Exam 2 study guide!
Exam 2 study guide! MGMT 3000
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carrie Herk on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MGMT 3000 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Kyle Ehrhardt in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Managing Individuals- Teams in Business, management at University of Colorado Denver.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
An overview of topics that may appear on Exam 2 Personality and Ability Big Five Personality Traits: 1. Conscientiousness: Dependable, organized, , reliable, hardworking, ambitious, and persevering 2. Agreeableness: Warm, kind, cooperative, sympathetic, helpful, and courteous. 3. Extraversion: Talkative, social able, passionate, assertive, bold, and dominant. 4. Neuroticism: Nervous, moody, emotional, insecure, and jealous. 5. Openness to Experience: Curious, imaginative, creative, refined, and sophisticated. Integrity tests: Focus specifically on a predisposition to engage in theft and other counterproductive behaviors. Two types of integrity tests: 1. Clear Purpose Tests: Ask applicants about their attitudes towards dishonesty, beliefs about their frequency of dishonesty, desire to punish dishonesty, etc. 2. Veiled Purpose Tests: Assess more general personality traits that are associated with dishonesty. Emotional intelligence (including its composite factors): Ability that affects social functioning influences one’s effectiveness in social settings. Four Factors of Emotional Intelligence: 1. SelfAwareness: Appraisal and expression of emotions in oneself 2. Other Awareness: Appraisal and recognition of emotions in others. 3. Emotional Regulation: Ability to recover from emotional experiences 4. Emotion Use: Degree to which people can harness emotions and employ them to increase their chances of success. Teams: Overview and Design (Teams I) Team classification – level of responsibility in setting procedures and developing objective: Vary in the degree of responsibility and control held by the team versus and agent outside of the team (inside manager) Classification Scheme Designed by Hackman Manager lead teams: Manager Responsibility of defining the goals, methods, and functioning of the team and team responsibility of carrying out the assigned tasks. SelfManaging teams: Manager Responsibility of defining goals and team responsibility of defining the methods of achieving the defined goal, and carrying out the appropriate tasks. An overview of topics that may appear on Exam 2 Selfdirecting teams: manager responsibility of establishing and organizing the team’s organizational context and team responsibility of defining the team’s goals, the methods for achieving the goals, and carrying out appropriate tasks. Selfgoverning teams: Team responsibility is all functions Team classification – nature of team interdependence: the degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for the information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team. Four Types of Interdependence 1. Pooled Interdependence: Lowest degree of required coordination. Group members complete their assignments by themselves and then the group piles them up at the end. 2. Sequential Interdependence: Different tasks are done is a predetermined order and members complete them on their own. Interaction only occurs with members who are next in the sequence (coordination). 3. Reciprocal Interdependence: No sequence, members interact with a few other members, and the output is then pooled at the end. Increasing level of specialization is common among members. 4. Comprehensive Interdependence: Requires the highest level of interaction and coordination among members. Goal accomplishment requires a considerable amount of collaboration among team members. Dedicated vs. nondedicated teams Dedicated: No other organizational responsibilities outside of the team. Nondedicated: Other organizational responsibilities outside of the team. Teams: Why Teams; Team States, Processes, and Diversity (Teams II & III) Tacit vs. explicit knowledge: Tactic Knowledge: Knowledge that employees can only learn through experience (not easily communicated). Explicit Knowledge: Relatively easily communicated knowledge. Employee and or job manual information. The romance of team: What we are really acting on are several psychological benefits that come from groupbased activity. Team Cohesion: Members of a team develop strong emotional bonds to other members of the team and to the team itself. An overview of topics that may appear on Exam 2 Team Potency: The degree to which members believe that the team can be effective across a variety of situations and tasks. Tuckman’s model of team development: Forming: Try to understand the boundaries in the team and get a feel for what is expected of them Storming: Remain committed to ideas, trigger conflict that affects some relationships and harms the team’s progress. Norming: Realize that they need to work together to accomplish team goals. Performing: Members are comfortable working within their roles and the team makes progress toward goals. Adjourning: Members experience anxiety and other emotions as they disengage and ultimately separate from the team Gersick’s model of team development: Members make assumptions an establish a pattern of behavior that lasts for half of its life followed by stated of “punctuated equilibrium” then either refocus or likely not to reach goals. Forming and pattern creation Inertia Punctual equilibrium Process revision Inertia Diversity classifications Surface vs. deep Surfacelevel Diversity: Regards observable attributes such as race, gender, or age. Deeplevel Diversity: Regards attributes that are less easy to observe initially that can be inferred after more direct experience (value differences). Separation: Differences along same continuum Variety: Presence of many different groups Disparity: Concerns proportional inequality Diversity models for competitive advantage Diversity in teams: Degree to which members are different from one another in terms of some attribute– Advantages, disadvantages, where it may be beneficial, etc. 1. Creativity Perspective: If human resources are largely homogeneous, the thought processes of the organizations will be restricted to the that group An overview of topics that may appear on Exam 2 Homogeneous group will therefore lack perspective, and creativity may suffer 2. Problemsolving perspective: Similar to creativity perspective A diverse body of human resources will allow for a larger pool of information and perspectives, thus promoting more diverse an expanded solutions to possible problems/challenges the firm could face. 3. Systems Flexibility Perspective: Because managing diversity reflects flexibility in the organization in its members, the organization may also have greater capacities for flexibility in other areas. Weaker perspective give issues of temporal ordering. 