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Bio 106 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Madison Johnson

Bio 106 Exam 2 Study Guide 2570

Marketplace > Washington State University > 2570 > Bio 106 Exam 2 Study Guide
Madison Johnson
GPA 3.7
Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee

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About this Document

Study Guide for all of Exam 2 material, aside from the last lecture.
Bio 106- Organismal Biology
Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madison Johnson on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 2570 at Washington State University taught by Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 162 views.


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Date Created: 03/04/15
Bio 106 Exam 2 Study Guide Metabolic freeenergy change of a reaction tells whether or not the reaction occurs spontaneously Freeenergy Portion of a system s energy that can perform work Freeenergy change can only be negative when the process involves a loss of free energy during the change from initial to nal state Equilibrium state of maximum stability A process is spontaneous and can perform work only when it is moving toward equilibrium Exergonic reaction net release of free energy and spontaneous Endergonic reaction absorbs free energy from it s surroundings and non spontaneous Energy coupling use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one ATP acts as the immediate source of energy is most energy coupling cells ATP adenosine triphosphate sugar ribose nitrogenous base adenine and 3 phosphate groups bonded to it The bond can be broken by hydrolysis When ATP is hydrolyzed The release of free energy heats it s surroundings Cellular Respiration organic compounds oxygen gt carbon dioxide water energy Cellular respiration is tracked by glucose harvests the energy of glucose for ATP synthesis Redox Reaction oxidation and reduction reactions electron transfers Oxidation loss of electrons in a redox reaction Reductiongain of electrons in a redox reaction Glycolysis splitting sugar breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Glycolysis can be divided into 2 phases energy investment and the energy payoff phase Citric Acid Cycle completes the break down of glucose to carbon dioxide Oxidative phosphorylation accounts for most of the ATP synthesis The 3 stages of Respiration 1 Glycolysis 2 Citric Acid Cycle 3 Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP Production by Cellular Respiration glucose gt NADH gt electron transport chain gt proton motive force gt ATP Photosynthesis convert light into chemical energy Autotrophs generate their own food without consuming from other organisms Heterotrophs obtain organic material from other organisms Mixotrophs both autotrophs and heterotrophs The two stages of photosynthesis 1 light reactions photo 2 Calvin cycle synthesis Photophosphorylation light reaction generates ATP using chemiosmosis to power the addition of a phosphate group to ADP CalvinBenson Cycle regenerates starting material 3 phases of the CalvinBenson Cycle 1 carbon xation 2 reduction 3 regeneration of carbon dioxide acceptor Carbon Fixation incorporation of carbon into organic compounds Photorespiration occurs in light photo and consumes oxygen while producing carbon dioxide respiration On hotdry days stomata Close This conserves water but limits photosynthesis decreasing access to carbon dioxide C3 plants are most plants initial xation of carbon dioxide via rubisco forms a 3carbon compound aka C3 Plants C4 plants use compartmentalization to pump carbon dioxide Examples corn and sugar cane CAM plants stomata close during the day and carbon dioxide is released and use in the Calvin Benson Cycle Stomata are open at night incorporating carbon dioxide into organic acids Example cactus Requirements for plant growth 1 carbon dioxide 2 water 3 soil 4 light Soil IS a living nite resource that includes minerals water with solutes gases living organisms fungi amp bacteria and organic material living amp dying Large gt small particles Sand Silt Clay Top soil combination of organic and inorganic material mineral particles living organisms and humus decaying organic matter Loams equal parts sand silt and clay Anions Negatively charged molecules nitrate phosphate and sulfate Not bound tightly to negatively charged soil and release easily are easier for plants to get Cations Positively charged molecules magnesium potassium calcium Bound tightly to negatively charged soil harder for plants to get Most of the water taken up by a plant is lost during Transpiration Fertilizers Enriched in nitrogen phosphorus and potassium De ciency of a mobile nutrient affects older organs more than younger ones De ciency of a less mobile nutrient affects younger organs more than older ones Common de ciencies Nitrogen middle of the leaf is yellow Phosphorus Middle of the leaf is purple Potassium outer leaf is red Plant nutrition involves Relationships with other organisms Nonmutualistic organisms Have nutritional adaptations that use other organisms Examples Epiphytes parasitic plants mistletoe carnivorous plants venus y trap lnternal plant responses communicates within the plant Example root system to shoot system External plant responses respond to the sun and the dark photosynthesis Signal Transduction Pathways link signal reception to response Reception gt transduction gt response Transcriptional regulation transcription factors control expression of genes Posttranslational modification activation of existing proteins in the signal response Hormones chemical signals that coordinate different parts of an organism Hormones coordinate growth development and responses to