Professional Ethics FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
Professional Ethics FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE PHI 1120, Professional Ethics
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PHI 1120, Professional Ethics
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chloe Luyet on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PHI 1120, Professional Ethics at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Ryan Fanselow in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 255 views. For similar materials see Professional Ethics in PHIL-Philosophy at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
PROFESSIONAL ETHICS FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE I. Collection of Learning Objectives (reference these for a quick review/test of the material you already know) a. Understand the controversy over conscientious refusal in professional ethics (especially pharmacists) b. Be able to define natural kind, racialism, and racism c. Distinguish b/w intrinsic and extrinsic racism d. Give reasons why racism is irrational and immoral e. Learn about whether we know the causes of our own behavior f. Understand Implicit Attitudes g. Understand the implications of the research described by Jost et. al. h. Be able to define “absolute poverty” and “relative poverty” i. Learn some facts about poverty j. Understand Singer’s argument in “Rick and Poor” k. Be able to define Pareto-Improvement and Pareto-Optimal l. Understand the argument that free market exchanges are Pareto-Improvements m. Understand what “Corporate Social Responsibility” is n. Understand Friedman’s Argument o. Understand Arrow’s criticisms of Friedman p. Be able to define corporate downsizing q. Be able to distinguish necessary and unnecessary corporate downsizing r. Understand Orlando’s arguments against corporate downsizing s. Understand arguments in favor or corporate downsizing t. Understand the reasons for confidentiality u. Learn about some difficult cases v. Be able to think about how to resolve conflicts regarding confidentiality II. Topics that were important in the Quiz Sections Q5 – Pharmacist Reading - thesis: if professional refuses and has right to not fulfill a prescription, they need to refer the patient to someone else - what is Plan B drug?: it prevents a pregnancy by not allowing fertilized egg to attach to uterine wall (not considered an abortion pill) o Appiah Racisms o racialism: there are races in nature, just like species o an intrinsic racist can initially sound like an extrinsic racist o EX/ the intrinsic racist could say an extrinsic- sounding claim that “this group is inferior because they light babies on fire”. But, when presented w/ evidence that’s not true, they still think the group is inferior. o Even though Appiah thinks races are an error and illegitimate, we still have to talk about it b/c a mistake causes problems. Q6 – the most important lesson we learned in the 20 century psychology: - we have implicit bias that we’re unconscious of and cannot control - Just having the same product and paying more money makes the product more effective. Morally acceptable consequence? Consider those who can’t afford the more expensive product? o they’re not your fault when you’re unaware, so we can avoid these things/situations where our implicit biases come out by being aware of them - results of test show how people associate certain societal ideas/controversies with positive/negative attitudes - stereotype threat is associated w/ fear of failure and a result in decreased performance to avoid confirming a negative stereotype - Pojman’s Affirmative Action paper is a typical strawman argument Q7 – Affirmative Actions - If you’re providing reparations to descendants of slaves, in and of itself, is not Affirmative Action! - Pojman argues that we shouldn’t have Affirmative Action o wrong people are compensated and compensating o you can have role models from other races and genders o straw man argument b/c he only attacks the obviously wrong/immoral applications of Affirmative Action (hiring unqualified candidates b/c of race for example) So…he believes certain genders/races have different capabilities, ultimately. - Singer o Moral principle: if we can prevent something bad w/o sacrificing something of equal moral value, we should do it o Thesis: give to charities to benefit those in absolute poverty is an obligation of those in absolute affluence o Distinction b/w Absolute and Relative Poverty Q8 – Singer (#2 reading): - makes calculations that suggest that if everyone just helped, no one would have to dramatically change their lifestyles and poverty would be solved - Friedman: o businesses ought to only maximize profits…it has no social obligations Flaw of argument: weird to say that companies don’t have moral or any responsibilities, but that they have responsibility to maximize profits could take it extreme and say anything goes to max profits…(Goldmann Sach’s) more ethically wrong impacts/actions o remember: whatever you think about his argument, he’s a smart man (very conservative Nobel Laureate) and is not crazy Q9 – Arrow - opposed Friedman b/c Friedman ignores externalities and knowledge problem (evidence to support) - still believes capitalism is very effective and the way to go, but wants more restrictions than Friedman Q10 – Armstrong - confidentiality is a prima Facie duty o like we defined lying - Donagan o lawyers need to break confidentiality in circumstances when everyone else would have to (even if the crime isn’t in progress) Q11 – Whistleblowing: know definition and applications similar to slides - Duska o Whistleblowing doesn’t require justification o b/c you don’t owe loyalty to your employer Q12 – Davis - argues for the Complicity Theory to justify whistleblowing (there’s moral wrongdoing