4. Marketing Perspective: A diverse pool of human resources will have a greater opportunity to understand different market segments given that the more of these segments are represented in the organization. Can allow for more directed targeting of messages. 5. Resource Acquisition Perspective: Advantages in one’s reputation for being a good place to work among women and minorities As the labor pool shrinks, a firm’s reputation among these groups will provide the organization with the greatest selection of top talent (receive more applications from qualified individuals.) thus raising the level of human resources in the firm. Contributors to motivation loss Coordination Loss: Consumes time and energy that could otherwise be devoted to task activity. Motivational Loss: The loss in team productivity that occurs when the team members do not work as hard as they could. Social loafing: When members exert less effort when working on team tasks than they would if they worked alone on those same tasks. Ringelmann Effect: The tendency for people to become less productive when they work with others. Communication and Interpersonal Ties Information dependence: In teams, members are dependent on one another for sharing information. Common information effect: Specific information held by more members entering team activities will have more influence that information held by fewer members. Uneven communication problem: An overview of topics that may appear on Exam 2 In typical 4person group, 2 people do over 62% of the talking In 6person group, three people do over 70% of the talking In 8person group, 3 people do over 70% of the talking Nonverbal communication considerations: Transfer of meaning through means such as body language and use of physical space. Kinesics: Nonverbal communication expressed through body movement and facial expression (oculesics: eye contact, Posture: Leaning back in one’s chair during a business meeting, Gestures including physical contacts) Chromatics: How color is used to communicate messages. Proxemics: The way people use physical space to convey messages. Clique Networks: Tightly knit, and a great deal of connections among network members. Boundary spanning networks: Less direct connections between network members. Individual (boundary spanner) serves as a bridge between different groups of nonlinked others this is known as person filling a “structural lobe”. Conflict and Conflict Management Relationship Conflict: Refers to disagreements among team members in terms of interpersonal relationships, or incompatibilities with respect to personal values of preferences. Task Conflict: Refers to disagreements among team members about the team’s task. Process Conflict: Refers to disagreements regarding task strategies, the delegation of duties, etc. Conflict influences on performance: If there is relationship conflict, then there will be negative influences on performance, and member satisfaction. If high trust and/or low levels of relationship conflict, outcome of task conflict are generally more positive (and vice versa). Negotiation (distributive vs. integrative) Distributive Negotiation: Two parties with opposing goals compete over set value (winlose). Integrative Negotiation: Two groups aim to integrate interests, create value, invest in agreement (winwin scenario). An overview of topics that may appear on Exam 2 Third party alternatives to negotiation: A process by which two parties resolve conflicts through use of a third party. Mediation: Third party has no formal authority to dictate a solution Arbitration: Third party carries a binding authority Finaloffer Arbitration: Third party carries a binding authority and must choose one side’s proposal. Right to work: Forbids that union membership and/or payment of union dues can serve as a condition for employment, either before or after hiring. Closed shops: Workplace in which only workers who are already members of a specified union may be hired Union shops: Nonunion applicants can be hired but they must join the union within a specified time to keep their job. Union shops are legal in the United States except in, “right to work” states. Decision Making Programmed Decisions: Decisions that become somewhat automatic because a person’s or teams knowledge allows recognition of a situation and the course of action that should be taken. Nonprogrammed decisions: Generally applicable when a situation arises that is new, complex, and/or not recognized. Rational decision making model: A step by step approach to making decisions that maximize outcomes by examining all available alternatives. Stage 1: Problem perception Stage 2: Problem identification Stage 3: Problem formation Stage 4: Search for alternatives Stage 5: Evaluation of alternatives Stage 6: Choice of alternatives Stage 7: Start of operation Stage 8: Implementation Stage 9: Control An overview of topics that may appear on Exam 2 Bounded rationality: The notion that decision makers simply do not have the ability or resources to process all available information and alternatives to make an optimal decision. Groupthink: When members of a group place consensus above all other priorities. Escalation of Commitment: The decision to continue to follow a failing course of action. People have a tendency, when presented with a series of decisions to escalate their commitment to previous decisions even in the face of obvious failures. Decision making biases (e.g., framing bias, overconfidence bias, availability bias, etc.) Framing Bias: Bias introduced by the means in which a problem requiring a decision is framed. Overconfidence Bias: Tendency for an individual to place unwarranted confidence in their judgements. Abilene Paradox: People collectively decide on a course of action that is counter to their preference of any of the individuals in the group. Polarization: Tendency for group discussion/activities to intensify group opinion. Leadership: Styles, Models, Influence, and