Developmental Psych Test Two Study Guide
Developmental Psych Test Two Study Guide PSY 0310
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shannon Kiss on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 0310 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Jennifer Ganger in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 424 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 03/04/15
Domain GeneralDomain Specific Domains specific cognitive abilities 0 Ex Language space number people Domain general 0 Reasoning learning are same for all domains Domain specific o Reasoning learning may be different Piaget 1896 1980 and Enduring Issues No field of cognitive development before Piaget in 1920s Today still the best known cognitive development theory Theory extends from first days of infancy through adolescence Basic assumptions 0 Children are mentally and physically active from their moment of birth and their activity greatly contributes to their development 0 Children learn many important lessons on their own rather than depending on instructions from adults 0 Children are intrinsically motivated to learn and do not need rewards from other people to do so The active child issue 0 Child plays active role in own development at all stages 0 Constructivism children as constructing knowledge for themselves in response to their experiences I Child as a scientist Generating hypotheses performing experiments and drawing conclusions Blank slate except re exes motivation Nature and nurture act together Believed that nature and nurture interact to produce cognitive development 0 Three processes that work together as a source of continuity I Assimilation the process by which people translate incoming information to a form that fits concepts they already understand I Accommodation the process by which people adapt current knowledge structures in response to new experiences I Equilibration the process by which children balance assimilation and accommodation to create stable understanding 0 Sources of discontinuity I Qualitative changes in ways of thinking People of different ages think in qualitatively different ways I Invariant sequence Everyone progresses through the stages in the same order without skipping them I Broad applicability across topics and contexts The type of thinking characteristic of each stage in uences children s thinking across diverse topics and contexts Four stages 0 Sensorimotor birth to 2 years I Intelligence expressed through sensory and motor abilities I First 8 months Infant is blank slate knows only what is immediately perceivable Only sensory and motor abilities no enduring representations Lack of object permanence Out of sight out of mind I 8 12 months Gain object permanence the knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they are not in view 0 Representations are fragile A not B error the tendency to reach for a hidden object where it was last found rather than in the new location where it was hidden 0 Disapperance of A not B error in 8 12 months 18 24 months Deferred imitation the repetition of other people s behavior a substantial time after it originally occurred Pretend play Mental representations internal images of objects and events that persist over time o Preoperational stage 2 7 Able to represent experiences in language and mental imagery Inability to perform certain mental operations Biggest accomplishment increase in symbolic activity the use of one object to stand for another Language Pretend play Representational drawing Maps Limitations Lack of logical operations Egocentrism perceiving the world solely from one s own point of view 0 Show three pictures of a mountain and ask the children what they would see while sitting on various different locations different point of views 0 Always chose their own view 0 Egocentric communication talk about things that the listener does not have the knowledge of Centration the tendency to focus on a single perceptually striking feature of an object or an event 0 Ex When a child is asked to predict which side of a balance scale they will only look at the weights and not the distance 0 Conservation concept the idea that merely changing the appearance of objects does not necessarily change their key concepts I Most children at this age do not realize that two cups of water with different dimensions do indeed have the same quantity 0 Concrete operational 7 12 Children can reason logically about concrete objects and events Have object permanence Limitations Cannot think in purely abstract terms or generate scientific experiments to test their beliefs Reasoning limited to concreteobservable and specific situations Do not approach problems systematically Ex Ask children what factor in uences the amount of time it takes the pendulum to swing 0 Only think of the weight do not consider the length of the string or the height 0 Formal operational 12 I Children can think deeply about abstractions and hypothetical situations I Can perform systematic scientific experiments I With same pendulum problem they would try all variables I Piaget believed that not everyone reached this level Piaget s legacy o Broad keen and still in uential I New theories I Education 0 Weaknesses I Not so much consistency within a stage Children s thinking is far more variable within the stages I Infants have more mental life then Piaget realized I Understates contribution of social world I Vague about processes of change Information Processing Child as problem solver 0 Goals perceived obstacles and strategies or rules for overcoming the obstacles and obtaining goals Task analysis a research technique of identifying goals relevant information in the environment and potential processing strategies for a problem 0 Helps researchers understand and predict children s behavior Child as a limited capacity processing system limited by 0 Hardware memory capacity efficiency of basic operations 0 Software strategies and knowledge 0 Development improvement in both hardware and software maturation in hardware and experience in software Emphasis on how change occurs Continuous change 0 Gradual maturation biological and continuous learning from experience Core problems 0 