and you don’t want to contribute to it). - example of using complicity theory as justification is the NASA O-ring failure b/c he view the whistle after the failure. III. Readings List Cantor and Baum, “The Limits of Conscientious Objection” o Thesis: Pharmacists, although they have the right to refuse to fill a prescription, are morally obligated to refer their clients to another pharmacist in the case that they wish to exercise that right Appiah, “Racisms” o Thesis: intrinsic racism is a moral error (just b/c one is of a certain race doesn’t provide reason to treat them worse or better than someone of another race) o racialism – not necessarily dangerous (author assumes this is false) – constitutes hair color, skin color, facial features, etc. o extrinsic racism – harmful (oppressive and hatred results) – characterizes races by other qualities like intelligence, honesty, etc. o intrinsic racism – assumes races have different morals (being of one race makes you prefer/favor that race) and suggests that treating different races in a different way is justified. This is the most common form o racism – extrinsic is a distorted rationality (an ideology). o racial prejudice – most powerful/most terrible form Jost et. al., “The Existence of Implicit Bias is Beyond Reasonable Doubt” o We have implicit biases, whether we realize it or not, and the best way to prevent them is to be aware that we have them Steele, “Stereotype Threat and Black College Students” o Thesis: Black students suffer from stereotype threat because they are constantly under the pressure of trying to prove the stereotypes against them are wrong; even if they are of equal intelligence to another non-Black student, they will perform worse under conditions that are meant to test their ability o The same is true for other races when compared to another, but it is most prominent in Black students. Pojman, “The Case Against Affirmative Action” o Disagrees with the implementation of Affirmative Action in all aspects o Says you can have role models from different races o Says that unqualified candidates can be hired o Says it is reverse discrimination o Says that those who are qualified who are hired using Affirmative action do not benefit as they are supposed to anyway because it creates a sense that they are actually under qualified and only were given the position because of their race. Singer, “Rich and Poor” o Thesis: If it is in our power to prevent something very bad from happening, w/o sacrificing something of comparable moral significance, we ought to do it o Applications: the death of a child by drowning in a pond o relative poverty versus absolute poverty o absolute affluence Singer, “What Should a Billionaire Give – and What Should You?” o If everyone did their part, poverty would end and no one would have to change their way of living significantly Friedman, “The Social Responsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits” o Says that corporations ought to JUST maximize profits and not worry about social responsibility because companies do not have responsibilities o Emphasizes the importance of capitalism Arrow, “Social Responsibility and Economic Efficiency” o Argues in favor of corporate social responsibility o Criticisms of Friedman: Forgets about monopolies Produces increasing inequality There’s a worry of a bad side effect of the capitalist message: if everyone only worries about themselves, it creases people w/ bad character externalities are ignored o Says that even if you belief in efficiency, you should also favor corporate social responsibility b/c it reduces externalities Orlando, “The Ethics of Corporate Downsizing” o Argues that corporate downsizing harms workers o says that workers invest more into a company than shareholders o says that shareholders often do not even consider themselves part owners of a given corporation. They view themselves, rather, as having more of an investor-type-role Armstrong, “Confidentiality; A Comparison across the Professions of Medicine, Engineering and Accounting” o Says confidentiality is a Prima Facie duty Donagan, “Justifying Legal Practice in the Adversary System: A Look at Confidentiality” o Thesis: “Lawyers should sometimes break confidentiality, even when there’s not a crime in progress” o says that lawyers do not have a “free pass”. If a regular person would be morally obligated to reveal certain information (even if initially promised it would not be revealed), then lawyers should also reveal the information. o There are no such promises as confidentiality Duska, “Whistleblowing and Employee Loyalty” o Denies that whistleblowing is disloyal to employer b/c you don’t owe your employer any loyalty in the first place o Argument: You owe loyalty to only groups that sacrifice for you w/o foreseeable reward Your company is not such a group You don’t owe loyalty to your company Davis, “Some Paradoxes of Whistleblowing” o There are some situations in which whistleblowing requires justification o Tries to prove the “harm theory wrong”…Says that whistleblowing can be justified even when it is not preventing harm o Prefers the complicity theory thinks that, in some cases, whistleblowing is not optional (we are morally obligated to whistleblow sometimes) Bok, “Whistleblowing and Professional Responsibility” o There are some situations in which whistleblowing requires justification McFall, “Integrity” o Acting in accordance w/ one’s principles is not sufficient to have integrity o also need: have consistent principles consistently act w/ your principles requires that you act on your principles requires principles that we might be tempted to violate requires principles that reflect commitments to something important Calhoun, “Standing for Something” o Integrity is primarily a social virtue
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