack) enable color vision Feature detectors nerve cells in brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement Parallel processing: processing any aspects of a problem simultaneously Gestalt an organized whole; emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes Figureground: organization of visual field into its objects (figures) and surroundings (ground) Binocular cues: depth cues that result oem the use of both eyes Retinal disparity: compare image from retinas of both eyes. Greater disparity means object is closer Binocular convergence: information about how much eyes must rotate inward to look at an object. More rotation means object is closer Monocular Cues: depth cues that are available to each eye separately Chapter 7 (pg 278299) Learning Associative learning learning that certain events occur together (classical or operant conditioning) Classical conditioning one learned to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events Acquisition initial learning of the stimulus response relationship Higher order conditioning (see example) Operant conditioning behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher Increase behavior Positive reinforcement: add a desirable stimulus (ex. Pet a dog that comes when called) Negative reinforcement: remove an aversive stimulus (ex. Fasten seatbelt to end beeping) Decrease behavior Positive behavior: administer something that undried (ex. Give ticket for speeding) Negative punishment: end something that's desires (ex. Take away a misbehaving teen’s driving privileges Chapter 8 (pg 318351) Memory Recall retrieving info that is not currently in your conscious awareness but was learned at an earlier time Recognition identifying items previously learned Relearning learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or late time Encoding the processing of info into the memory system Storage process of retaining encoded info over time Retrieval process of getting info out of memory storage Working memory: newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming information Explicit memory: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare Implicit memory: retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of conscious recollection Automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information (e.g. space, time, frequency) The hippocampus: located in limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage (consolidation) Flashbulb memory a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event Priming: activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory Proactive interference old info makes it difficult to learn new info Retroactive interference new info makes it difficult to recall old info Repression basic defense mechanism that banishes anxietyarousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness Misinformation effect when misleading info has corrupted ones memory of an event Chapter 9 (pg 370381) Thinking and Language Language our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning Phoneme in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit Morpheme in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix) Grammar a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others Semantics the set of rules deriving meaning from sounds Syntax the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences Telegraphic speech early speech stage in which a child speaks a telegram “go car” using mostly nouns and verbs Aphasia: impairment in language, usually caused by lefthemisphere damage Broca’s aphasia: difficulty with language production Wernicke’s aphasia: difficulty with language comprehension
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