Memorylearning o Problem solving Memorylearning 0 Working memory memory system that involves actively attending to gathering maintaining storing and processing information 0 Limited in capacity and length of retention 0 Capacity and speed of working memory increase greatly over the course of childhood and adolescence 0 Holds relevant knowledge from long term memory combines with incoming information needed maintains it all until work is done Long term memory 0 Knowledge that people accumulate over their lifetime 0 Factual knowledge conceptual knowledge procedural knowledge attitudes reasoning strategies etc 0 Can retain unlimited amount of information for unlimited periods Executive functioning o Inhibiting tempting actions that would be counterproductive o Enhancing working memory through use of strategies I Remembering a phone number through repetition 0 Being cognitively exible I Taking someone else s prospective I Increases greatly during preschool and elementary years I Prefrontal cortex plays a huge role 0 Examples I Able to play Simon says I Not daydreaming while doing homework What drives the development of memory 0 Basic processes domain general I Associating events with each other I Recognizing objects as familiar I Recalling facts and procedures I Generalizing from one instance to another I Encoding the process of representing in memory information that draws attention or is considered important People encode information that draws their attention of that they consider relevant but fail to encode a lot of information 0 Strategies improve through instruction trialerror discovery I Rehearsal the process of repeating information multiple times to aid memory of it I Selective attention the process of intentionally focusing on the information that is most relevant to the current goal I Utilization 0 Content knowledge through experiences I Knowing more helps you learnremember more I When childrenadults are provided information about a children s TV show children will remember more about it than the adult Limit in scope every skill requires processing information Sociocultural theories Approaches that emphasize that other people and the surrounding culture contribute greatly to children s development View of child children as social beings Guided participation a process in which more knowledgeable individuals organize activities in ways that allow less knowledgeable people to learn 0 Intersubjectivity the mutual understanding that people share during communication I Meeting of the minds I By 6 months infants can learn novel behaviors by observing another person s behavior I Joint attention social partners intentionally focusing on a common referent in the external environment Begins in late infancy 0 Social scaffolding more competent people provide a temporary framework that supports children s thinking at a higher level than children could on their own I Explaining the goal of a task demonstrating how the task can be done and helping the child with the most difficult parts of the task I More explicit instruction and explanation than guided participation Stress importance of culture 0 Cultural tools artifacts symbols skills values etc specific to culture Vtgotsky s theory 0 Children are intent on participating in activities in their local setting 0 Social learners intertwined with other people who are eager to help them gain skills and understanding 0 Believed in a connection between language and thought unlike Piaget o Tomasello extended Vtotsky s theory I Humans are instinctively inclined to teach each other and learn from each other Dynamic Systems Theory How change occurs over time in complex systems View od children s nature 0 Child as a complex system 0 Active explorers of the world active child 0 Experiences central in forming knowledge nurture I Innate motivators of development but not domain specific Multiple interacting factors in development Skills emerge from other skills rather than coming on line from a genetic plan Change is the only constant Regressions and improvements Children s innate motivation to explore the environment Piaget Precise analyses of problem solving activity information processing Formative in uence of other people sociocultural Development is a self organizing process that brings together components as needed to adapt to a continuously changing environment Perception Sensation basic information from the external world by the sensory receptors in the sense organs and brain Perception organizing and processing sensory information Pattern perception o Requires acuity systematic scanning and anazlyingintegrating the separate elements of a visual display into a coherent pattern I Visual acuity the sharpness of visual discrimination Infants prefer to look at objects with high contrast Can determine how well they can distinguish a pattern Young infants have poor contrast sensitivity because their cones are immature I Object segregation identification of separate objects in a visual array Use physical separation by 2 months Motion is a good cue especially for infants about 2 months As infants get older use other sources of information like knowledge about the world Adults use top down knowledge Experiment Spelke move a rod behind a box 0 4 month olds know its one rod Experiment Johnson and Aslin 2 month year olds can see only one rod if rod is wider and box is narrower 0 Not newborns Techniques for studying infants visual ability 0 Preferential looking I 2 different visual stimuli are presented side by side I if an infant looks longer at one of them can infer that the baby is able to discriminate between them and has a preference of one over the other 0 Habituation I Look longer at something novel 0 ERP evoked response potentialsEEG electroencephalography Newborns are about 20120 by 5 weeks Nearly 2020 by 8 months Depth perception 0 Active child issue links between action perception cognition o Cues I Optical expansion the visual image of an object approaching us becomes bigger I Bionocular disparity the difference between the retinal image of an object in each eye that results in two slightly different signals being sent to the brain The greater the binocular disparity the closer the object I