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PSYC Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Kristen Pruett

PSYC Exam 2 Study Guide Psych100

Marketplace > University of Delaware > Psychlogy > Psych100 > PSYC Exam 2 Study Guide
Kristen Pruett

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About this Document

Study Guide for Chapters 6-9 includes charts and images info from textbook and class notes
General Psychology
Kristen Begosh
Study Guide
Intro to Psychology, Psychology
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
PSYC 100 Exam 2 Study Guide    Chapter 6 ​(pg 228­255)  Sensation and Perception    Part 1  ­ Bottom up processing ­ starts at the sensory receptors and works up to higher levels of processing  ­ Top­down processing ­ constructs perceptions from the sensory input by drawing on our experience and  expectations  ­ Transduction ­ converting one form of energy into another that our brain can use  ­ Psychophysics ­ studies the relationship between the physical energy e can detect and its effects on our  psychological experiences  ­ Absolute threshold ­ minimum stimulation needed to detect particular stimulus (light, sound, pressure,  taste, odor) 50% of the time   ­ Signal detection theory ­ predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid  background stimulation (noise)  ­ Difference threshold (aka just noticeable difference, or jnd): minimum difference a person can detect  between 2 stimuli half the time   ­ Weber’s law ­ to be perceived as different, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage rather  than a constant amount  Part 2  ­ The eye  ­ Pupil ­ adjustable opening through which light enters  ­ Iris ­ expands and contracts controlling size of pupil opening  ­ Lens ­ sits behind pupil, fine adjustment, main focusing   ­ Retina ­ image gets projected onto the retina: peripheral focus   ­ Rods­ detect black, white, and gray  ­ Cones ­ function in daylight or well­lit conditions, detect fine detail  ­ Optic nerve ­ carries neural impulses from eye to brain   ­ Blind spot ­ point where optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spot  ­ Fovea ­ central focal point in retina, cones cluster  ­ Young­Helmholtz trichromatic theory: retina contains 3 different color receptors (red, green, blue)  ­ Opponent process theory ­ opposing retinal process (red­green, yellow­blue, white­black) enable color  vision  ­ Feature detectors ­ nerve cells in brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape,  angle, or movement  ­ Parallel processing: processing any aspects of a problem simultaneously  ­ Gestalt ­ an organized whole; emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful  wholes  ­ Figure­ground: organization of visual field into its objects (figures) and surroundings (ground)  ­ Binocular cues: depth cues that result oem the use of both eyes   ­ Retinal disparity: compare image from retinas of both eyes. Greater disparity means object is closer   ­ Binocular convergence: information about how much eyes must rotate inward to look at an object.  More rotation means object is closer  ­ Monocular Cues: depth cues that are available to each eye separately     Chapter 7 ​(pg 278­299)  Learning    ­ Associative learning ­ learning that certain events occur together (classical or operant conditioning)  ­ Classical conditioning ­ one learned to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events   ­ Acquisition ­ ​initial learning of the stimulus ­ response relationship  ­ Higher order conditioning ­ (see example)    ­ Operant conditioning ­ behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a  punisher  ­ Increase behavior  ­ Positive reinforcement: add a desirable stimulus (ex. Pet a dog that comes when called)  ­ Negative reinforcement: remove an aversive stimulus (ex. Fasten seatbelt to end beeping)  ­ Decrease behavior  ­ Positive behavior: administer something that undried (ex. Give ticket for speeding)  ­ Negative punishment: end something that's desires (ex. Take away a misbehaving teen’s  driving privileges       Chapter 8 ​(pg 318­351)  Memory    ­ Recall ­ retrieving info that is not currently in your conscious awareness but was learned at an earlier time  ­ Recognition ­ identifying items previously learned  ­ Relearning ­ learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or late time  ­ Encoding ­ the processing of info into the memory system  ­ Storage ­ process of retaining encoded info over time  ­ Retrieval ­ process of getting info out of memory storage  ­ Working memory: newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing  of incoming information  ­ Explicit memory: memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare  ­ Implicit memory: retention of learned skills or classically conditioned associations independent of  conscious recollection  ­ Automatic processing: unconscious encoding of incidental information (e.g. space, time, frequency)  ­ The hippocampus: located in limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage (consolidation)  ­ Flashbulb memory ­ a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event  ­ Priming: activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory  ­ Proactive interference ­ old info makes it difficult to learn new info   ­ Retroactive interference ­ new info makes it difficult to recall old info   ­ Repression ­ basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety­arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories  from consciousness  ­ Misinformation effect ­ when misleading info has corrupted ones memory of an event    Chapter 9 ​(pg 370­381)  Thinking and Language    ­ Language ­ our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning  ­ Phoneme ­ in a language, the smallest distinctive sound unit  ­ Morpheme ­ in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such  as a prefix)  ­ Grammar ­ a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others  ­ Semantics ­ the set of rules deriving meaning from sounds  ­ Syntax ­ the set of rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences    ­ Telegraphic speech ­ early speech stage in which a child speaks a telegram ­ “go car” ­ using mostly nouns  and verbs  ­ Aphasia: impairment in language, usually caused by left­hemisphere damage  ­ Broca’s aphasia: difficulty with language production  ­ Wernicke’s aphasia: difficulty with language comprehension 


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