Sociology of Education Study Guide
Sociology of Education Study Guide SOC1060
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SOC1060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Kalasia Daniels in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Freshman Seminar: Sociology of Education in Sociology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
Race: a group sharing apparent physical traits deemed by society to be socially significant… A social concept, not a scientific one… There is no inherent relationship between race and behaviors… Race plays a role in the organization of social institutions, like education, Ethnicity: a group’s national origin, language, and cultural or religious practices… Can self- identify, but usually need acceptance or acknowledgment by a larger group Stratification: the systematic ranking of different groups of people in a hierarchy of inequality. Achieved Status: linked to acquisition of socially valued credentials or skills Ascribed Status: linked to characteristics that are socially significant and are difficult to alter (race, gender)… status given not by birth but by merit or achievement in areas such as education and occupation. Social Class: a person’s economic position in society, which is associated with differences in status, income, wealth, and occupation. =SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES) Prestige: Social respect, admiration and recognition Provides intangible, immaterial rewards… demonstrated through occupation, education, and consumption and leisure Gender: a complex interaction between biology and culture that shapes behavioral differences associated with gender… norms, roles, and behaviors associated in a given society with being male or female. Gender is socially constructed and changes over time as societal norms change. Gender Roles: The attitudes and behaviors considered appropriately “masculine” or “feminine” in a particular culture. Sex: the anatomical or other biological differences between males and females that originate in human genes… include primary and secondary sexual reproductive characteristics men and women are born with or develop. Sex Category: refers to the perceived sex of person based on physical and behavior characteristics. Hegemonic Masculinity: the culturally normative idea of male behavior, which often emphasizes strength, domination, and aggression. Affirmative Action: offered special consideration to minorities and women who have been historically excluded groups in America. Created to ameliorate past discrimination against African Americans and Women in education and employment opportunities. “burden of acting white”: the various strategies that black students at use to resolve successfully or unsuccessfully, the tension between doing well and maintaining their collective identity. Fictive kinship: (schooling) kinship-like relationship between persons not related, a collective social identity “Oppositional cultural theory”: Oppositional collective or social identity: identity is in opposition of White, because of Whites’ treatment of Blacks. Blacks understand that no matter how hard they try they will never be equal to Whites. Cultural frame: develop behaviors and boundaries between Whites that are appropriate and inappropriate and “acting white” is not appropriate. “Socialization Theory”: equalization of outcomes among advantaged and disadvantage group members. “Allocation Theory”: schools are influence by structural constraints that identify, select, process, classify, and assign students based on larger societal rules. “Four Basic Rules of Manhood”: no “sissy stuff”: avoid any hint of femininity be a “big deal”: acquire wealth, power, and status be a “sturdy oak”: never show your emotions “give ’em hell”: exude a sense of daring and aggressiveness “Single-Sex Education”: “Evolution of Higher Education”: History of college education: Pre-Civil War Post-Civil War Turn of the century World War I World War II Post-World War II Public Universities have had a dramatic shift in purpose, cost, and management. They have shifted from free, government funded institutions, to businesses intent on competition with each other and for-profit education colleges and universities. A change in funding, taking away from the institutions and given now to the students has caused “academic capitalism”. Universities are now engaged in an “amenities race” to attract new students, rather than relying on academic prestige. The change into a business model has also affected faculty. With decrease of public funds, "grant getting" and funded research are necessary to provide programs with enough money to keep running. Prestige that used to be gained from teaching is now given for research and publication. Tenure, originally to protect free speech and academic freedom in the classroom for professors that excelled in the classroom is now based more on based on research and publication, not teaching ability 1.Explain how race, gender, and class are not natural groups but are socially constructed. Based on your explanation, provide two examples that demonstrate differences within each group’s categories (i.e. black, Hispanic, Asian, White, Girls, Boys, Middle Class, Working class). A: Gender is socially constructed and changes over time as societal norms change… Whether we act more masculine or feminine has LESS to do with our biological sex and MORE to do with the a group sharing apparent physical traits deemed by society to be socially significant. Race is a social concept, not a scientific one… There is no inherent relationship between race and behaviors… Race plays a role in the organization of social institutions, like education. Class: Both White and Black students feel a burden of “high achievement,” racialized or class based opposition, in schools where high status is perceived to be a privilege 2.How do girls/women’s educational experience differ from boys/men. Give at least three examples. A: Females do better in school and attain more education than men Females are less likely to excel in math, science, and technical fields Males are less likely to excel in writing, social sciences, and humanities 3.Why are racially segregated schools still shown to be unequal in student achievement? What accounts for the differences in achievement levels between schools? A: Black Americans, as subordinate or caste like minorities, perform poorly in schools as a coping mechanism to their limited social and economic opportunities in adult life. Received substandard schooling because of Whites perceptions of Blacks. Job ceiling, even when Blacks perform well they do not have the same access. Develop survival strategies: attitudes, perceptions, behaviors and competencies. 5. What is the difference between "within- school segregation" and "between school segregation"? Give two examples for each. A: Between: The typical black or Hispanic child attends a public school in which most of the children are below the poverty line. Only 18 percent of white students and 30 percent of Asian students attend high-poverty schools. Within: When Whites scored higher than Blacks, they were labeled superior. 