Stereopsis the process by which the visual cortex combines the differing neural signals caused by binocular disparity resulting in the perception of depth I Monocular depthpictorial cues the perceptual cues of debth that can be perceived by one eye alone Occlusion perspective texture o Landmarks I Optical expansion by 3 4 weeks I Binocular disparity and stereopsis by 3 4 months I Pictorialmonocular clues by 3 7 months Occlusion 3 4 months Perspective and texture 6 7 months Motor Development Movement starts in the wombamniotic uid Newborns are uncoordinated have never experienced the full effects of gravity before Re exes innate fixed patterns of action that occur in response to particular stimulation 0 A sign of healthy development 0 Some have adaptive value others do not 0 Rooting turn their head in the direction of the touch and open their mouths I Disappears around 3 weeks I Helpful for breast feeding o Palmar grasp grasping close their fingers around anything that presses against the palm of their hand I Disappears 3 4 months 0 Stepping I Disappears around 2 months and reappears around 12 months 0 Moro startle I In response to a lack of support I Baby is startled arms move sideways with psalms up and thumbs exed I Disappears around six months Motor milestones 0 New ways of interacting with the world Life head by 4 weeks Use arms for support 2 4 months Reachgrasp 3 4 months Sits without support 5 7 months Crawls 5 11 months 0 Walks alone 11 14 months Understanding motor development 0 Gesell had traditional view maturation I Motor development is governed by brain development 0 00000 I Based on orderly progression of motor milestones in Western culture 0 Current theorists take a dynamic systems approach I Motor development results from a con uence of neural mechanisms increase in infants strength posture control balance etc I CNS development synaptogenesis myelination I Movement possibilities of body pre existing skills postural controlbalance gt reaching Body proportions I Motivation I Environmental supportseffects The stepping re ex o The case of the disappearing re ex o Re ex can be elicited by holding a newborn under the arms so their feet cannot touch the ground baby will do stepping motions Disappears at two months Thought it was cause of cortical maturation Infants given extra practice with their stepping re ex do it longer Noticed that chubbier babies begin walking later than skinnier ones Theorized that the rapid weight gain cause legs to get heavier faster than they get stronger so that more strength is needed to step Experiment put weights on infants who still had stepping re ex I Babies stopped stepping 0 Experiment put babies with weights in water I Resumed stepping when the buoyancy of water supported their weight 0 So the movement pattern Neurologically remains but is masked by the ratio of leg weight to strength Self locomotion and depth perception studies Gibson and Walk 0 Crawlers show more fear than non crawlers at the same age I Better experienced crawlers show more fear of what they are capable of because they have learned their limits Ie Crawling down a steep slope 0 Same for walkers 0 Take home infants have to learn from experience what they can and cannot do with respect to each new motor skill they have mastered Self locomotion and egocentrism o For infants object locations are remembered relative to position when location is first learned Social development 0 Stranger anxiety separation anxiety and crawling 0 New adversarial relationship with adults 0 New opportunities for positive interactions as well Motor development does not occur in isolation 0 Multiple interacting factors 0 Drives perceptual cognitive and even social development 00000 0 Language Development A kindergartener has as grammatically correct sentences as a college student 0 Language use requires 0 Comprehension understanding what others say 0 Production actually speaking or signingwriting The components of language 0 Generativity through the use of the finite set of words and morphemes in humans vocabulary we can put together an infinite number of sentences and express an infinite number of ideas I Makes it difficult to learn its complexity o Phonemes the elementary units of meaningful sound used to produce languages I A change in phoneme will change the word td distinctive in English and many languages rl distinctive in English not Japanese I Learning the phonemes of one s own native language is prerequistite to learning the language I English uses 45 out of the 200 sounds found across the world s languages I Phonological development the acquisition of knowledge about the sound system of a language is first step in language development 0 Morphemes the smallest units of meaning in a language composed of one or more phonemes I Dogs contains two morphemes dog and the plural for dogs 0 Semantic development the learning of the system for expressing meaning in language including word learning 0 Syntax rules in a language that specify how words from different categoreies nouns verbs adjectives etc can be combined 0 Syntactic development the learning of the syntax of a language 0 Pragmatic development the acquisition of knowledge about how language is used I Knowing context and tone to read between the lines and learn how to hold a conversation o Metalinguistic knowledge an understanding of the properties and function of language an understanding of language as language What is required for language 0 Human brain I Language is a species specific behavior I Species universal language learning is achieved across the globe I Taught chimpanzees to follow commands and make hand motions for requests but no syntactic structure I One ape Kanzi can use a lexi gram board and has a vocabulary of over 350 words I This communication only came with concentrated human effort whereas human master it with little teaching 0 Critical period age 5 until puberty The process of language acquisition 0 First step figuring out the sounds of one s native language I Begins in womb with prosody the characteristic rhythm tempo cadence melody intonational patterns etc with which a language is spoken 0 Voice onset time VOT the length of time between when air