Power (Leadership I & II) Theory X,Y,Z model of leadership Theory X: Believes that people are basically lazy and that coercion and threats of punishment often are necessary to get them to work. Theory Y: Believes that under the right conditions peoples not only will work hard but will seek increased responsibility and challenges. Theory Z: Believes that workers seek opportunities to participate in management and are motivated by teamwork and responsibility sharing. Bass’s leadership styles model Transformational Leaders: Visionary agents with a sense of mission who are capable of motivating their followers to accept new goals and new ways of doing things Idealized Influence: Behaving in ways that earn admiration, trust, and respect of followers. Inspirational Motivation: Behaving in ways that foster an enthusiasm for and commitments to a shared vision. Intellectual Stimulation: Behaving in ways that challenge followers to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions. An overview of topics that may appear on Exam 2 Individualized Consideration: Behaving in ways that help followers achieve their potential through individually focused coaching, development, and mentoring. Transactional Leaders: Individuals who exchange rewards for effort and performance and work on a “something for something” basis. Passive management by exception: Leader corrects mistakes or errors post hoc Active Management byexception: Monitors follower performance and takes corrective action when deviations from standards occur. Contingent Reward: Leader attains follower agreement on what needs to be done using promised or actual rewards in exchange for adequate performance. Laissezfaire Leadership: Avoids intervening or accepting responsibility for follower actions (avoidance of leadership). Leadership decision making styles Autocratic Style: The leader makes the decision alone without asking for the opinions of employees. Consultative Style: The leader presented the problem to individual employees or a group of employees asking for their opinions and suggestions before ultimately making the decision. Facilitative Style: The leader presents the problem to a group of employees and seeks consensus on a solution own opinion has no more weight than others. Delegated Style: The leader gives an individual employee of a group of employees the responsibility for making the decision within some set of specific guidelines. VroomJargo Leadership Model: Focus should shift away from “styles” to “situations” Decision significance: the success of the project or the organization Importance of commitment: Is it important that employees “buy in” to the decision? Leader expertise: Does the leader have significant knowledge or expertise regarding the problem? Likelihood of commitment: How likely is it that employees will trust the leader’s decision to commit to it? Shard objectives: Do employees share and support the same objectives, or do they have an agenda of their own? Employee expertise: Do the employees have significant knowledge or expertise regarding the problem? An overview of topics that may appear on Exam 2 Teamwork skills: DO the employees have the ability to work together to solve the problem, or will they struggle with conflict? HerseyBlachard Situational Leadership Model: Two overarching leadership behaviors enacted in an ongoing, day to day sense. Initiating structure: the extent to which the leader defines and structures the roles of employees in pursuit of goal attainment (play more active role in directing group activities and prioritize planning and scheduling). Consideration: The extent to which leaders create job relationships, characterized by mutual trust, respect for employee ideas, and consideration of employee feelings (leaders who are high in consideration create a climate of goof rapport and strong twoway communication and exhibit a deep concern for the welfare of employees.). Readiness: Broadly defines as the degrees to which employees have the ability and the willingness to accomplish their specific tasks. Readiness level 1 Telling: The leader provides specific instructions and closely supervises performance. Readiness level 2 Selling: The leader supplements their directing with support to protect the confidence levels of the employees. Readiness level 3 Participating: The leader shares ideas and tries to help the group conduct its affairs. Readiness level 4 Delegating: The leader turns responsibility for key behaviors over to the employees. Leader Member Exchange Theory: Focuses on the dyadic relationship linking the leader to each member of the group and notes that in many cases, two subgroups of linkages exist (the ingroup and the out group) Dyadic focus: One of few (if not the only) model of leadership that specifically recognizes that a leader develops unique relationships with different followers. High and low quality exchange relationships take time to form between leader and individual followers… two phases specifically identified (though boundary in terms of how phases are defines are not well specified) Role taking: a manager describes role expectations to an employee and the employee attempts to fulfil those expectations with his or her job behaviors Role making: The employee’s own expectations for the dyad become intermingled with those of the leader An overview of topics that may appear on Exam 2 Types of power Power: Allows for the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return. Two types of power… organizational and personal power Organizational Power Legitimate power: “formal authority” Reward power: Control over useful resources Coercive power: Control over punishments Personal Power Expert power: derived from expertise or skill Referent power: Based on respect, belief, and admiration for the person. Influence tactics (focus on those which are most effective) Influence: The use of an actual behavior that causes behavioral or attitude changes in others. Tactics of Influence (most effective): Rational persuasion: Logical arguments and facts to show the target that the request is a worthwhile one. Inspirational appeal: Appeal to the target’s values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction Consultation: Allowing the target to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request. Collaboration: Invoke actions to make it easier for the target to complete the request.
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