6. Explain why middle-class children participate in more activities outside of school than their working class peers? A: Socioeconomic origins = Socioeconomic destinations Higher Income families (HIF) invest in Children’s education, Lower income families (LIF) cannot HIF offer children better schools, neighborhoods, and program placement. LIF want children to do well, do not have monies to do so. By race, lower-SES black men do not have access to better schools or job opportunities like lower-SES white men. 7. Explain what is meant by the "duality" between students and courses. A: Students who share similar courses in common will occupy spatially proximal positions Courses that co-enroll similar students will also occupy spatially proximal positions with other courses Differential access to students—and their postsecondary trajectories shapes curricular organization 8. Describe the three explanations of racial inequality in education. Give an example of each. A: Genetic explanation: Race and intelligence were immutable because it was genetic. Binet-Simon T est: children’s intelligence were assessed on a number of measures. Whites scored higher than Blacks, labeled superior. Cultural explanation: of academic achievement explain educational differences in cultural values, parenting practices, and linguistic codes of families and children. Blacks and Whites have disparate educational outcomes because of their cultural orientation. Structural explanations: do not blame individuals, but argue that educational differences stem from a system of social relationships that create systematic advantages for members of one group while the members of another group are systematically disadvantaged. Having social and financial resources have consistently been found to have positive impacts on educational achievement. 9. What is the “burden of acting white” and how does it impact educational outcomes? A: the various strategies that black students use to resolve successfully or unsuccessfully, the tension between doing well and maintaining their collective identity. Impacts educational outcomes because Blacks students opted out of advanced courses because they felt they could not handle the amount of work required and grades would suffer 10. Why do Tyson et al argue that black students do have an “oppositional culture?” Explain as in-depth and thoroughly as needed. A: Both White and Black students feel a burden of “high achievement,” racialized or class based opposition, in schools where high status is perceived to be a privilege. “brainiac” and “dork” cut both racial and class lines Students may choose to stay in classes among peers (race or class) instead of being isolated. Oppositional attitudes are more connected with everyday experiences of inequality in placement and achievement. Need to focus on STRUCTURE of schools. School structure influences school culture. 11. What are the limitations of previous explanation of racial inequality in educational outcomes and what does Persell propose instead? A: Genetic explanations Cultural explanations Structural explanations 12. Describe what is meant by the black-white racial gap in education and provide practices or policies that you would recommend to decrease this gap. A: ￼ 13. Describe factors that have led universities to shift their organization and management models to become more business focused. A: With decrease of public funds, "grant getting" and funded research are necessary to provide programs with enough money to keep running. Prestige that used to be gained from teaching is now given for research and publication. Tenure, originally to protect free speech and academic freedom in the classroom for professors that excelled in the classroom is now based more on based on research and publication, not teaching ability 14. How do universities serve affluent socially oriented students? Why do they want to attract this type of student? A: Greek system often excludes economically disadvantaged and small town students. They feel like they have to drink and party to fit in, which takes time that should be dedicated to academics. "Exotic", easy majors lead to unmarketable degrees for students without family influence and poor advising. 15. Describe how existing social inequalities impact the ability to attend and complete college using at least two of the readings in the higher education chapter? A: State universities – expansion to meet growing needs but also way to keep four-year institutions selective and elite Most four-year residential colleges and universities in the United States are designed to serve well-funded students, who have minimal (if any) caretaking responsibilities, and who attend college full-time after they graduate from high school. 16. What are the purposes of single-sex education in public schools and explain if they have been successful or not? A: To fix Gender gap between men and women’s academic achievement. Federal policy changes as a strategy to promote gains in student achievement. Title XI of ESEA 1972: schools receiving federal money must provide equal allocation of resources for females. No school between 1972-1991 lost funds based on gender discrimination 17. Explain the historical legacy of school choice in urban schools. Define two types of school choice initiatives and explain if they have been successful or not within the school choice movement? • A: Alternative Schooling • Magnet Schools: selective academically demanding public elementary or secondary school with superior facilities and programs. • Alternative choice option for parents in lieu of forced busing to desegregate public schools. • Did little for integration. • Desegregated middle class communities more than working class with sizable white and minority population. • Magnet schools have less effect in larger cities • Vouchers: individual scholarships to parents that can be used to defray the cost of a child’s tuition at any school, public or private, religious or secular. Provides public monies to parents to pay or supplement the cost of schooling. Parents decide child’s school choice. Parents make decisions based on school effectiveness... Good citizenship not standardized test scores Vouchers do not cover the entire tuition for schools. Middle to high income parents’ benefits would be far greater than representative urban parents. 18. How has the United States population changed over time and how has this demographic shift changed the landscape of urban education? A: Racial minorities are concentrated in neighborhoods and schools with high levels of poverty. Socially Isolated from mainstream society Exposed to “different” culture Poor Living, Unsafe street, and economic distress Urban Schools have lower neighborhood-based social structures. Libraries, reading rooms, parks and other recreational facilities. We should invest in communities that can affect their schools. 19. What are some differences and similarities between rural and urban education? A: similarities: Some urban and rural schools have a difficult time retaining high- quality teachers . Less experienced Less educated: lower teacher exam scores and grades Working-conditions: both type of teachers have lower salaries. Some urban and rural schools have similar poverty rates (11.4% vs 14.6%). With limited college preparatory curriculum. Differences: Urban Schools have lower neighborhood-based social structures. Libraries, reading rooms, parks and other recreational facilities.
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