passes through the lips and when the vocal cords start vibrating I b and p I Adults have sharp distinctiveness I For infants the harder they sucked the more often they d hear repetitions of a single speech sound After hearing the same sound repeatedly they d suck less enthusiastically habituation When a new sound was played if the sucking increase could infer that they discriminated the new sounds 0 Experiment tuning to native language sounds Werker I Infants learned that if they turned their head toward the sound source when they heard a change in sound they would be rewarded a visual display Better able to discriminate between sounds at 6 8 months than 8 10 months than 10 12 months Word segmentation the process of discovering where words begin and end in uent speech 0 Begin during second half of first year 0 Saffran experiment I Gave 8 month olds 4 different 3 syllable words 45 times each in random order for two minutes Tupiro golabu bidaku padoti I Infants listened longer to non words showing a novelty preference Means that they learned the words and were habituated to them Start babbling between 6 10 months First words 0 First step reference associating words with meaning 0 6 month year olds can recognize mom and dad o Comprehension 8 10 months 0 Infants begin to say some of the words they understand I 11 14 months first words include names for people objects and events from everyday life Holophrastic period the period when children begin using words in their small productive vocabulary one word at a time I Child will express a whole phrase as one word 0 Overextension the use of a given word in a broader context than is appropriate I Ex Dog for all four legged animals Fast mapping the process of rapidly learning a new word simply from hearing the contrastive use of a familiar and the unfamiliar word Pragmatic cues aspects of the social context used for word learning Associations are neither necessary nor sufficient conveying intention is the key 0 Disembodied voice experiment 15 20 month olds I Perfect association no learning 0 Searching experiment 24 month olds I No association successful learning 0 Conveying intentions is key I Joint attention I Infants learn new labels only when joint attention is maintained I They do not learn wrong labels when joint attention is absent Constraints on reference 0 Whole objects assumption assume a new word refers to a whole object not a part property orientation or state 0 Principle of contrast an object gets only one name Further names must refer to parts properties etc Telegraphic speech the term describing children s first sentences that are generally two word utterances Skinner 1957 book 0 Language learning as operant conditioning o Imitation o Reinforcement Chomsky s Review of Skinner started a revolution 0 Imitation is not sufficient I Children produce novel sentences I Infinite number of sentences I Problem of induction Making generalizations based on specific cases Chomsky s claim picking the right sentence requires innate knowledge 00 Universal grammar a proposed set of highly abstract unconscious rules that are common to all language I Nativism position innate and domain specific knowledge Bolstered by 0 Critical period 0 Species specificity 0 Specific language impairment 0 Dedicated brain areas Infant Cognition Seven different types of learning 1 Habituation a Simplest form of learning b Recognizing something that has been experienced before c Continuity has been found between infants who habituate rapidly to IQ scores later in life 2 Perceptual learning finding invariances a Differentiation extracting from the constantly changing stimulation in the environment of those elements that are invariant or stable i Ex learn the association between facial expression and tone of voice b Discover affordances the possibilities for action offered by objects and situations i Ex Know that small objects can picked up 3 Statistical learning a Picking up information from the environment detecting statistically predictable patterns b Certain events occur in a predictable order 4 Classical conditioning associating an initially neutral stimulus with a stimulus that always evokes a particular re exive response a Unconditioned stimulus stimulus that evokes a re exive response b Unconditioned response a re exive response that is elicited by the unconditioned stimulus c Conditioned stimulus the neutral stimulus that is repeatedly paired with the unconditioned stimulus d Conditioned response the originally re exive response that comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus 5 Operantinstrumental conditioning learning the relation between one s own behavior and the consequences that result from it a Positive reinforcement a reward that reliably follows a behavior and increases the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated 6 Observational learningimitation a Imitation is quite good by 6 months b While imitating they analyze the reason for the person s behavior i Base their imitation on person s intention c 18 month old observe an adult attempt and fail to pull a part a dumbbell toy i Imitate the adult even though it didn t work ii Same group watched a mechanical device successfully tear the dumbbell apart and did not copy iii Thus infants imitate people but not inanimate objects d By 15 months imitate actions seen on a screen e Imitate peers as well 7 Rational learning Bayesian learning a Adjusting predictions based on prior knowledge b Infants were shown a box with 70 red balls and 5 white i Experimentor pulled 5 balls out one with 5 white and one with 5 red 1 Looked longer at the one with 5 white were surprised that there were more white 2 violation of expectation Nativist approach Core domains Theory theory children have intuitive theories each with an innate basis Core domains subjects in which we have innate concepts 0 O O 0 Domain of language grammar Domain of physical objects inanimates I Intuitive Theory of Physics Domain of Number Domain of space Domain of people I Intuitive Theory of Mind or Intuitive Psychology Domain of other living things animates I Intuitive Theory of Biology Object knowledge 0 Evidence that infants are able to mentally represent and think