stimuli Auxin cell wall expansion Cytokinins cell division and differentiation Gibberellins stem elongation fruit growth and germination break dormancy Brassinosteroids cell elongation and division Abscisic Acid ABA seed dormancygermination and stomatal closure during drought High levels of ABA inhibits seed germination keeps dormancy Ethylene gas promotes fruit ripening Tropism growth response that results in plant moving towards or away from stimuli Phototropism growth of a shoot toward light or away from it Thigmotropism growth in response to touch Example occurs in vines and climbing plants Photomorphogenesis effects of light on plant morphology presence of light direction intensity and wavelength color Action Spectrum Graph depicts relative response of a process to different wavelengths of light Bluelight photoreceptors various uses control hypoctyl elongation stomatal opening phototropism Phytochromes as photoreceptors mostly red light Seed germination occurs when light and other conditions are optimal Photoperiodism seasonal events are critical to the life cycle of most plants plants use this to detect the time of year Day length effects Timing of seed germination bud formation and owering Mechanical Stimuli rapid leaf movements in response to mechanical stimulation Abiotic nonliving Bioticliving Defense against pathogens 1 lst line of defense is physical barriers 2 2nd line of defense is attacking pathogens to prevent it from spreading Fungi heterotrophs propagate themselves produce spores through sexual or asexual life cycles Mutualists early colonizers of land probably through symbiosis with plants Hyphal Structure multicellular cells are divided by septa some have no cross wall Mycellum morphology of multicellular fungi enhance ability to absorb nutrients Asexual reproduction fungal enzymes are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter Chytrids found in fresh water and terrestrial habitats Zygomycetes fast growing bread and food molds Site of karyogamy and meiosis Aim toward food sources Pilobolus aim sporangia toward lighter prefer cow patties Ectomycorrihizal fungi grow in extracellular spaces of roots Endomycorrhizal fungi hyphae go through cell wall to plasmamembrane Ascomycetes live in marine freshwater and terrestrial habitats Produce saclike asci contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps commonly called sacfungL Basidiomycetes many are decomposers of wood also called club fungi Examples mushrooms puffballs shelf fungi mycorrhizae and plant parasites Decomposers essential recycling between the living and nonliving world Fungusplant symbiosis mycorrhizae increase plant productivity Fungusanimal symbiosishelping break down plant material Lichens symbiotic association of photosynthetic microorganisms held in fungal hyphae Example algae or cyanobacteria Lichens and mycorrhizae both Provide water and minerals to their photosynthetic partner Pathogens about 30 of known fungal species are parasites mostly on or in plants Practical uses of fungi make cheeses alcohol bread genetic research on fungi is leading to applications in biotechnology Antibiotics produced my fungi treat bacterial infections Factors that permit early plants to successfully colonize land number of potential predators number of competitors availability of symbiotic partners Land plants evolved from Green Algae Chlorophytes includeunicellular colonial and multicellular forms Morphological and Biochemical evidence 5 key traits that land plants share only with charophyceans similarities in cell wall synthesis photorespiratory enzymes structure of sperm similarities during cell division homologous chloroplast Derived different and unique traits of land plants apical meristems alternation of generations walled spores produced in sporangia multicellular gametangia multicellular dependent embryos Cuticle protects against pathogens and holds in water Land plants can be informally grouped based on the presence or absence of vascular tissue vascular tissue cells joined in tubes to transport water and nutrients Byrophytes nonvascular liverworts mosses Mosses and other nonvascular plant have life cycles dominated by gametophytes Vascular plants seedless vascular plants and seed producing vascular plants Bryophytes three phyla of herbaceous plants liverworts hornworts mosses Ferns And other seedless vascular plants formed the rst forests Ferns were the prevalent vegetation during the rst 100 million years of plant evolution First forests during carboniferous period ferns dominated What makes vascular plants vascular xylem and phloem Sporophytes of seedless vascular plants are the larger generation Ga metophytes are tiny Sporangium sporophyte produces spores spores gtgametophyte gtantheridiumsperm and egg production gtfertilization gtzygote 2n gt new sporophyte gtmature sporophyte 2n gt sporangium Roots are organs that anchor vascular plants absorb water and nutrients from the soil Leaves increase surface area to capture solar energy Sporophylls are modi ed leaves with sporangia produces spores Evolution of seed plants seed plants originated 360 million years ago seed consists of an embryo and nutrients surrounded by a protective coat Seeds changed the course of plant evolution enabling their bearers to become the dominant producers in most terrestrial ecosystems Dominant producers in most terrestrial ecosystems gymnosperms and angiosperms Key adaptations for life on landseeds and pollen Reduction in gametophytes Heterospory microspores and megaspores production Ovules and pollen eggs and sperm Megasporangia megaspores rise to female gametophytes Microsporangia microspores give rise to male gametophytes


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