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Phil 101, Midterm Exam Study Guide

by: Hailey Damiens

Phil 101, Midterm Exam Study Guide PHIL 101

Marketplace > University of Mississippi > PHIL-Philosophy > PHIL 101 > Phil 101 Midterm Exam Study Guide
Hailey Damiens

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About this Document

All of these questions appeared on the exam.
Introduction to Philosophy
Dr. wishon
Study Guide
philosophy lecture notes, philosophy, philosophical problems
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hailey Damiens on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 101 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. wishon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
What kinds of things does Russell think we are acquainted with? 1. sensation- directly aware of present sense-data 2. introspection- aware of present thoughts 3. memory- aware of past sensations and thoughts 4. conceiving- universals and general principles What kinds of general principles does Russell think we can know on the basis of our powers of conceiving, and on what basis are they justified? 1. logic 2. mathematics 3. geometry 4. ethics 5. principle of induction self-evidence justifies these. What argument does Russell use to defend his claim that the “sense-data” we are immediately aware of in sensory experience are “signs” of external objects rather than the external objects themselves? (youtube brain games in living color) the object doesn't change so we are experiencing sense-data What is Russell’s conception of how philosophy should approach philosophical problems, and how does it differ from the traditional conception of how to do philosophy? In particular, how does it differ from Descartes’ method of using skeptical doubt to discover a foundation of absolutely certain beliefs about the world? traditional conception: you want to find absolute certainty Russell: start by accepting basic beliefs and keep believing until 2 beliefs contradict each other— believes we will not reach absolute certainty Descartes: start by doubting all beliefs and working your way up What is the act/object distinction, and how does it help Russell avoid Bishop Berkeley’s view that all of reality is fundamentally mental? Berkeley: we are aware of things mentally— everything we know is in our mind Russell: awareness, thinking, desiring are mental but what we are thinking about is not mental What is the traditional analysis of knowledge? How does Russell challenge it? Justified true belief. Russell challenges it by giving the example of the clock: you can have a belief, the belief can be justified but that doesn't mean the belief is the truth. What is the problem of induction, and can science solve the problem on the basis of empirical evidence? Why or why not? The problem of induction is an argument against the justification for scientific claims. No, science cannot solve the problem on the basis of empirical evidence. This is because there is no empirical evidence. Humans validate the assumption that the sun will rise every morning because that is what it has always done. According to Russell, one cannot be certain, but one can be pretty certain that if A signifies B and A and B have never been dissociated, this consistency will probably remain the same. What are the three traditional “laws of thought”? Why does Russell think it is misleading to call them “the laws of thought”? 1. the law of contradiction 2. the law of exclusion 3. the principle of identity Russell doesn't like calling them "the laws of thought" because he believes there are plenty of laws of thought. They're not laws of thought, rather how we find reality. What is Russell’s distinction between “knowledge by acquaintance” and “knowledge by description”, and how does it relate to his distinction between “knowledge of things” and “knowledge of truths”? knowledge by acquaintance: knowledge or direct awareness of things we have when we encounter them in experience (k.o.things) knowledge by description: knowledge or indirect awareness of things which extend our knowledge beyond personal experience (k.o.things) knowledge of truths: knowledge we have when we have psychological states (beliefs, opinions, judgments, etc.) which can be evaluated as true or false- feelings knowledge of things: knowledge we have when we are directly or indirectly aware of things- experience or description What argument does Russell use to support the view that there is a world beyond our personal experience? The argument from simplicity allows us to believe that there is a world beyond our personal experience. The principle of simplicity urges us to adopt the natural view, that here really are objects other than ourselves and our sense-data which have an existence not dependent on our perceiving them. What are the basic differences between traditional empiricism and traditional rationalism, and how does Russell’s own view differ from each? Empiricism is a theory of knowledge which states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
 Rationalism is the view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification.


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