about the existence of objects out of sight I Not Piaget s thinking When 6 month olds sitting in the dark heard the sound of a familiar large object they reached toward it Violation of expectancy a procedure used to study infant cognition in which infants are shown an event that should evoke surprise or interest if it violates something the infant knows or assumes to be true Experiment Baillergeon s landmark study image 207 I Infants first habituated to a solid screen rotating back and forth between an arc I Then put a block in the way so that either A possible event the screen rotated upward occluding the box as it did An impossible event the screen continued to rotate appearing to go through the box I 4 month infants looked longer at the impossible event I The impossible event would only look impossible if the infant had expected the screen to stop when it reached the box if they mentally represented the box Inanimates Nai39ve physics 0 4 month olds know objects move in a continuous path and can t pass through each other 0 Show infants three scenarios of a ball moving through possible and impossible paths I For experimental condition look longer at impossibleinconsistent option 0 Understand gravity I At 3 months surprised if a box in midair remains suspended Don t act surprised if there is any sort of contact By 5 months realize the relevant type of contact needed By one year can recognize the shape of an object needed Number 0 Nativists argue children are born with a core concept of number 0 Infants and many animals discriminate objects and events by small numerosity I Habituate to different arrangements of the same number Sets of 1 2s and 3s but not more Subitization a perceptual process by which adults and children can look at a few objects and almost immediately know how many objects are present Addition 0 O O O 5 month olds have some sense of arithmetic Experiment I Object placed in case I Screen comes up I Second object added so expected to see 2 objects When there is only one object infants will look longer expected to see 2 from addition Only have understanding when the total number of objects is 3 or fewer I Can only do higher when they are 3 to 5 years old How do they get past limitwhy don t animals have it I Language I Piraha tribe of Brazil does not have number names and therefore no counting or numerical reasoning beyond 3 Counting majority by 3 years most by 5 O O O One to one correspondence each object labeled by a single number word Stable order always recited the same way Cardinality the number of objects in the set corresponds to the last number stated 0 Abstraction any set of discrete objects or events can be counted Space 0 o Representing location of objects Infants who are provided a learning experience with a hidden object in one situation show improved location of hidden object in other situations Egocentric spatial representations coding of spatial locations relative to one s own body without regard to the surroundings I If infants repeatedly found a toy to their right they would always look to the right regardless of where they were I However will use landmarks if they are available Only possible if the only obvious landmark in the environment is located right next to the hidden object Improvement is connected to self locomotion walkingcrawling I Continuously updating their surroundings Allocentric representation I Allocentric relative to the external environment I Two systems coordinate and landmark I We can use both but they are independent spatial modules I Dead reckoningspatial updating Kearins studied children growing up in Australian desert to those growing up in Australian cities Spatial culture is essential in desert need to go to water holes The aboriginal desert children are better than city dwellers at spatial location 0 Even in board games A kindergartener has as grammatically correct sentences as a college student Language use requires 0 O Comprehension understanding what others say Production actually speaking or signingwriting The components of language O O O Generativity through the use of the finite set of words and morphemes in humans vocabulary we can put together an infinite number of sentences and express an infinite number of ideas I Makes it difficult to learn its complexity Phonemes the elementary units of meaningful sound used to produce languages I A change in phoneme will change the word td distinctive in English and many languages rl distinctive in English not Japanese I Learning the phonemes of one s own native language is prerequistite to learning the language I English uses 45 out of the 200 sounds found across the world s languages I Phonological development the acquisition of knowledge about the sound system of a language is first step in language development Morphemes the smallest units of meaning in a language composed of one or more phonemes I Dogs contains two morphemes dog and the plural for dogs Semantic development the learning of the system for expressing meaning in language including word learning Syntax rules in a language that specify how words from different categoreies nouns verbs adjectives etc can be combined Syntactic development the learning of the syntax of a language Pragmatic development the acquisition of knowledge about how language is used I Knowing context and tone to read between the lines and learn how to hold a conversation Metalinguistic knowledge an understanding of the properties and function of language an understanding of language as language What is required for language 0 Human brain I Language is a species specific behavior I Species universal language learning is achieved across the globe I Taught chimpanzees to follow commands and make hand motions for requests but no syntactic structure I One ape Kanzi can use a lexi gram board and has a vocabulary of over 350 words I This communication only came with concentrated human effort whereas human master it with little teaching 0 Critical period age 5 until puberty The process of language acquisition 0 First step figuring out the sounds of one s native language I Begins in womb with prosody the characteristic rhythm tempo cadence melody intonational patterns etc with which a