Developmental Psych Test II Study Guide
Developmental Psych Test II Study Guide PSY 0310
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shannon Kiss on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 0310 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Ganger in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 03/04/15
Piaget 18961980 and Enduring Issues No eld of cognitive development before Piaget in 19205 Today still the bestknown cognitive development theory Theory extends from rst days of infancy through adolescence Basic assumptions 0 Children are mentally and physically active from their moment of birth and their activity greatly contributes to their development 0 Children learn many important lessons on their own rather than depending on instructions from adults 0 Children are intrinsically motivated to learn and do not need rewards from other people to do so The active child issue 0 Child plays active role in own development at all stages 0 Constructivism children as constructing knowledge for themselves in response to their experiences Child as a scientist Generating hypotheses performing experiments and drawing conclusions 0 Blank slate except re exes motivation Nature and nurture act together Believed that nature and nurture interact to produce cognitive development 0 Three processes that work together as a source of continuity Assimilation the process by which people translate incoming information to a form that ts concepts they already understand Accommodation the process by which people adapt current knowledge structures in response to new expedences Equilibration the process by which children balance assimilation and accommodation to create stable understanding 0 Sources of discontinuity Qualitative changes in ways of thinking 0 People of different ages think in qualitatively different ways Invanantsequence Everyone progresses through the stages in the same order without skipping them Broad applicability across topics and contexts 0 Four stages 0 The type of thinking characteristic of each stage in uences children s thinking across diverse topics and contexts o Sensorimotor birth to 2 years Intelligence expressed through sensory and motor abilities First 8 months 0 Infant is blank slate knows only what is immediately perceivable Only sensory and motor abilities no enduring representations 0 Lack of object permanence Out of sight out of mind 812 months Gain object permanence the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are not in view 0 Representations are fragile AnotB error the tendency to reach for a hidden object where it was last found rather than in the new location where it was hidden 0 Disapperance of AnotB error in 812 months 1824 months 0 Deferred imitation the repetition of other people s behavior a substantial time after it originally occurred Pretend play 0 Mental representations internal images of objects and events that persist over time o Preoperational stage 27 Able to represent experiences in language and mental imagery Inability to perform certain mental operations Biggest accomplishment increase in symbolic activity the use of one object to stand for another 0 Language Pretend play Representational drawing 0 Maps Limitations 0 Lack of logical operations o Egocentrism perceiving the world solely from one s own point of view 0 Show three pictures of a mountain and ask the children what they would see while sitting on various different locations different point of views 0 Always chose their own view 0 Egocentric communication talk about things that the listener does not have the knowledge of Centration the tendency to focus on a single perceptually striking feature of an object or an event 0 Ex When a child is asked to predict which side of a balance scale they will only look at the weights and not the distance 0 Conservation concept the idea that merely changing the appearance of objects does not necessarily change their key concepts Most children at this age do not realize that two cups of water with different dimensions do indeed have the same quantity 0 Concrete operational 712 Children can reason logically about concrete objects and events Have object permanence Limitations 0 Cannot think in purely abstract terms or generate scienti c experiments to test their beliefs Reasoning limited to concreteobservable and speci c situations 0 Do not approach problems systematically Ex Ask children what factor in uences the amount of time it takes the pendulum to swing 0 Only think of the weight do not consider the length of the string or the height 0 Formal operational 12 Children can think deeply about abstractions and hypothetical situations Can perform systematic scienti c experiments With same pendulum problem they would try all variables Piaget believed that not everyone reached this level Piaget s legacy o Broad keen and still in uential New theories Education 0 Weaknesses Not so much consistency within a stage 0 Children s thinking is far more variable within the stages lnfants have more mental life then Piaget realized Understates contribution of social world Vague about processes of change Information Processing 0 Child as problemsolver 0 Goals perceived obstacles and strategies or rules for overcoming the obstacles and obtaining goals 0 Task analysis a research technique of identifying goals relevant information in the environment and potential processing strategies for a problem 0 Helps researchers understand and predict children s behavior 0 Child as a limited capacity processing system limited by 0 Hardware memory capacity efficiency of basic operations 0 Software strategies and knowledge 0 Development improvement in both hardware and software maturation in hardware and experience in software Emphasis on how change occurs 0 Continuous change 0 Gradual maturation biological and continuous learning from experience 0 Core problems 0 Memorylearning o Problemsolving o Memorylearning 0 Working memory memory system that involves actively attending to gathering maintaining storing and processing information Limited in capacity and length of retention 0 Capacity and speed of working memory increase greatly over the course of childhood and adolescence O 0 Holds relevant knowledge from long term memory combines with incoming information needed maintains it all until work is done 0 Longterm memory 0 Knowledge that people accumulate over their lifetime 0 Factual knowledge conceptual knowledge procedural knowledge attitudes reasoning strategies etc 0 Can retain unlimited amount of information for unlimited pedods Executive functioning o Inhibiting tempting actions that would be counterproductive o Enhancing working memory through use of strategies Remembering a phone number through repetition 0 Being cognitively exible Taking someone else s prospective Increases greatly during preschool and elementary years Prefrontal cortex plays a huge role 0 Examples Able to play Simon says Not daydreaming while doing homework o What drives the development of memory 0 Basic processes domaingeneral Associating events with each other Recognizing objects as familiar Recalling facts and procedures Generalizing from one instance to another Encoding the process of representing in memory information that draws attention or is considered important 0 People encode information that draws their attention of that they consider relevant but fail to encode a lot of information 0 Strategies improve through instruction trialerror discovery Rehearsal the process of repeating information multiple times to aid memory of it Selective attention the process of intentionally focusing on the information that is most relevant to the current goal Utilization 0 Content knowledge through experiences Knowing more helps you learnremember more When childrenadults are provided information about a children s TV show children will remember more about it than the adult 0 Limit in scope every skill requires processing information Sociocultural theories
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