language is spoken 0 Voice onset time VOT the length of time between when air passes through the lips and when the vocal cords start vibrating I b and p I Adults have sharp distinctiveness I For infants the harder they sucked the more often they d hear repetitions of a single speech sound After hearing the same sound repeatedly they d suck less enthusiastically habituation When a new sound was played if the sucking increase could infer that they discriminated the new sounds 0 Experiment tuning to native language sounds Werker I Infants learned that if they turned their head toward the sound source when they heard a change in sound they would be rewarded a visual display Better able to discriminate between sounds at 6 8 months than 8 10 months than 10 12 months Word segmentation the process of discovering where words begin and end in uent speech 0 Begin during second half of first year 0 Saffran experiment I Gave 8 month olds 4 different 3 syllable words 45 times each in random order for two minutes Tupiro golabu bidaku padoti I Infants listened longer to non words showing a novelty preference Means that they learned the words and were habituated to them Start babbling between 6 10 months First words 0 First step reference associating words with meaning 0 6 month year olds can recognize mom and dad o Comprehension 8 10 months 0 Infants begin to say some of the words they understand I 11 14 months first words include names for people objects and events from everyday life Holophrastic period the period when children begin using words in their small productive vocabulary one word at a time I Child will express a whole phrase as one word 0 Overextension the use of a given word in a broader context than is appropriate I Ex Dog for all four legged animals Fast mapping the process of rapidly learning a new word simply from hearing the contrastive use of a familiar and the unfamiliar word Pragmatic cues aspects of the social context used for word learning Associations are neither necessary nor sufficient conveying intention is the key 0 Disembodied voice experiment 15 20 month olds I Perfect association no learning 0 Searching experiment 24 month olds I No association successful learning 0 Conveying intentions is key I Joint attention I Infants learn new labels only when joint attention is maintained I They do not learn wrong labels when joint attention is absent Constraints on reference 0 Whole objects assumption assume a new word refers to a whole object not a part property orientation or state 0 Principle of contrast an object gets only one name Further names must refer to parts properties etc Telegraphic speech the term describing children s first sentences that are generally two word utterances Skinner 1957 book 0 Language learning as operant conditioning o Imitation o Reinforcement Chomsky s Review of Skinner started a revolution 0 Imitation is not sufficient I Children produce novel sentences I Infinite number of sentences I Problem of induction OO Making generalizations based on specific cases Chomsky s claim picking the right sentence requires innate knowledge Universal grammar a proposed set of highly abstract unconscious rules that are common to all language I Nativism position innate and domain specific knowledge Bolstered by 0 Critical period 0 Species specificity 0 Specific language impairment 0 Dedicated brain areas Infant Cognition Origins of Knowledge Children develop objects they encounter into three categories inanimate objects people and other animals unsure for many years where plants fall Organize their observations of these categories into informal theories 0 Theory of physics inanimate objects 0 Theory of psychology people 0 Theory of biology other living things Nativism there is innate knowledge Empiricism blank slate there is no innate knowledge Domain specific knowledge is organized into domains Domain general knowledge is not organized into domains all abilities apply to all domains Nativist Approach Core Domains Core domains subject in which we have innate concepts Guide learning by starting off with a predisposition 0 Knowing there are nouns and verbs 0 Looking for human faces 0 Knowing that there is a difference between animates and inanimates Some putative core domains 0 Domain of language grammar 0 Domain of physical objects inanimates I Intuitive theory of physics 0 Domain of number Domain of space 0 Domain of people I Intuitive Theory of Mind or Intuitive Psychology 0 Domain of other living things animates I Intuitive Theory of Biology Nai39ve Psychology A commonsense level of understanding of people and oneself 0 Three concepts desires beliefs and actions Infants prefer to look at people s faces than objects Theory of mind An organized understanding of how mental processes such as intentions desires beliefs perceptions and emotions in uence behavior Fully developed knowing that others have emotions desires perceptions beliefs and intentional actions 0 Especially difficult when they are different from one s own 0 0 Experiment showed a screen of an experimenter with two kittys one of which they gushed and said Ooh look at the kitty 0 The screen disappeared and reappeared In one the experimenter was holding the same kitty 0 In another the experimenter held a different kitty I Caused 1 year olds to look longer because they were surprised they weren t holding the one that got her excited 8 month olds would not do this Knowledge of living things 0 Fascination with living things I Greatest first words after mama and dada are animals 0 Often think that animals are built for specific reasons I Ex The zoo managers made monkeys because the zoo wanted some Distinguish living from nonliving things 0 Infants look more at people than animals and more at animals than inanimates o By 3 4 know that living things have biological processes heredity and digestion that nonliving things don t 0 Understanding plants I Most preschoolers know that plants grow I But most believe they are not alive I Don t realize until age 7 9 I Children equate being alive with being able to move in adaptive ways Believe that plants are alive when they know that they bend toward sunlight and that their roots grow toward water 0 When shown a robot act like a human would 9 and 12 month year olds acts surprised suggesting that they understand self produced motion is a distinctive character of humans and animals TOMM Theory of mind module 0 A nativist position hypothesized TOMM is a brain mechanism devoted to understanding other human beings o TOMM matures over the first 5 years producing an increasingly sophisticated understanding of people s minds 0 Certain areas of the brain are consistently active in representing beliefs across different tasks 0 Autistic children have difficulty with false belief problems and understanding people in general Empiricists suggest TOM comes from interactions with other people 0 Autistic children don t interact as much with other people which is the reasoning Emotional understanding Empathy emotional contagion from few weeks Social referencing 8 10 months 1 year olds often offer both physical comfort and comforting comments to unhappy playmates Desires 14 and 18 month old goldfishbroccoli experiment Bowl of goldfish crackers and a bowl of raw broccoli Experimenter had a clear preference for broccoli all the infants preferred goldfish o Experimenter asks child to give her one of either I 18 month old gave broccoli I 14 month old gave goldfish Showed that at 18 months infants are aware of others desires even if they re not the same as their own Perceptions Joint attention around 9 months 0 2 years olds still poor when perceptions differ O 0 Hide and seek Hiding apple behind screen I Fail at 2 25 I Pass by 3 Understanding others beliefs Hard if different False belief problem 0 O O O Preschoolers shown a box that contains smarties Experimenter opens the box to show that it has pencils When asked what another child would guess in the box a 5 year old will say smarties 3 year olds however will say pencils as they claim they always knew what was in the box I difficulty understanding that people act on their own beliefs even if the beliefs are false False belief problem 2 O O O 0 Have Sally put an object in a box and go away not in view Have Anne take the object from box 1 and put it in another box Have Sally reappear Ask child where Sally will look for the marble I 4 year olds will tell her to look in box 1 where she initially hid it I 3 year olds will tell her to look in box 2 where they know it is Both experiments show that at a young age children have a naive view of the world that everyone sees things the same way G intelligence cognitive processes that in uence the ability to in uence to think and learn on all intellectual tasks remembering a list of numbers9 Spearman and Jensen Ability to think and learn Well validated Overall scores on an intelligence tests 0 Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities Fluid Intelligence ability to think on the sport novel problems drawing inferences and understanding relations between concepts that have not been encountered before Flexible and helpful for novel situations Crystallized Intelligence factual knowledge about the world state capitals answers to arithmetic problems Concrete factual knowledge Distinction between uid and crystallized is supported by the facts that tests of each type of intelligence correlate more highly with each other than they do with tests of other types EX kids who do well on uid test do better on other uid test but not on crystallized Different developmental trajectories and brain rejoins Fluid peaks and crystalized gets better over life Fluid brain areas Primary Mental Abilities seven abilities proposed by Thurstone as crucial Word uency verbal meaning reasoning spatial visualization numbering rote memory and perceptual speed More precise way of looking at intelligence not just uidcrystallized Unique Processes book 0 Intelligence as Numerous Process Intelligence as comprising numerous distinct processes Information processing analyses of how people solve intelligence test items and how they perform everyday intellectual tasks such as reading wiring and arithmetic 0 Proposed Resolution Three Stratum Theory of Intelligence Carroll s model that places G at the top of intelligence hierarchy 8 moderately general abilities in the middle and many specific processes a the bottom All of them integrated together Measuring Intelligence 0 Intelligence Tests are very controversial Argue broader range of abilities than are assessed culturally biased and giving someone a number of intelligence is unethical Support predict schools grades achievement test sores making decisions 0 The Contents of Intelligence Tests Different Abilities at Different Ages Best at least 5 or 6 years Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISB widely used test designed to measure the intelligence of children 6 years and older most common based on three stratum theorem General abilities several moderately general abilities and a large number of specific skills Verbal comprehension Perceptual reasoning working memory and processing speed Overall score and then independent scores I Stanford Binet less often used separate scores for knowledge reasoning visual spatial processing working memory and reasoning I Both around based on 100 point average score with SD 15 o The Intelligence Quotient IQ O O O I IQ quantitative measure typically with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 used to indicate a child s intelligence relative to that of other children I Normal distribution pattern of data in which scores fall symmetrically around a mean value with most scores falling around the mean and fewer and fewer scores farther from it 100 is exactly at there mean for age I Standard Deviation 68 1 SD 95 2 SD 997 3 SD I Highly correlated across time r67 from ages to 5 to 15 I Highly predictive of important outcomes School achievement tests Educational attainment Occupational success I Other factors too gt education self discipline where you start matters Problems with Studying IQ I Measuring behavior I Performance not competence I Assessment biases Continuity of IQ Scores I IQ scores at different ages tend to be similar the scores are rarely identical Changes in environment such as those associated with parental divorce or remarriage or moving to be a better or worse neighbor can also produce changes in IQ score IQ scores predictors of important outcomes I Predictors of academic economic and occupational outcome I Self discipline ability to inhibit actions follow rules and avoid impulsive reactions Genes Environment and the Development of Intelligence 0 O Qualities of the Child Genetic Contribution I Genome has a substantial in uence on intelligence varies greatly with age Genotype Environment Interactions I Passive effects child raised by biological parents I Evocative effects emerge I Active effects genotype involve choosing environments that they enjoy Immediate Environment I Family In uences HOME measurement of the environment Intelligence scores are positively correlated with HOME measurement The type of intellectual environment that parents establish in the home is almost certainly in uenced by their genetic makeup Second almost all studies using the HOME have focused on families in which children live with their biological parents Shared and Non shared Family Environment I Varies with placement of child in a family income In uences of Schooling attending school makes children smarter I Increases of IQ during school but not over summer In uences of Society I Flynn Effect consistent rise in average IQ scores that has occurred over the past 80 years in uenced by environment I Effects of Poverty More years in poverty lower the IQ Poor children in the US score lower than poor children in other countries Negative effects even when controlling for a host of background factors 0 Natural experiments income matter Also dose specific Cross culturally there are always income gaps Why 0 Inadequate diet 0 School absences 0 Con ict in the home 0 Intellectual stimulation Family Stress Model poverty creates stress in the family which disrupts parenting abilities Family Investment Model families in poverty do not have the resources to invest in the materials that promote development I Race Ethnicity and Intelligence Average IQ score of children from different racial and ethnic groups do differ Scientific statements about group difference in IQ cores refer to statistical averages rather than to any individual s scores Difference in IQ and achievement tests scores of children from different racial and ethic groups Hard to study because correlated with poverty education and household composition Difference in average IQ but they get much smaller when accounting for other factors 0 Statistical control cant do everything More variability within racial groups than across 0 Asian higher than European Testing issues 0 Normal on middle class European American children 0 May use different dialectlanguage than home 0 Mercer 1971 children and adults with IQs below 70 I 60 90 of minority children could complete daily tasks but non of European American could do daily tasks 9 test doesn t operate the same ways I Risk Factors and Intellectual Development No single factor nor even any small group of factors is the key cumulative risk scale represents the number of risks present Environmental Risk Scale 10 features of risk that could lower IQ the number not risks matters 0 Sameroff I 0 risks IQ 115 I 6 risks IQ85 fairly stable important when looking at correlations in IQ 0 Immediate Environmental In uences I Family In uences Quality of home environment 0 Responsively of mother 0 Provision of play materials 0 Avoidance of restrictionpunishment I Cant rule out passive geneenvironment correlations o Is it a gene that likes them to read or that mom reads to them a lot I Within family variations shared vs non shared environment I School In uences o Ceci 2001 attendance is related to IQ o Cahan and Cohen children close in age but in different grades showed larger gaps in IQ than children similarly close in age but in the same grade 0 Also visible through atter growth rates during the summer as opposed to during the school year I Summer learning loss I More extreme in lower SES families 0 Programs for Helping Poor Children I Project Head Start Provided a wide range of services to over 25 million children I From families of income below poverty line that receive medical and dental care and nutritious meals and are provided with a safe environment Greater likelihood in enrolling in college I Carolina Abecedarian Project comprehensive and successful enrichment program for children from low income families I Selected based on low income I Provided lasting positive effects on the IQ scores of the children in the experimental group 0 Had mean IQ scores 5 points higher higher math and reading scores few held back in school or place in special Ed9 long term benefits 0 Individual Characteristics I Mindset I You can learn new things but you cant really change how intelligent you are 9 fixed mindset concrete unchanging ability 0 challenges avoided o Obstacles avoided o Effort not very useful 0 Somewhat more likely in face of challenge plateau math scores 9 lower level of achievement I No matter how much intelligence you have you can always change it quite a bit 9 growth mindset 0 challenges embrace o obstacles work through obstacles o effort how they master material very important 0 higher level of achievement I not that one is more true but how people view themselves I parents can have a big in uence on what mindset children develop individual you re so good at drawling 9 fixed I you tried really hard on the drawling 9 growth Genetic In uences teasing apart what causes difference in genetics and environment 0 Heritability about 50 substantial I Chart MZ are very highly correlated same with DZ but MZ much higher I Creases over time I Over time adopted children are more correlated with biological relatives less with adoptive relatives I Over time identical twins remain highly correlated fraternal twins less 0 Environment I Heritability 50 I Shared Environment 40 environmental factors that families share nutrition electronics available I Non shared environment 10 I SES effects for low SES Shared Environment eclipses heritability For low SES shared environment eclipses heritability 9 genes do not have a lot to do With it For high SES the opposite 9 genes have a lot to do With it
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