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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maria Podolyan on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 0422 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Nokes-Malach in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.
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Date Created: 03/04/15
Exam 2 Study Guide Memory Ch 57 1 What is memory 9 Something that allows one to store and retrieval infofacts that are important to a task 2 How does it work 9 Use of mental imagery relating new events to past knowledge 3 Why is it important 9 Helps in recalling facts recognizing faces making inferences knowing how to do things deciding if you have studied enough knowing when to eat 0 Herman Ebbinghaus 0 Used himself as a subject to study what is remembered over time o Studied list of nonsense syllables SAB BUP LOC Presented every 2 seconds to prevent using a strategy Continued doing this until he could remember all in list Tried to retrieve list later If it wasn t perfect he relearned savings score Savings in relearning 9 very sensitive measure of memory Measured how many trials it took him to learn amp how well he remembered the list Used diff retention intervals amp diff ways of testing memory 0 Results showed that after 20minutes you lose about 40 of in the info you learned 0000 0 0 Common tasks used to study memory 0 Free recall 9 reproduction from memory Remembering a list 0 Cued recall 9 recalling a word consistent w the meaning you encoded earHer Word pairings or partial word Stickglue Stick 0 Word completion 9 bandage ban 0 Recognition 9 which words did you see recognize from list 0 Relearning 9 savings score original trials relearning trials original trials x 100 0 Reaction time 9 did you see these words and how long did it take to react how long someone can retrieve from a memory General memory processes 0 Encoding 9 acquiring info Initial processing of the item that leads to a representation of it in memory 9 encoding understanding Organization 9 if items can be organized in some way performance increases Elaboration 9 easier to remember info by relating it to what we know IHelps to augment amp interpret the info we have Helps to build a coherent representation using info from memory ln STM elaboratingexplaining amp connecting to prior knowledge leads to better memory later 0 Making story imaging together 0 Storage 9 effects on learning other info The info in memory must be storedmaintained o Retrieval 9 how do we nd what we want Having info in memory is not very useful unless it can be retrieved at relevant time Retrieval plan organized set of cues to use to retrieve the info Thinking in chronological order ShortTerm Memory9 keeps info activeavailable also called primary memory 0 Duration 1020 seconds very short 0 Capacity 7 2 items 0 Related processes 0 Rehearsal 9 repeating something over and over again Ex repeating phone number so you don t forget This is also called maintenance rehearsal If you don t rehearse items or if something gets in the way you don t remember them for more than a matter of seconds 0 Serial position effect 9 probability of recalling an item depends on where it appeared in the list 0 Items at beginning amp at the end of a list are more likely to be remembered Beginning primacy effect 0 Items early in list will be retained longer in STM leading to more rehearsal amp better LTM End recency effect 0 Items are being recalled from STM or phonological loop of working memory 0 What is chunking 9 grouping info into chunks 0 Has to be familiar o 7 2 chunks o Chunks meaningful groups of info 0 Helps to remember large bits of information 0 Ex harder to remember letters but when you chunk them into words like the pledge of allegiance than its easier for you to remember 0 Chunking often occurs w each person s own organization schema Working memory 9 braincognitive system that provides temporary storage and manipulation of info that is necessary for a variety of complex cognitive tasks 0 Working memory is where you keep things around while you are thinking 0 Not just storage processing too 0 The two subsystems o Phonological loop 9 may be for acquiring language esp new words phonaudio Phonological store holds auditory info for about 2 seconds o If you hear someone talking but you re not paying attention to them if asked to repeat what they said you could repeat the last part of it bc your phonological store still has the the last 2 seconds stored Another example you can remember words that are said faster like bishop than harpoon the faster a word is pronounced the more words that can be rehearsed o In the phonological loop it is not the number of chunks that is crucial but rather how long it takes to rehearse the info Articulatory control process process that produces the inner speech we all hear in ourselves Helps us to subvocally rehearse info to ourselves helping to keep the info available by refreshing the phonological store 0 Visuospatial sketchpad 9 allows us to maintainmanipulate visual amp spatial images ex imagine cone imagine rotating it so you can see around the cone the bottom of it and the top May be involved in planning amp executing spatial tasks Selective interference interfered w by spatial or visual tasks not verbal Central Executive 9 controls attention to subsystems coordinates activities of other parts uses output of subsystems LongTerm Memory 0 How we encode information is critical 0 We should be focusing not only on the material being learned but also on how we encode such info 0 Levels ofprocessing View 9 how deeply the info is processed leads to the materials being better remembered and better used for LTM How do the following processes and concepts impact memory 0 Organization 9 if items can be organized in some kind of way it might make it easier to remember improves memory 0 Elaborative rehearsal 9eaborations provide a means of integrating amp retaining info by relating the current info to our knowledge 0 Selfreference effect 9 tendency for ppl to encode info diff depending on the level on which the self is implicated in the information Referencing info to your own personal life helps you to remember things Encoding speci city principle 9 retrieval depends on matching the speci c encoding How one encodes info matters 0 The math bw processing at encoding amp retrieval maters too Context effects 9 claim that context is an important part of what we represent 0 We rely on our context to help us accomplish what we re focused on Context is often a good predictor of what info is going to be relevant Our brains have adapted to our conscious awareness that context matters 0 Having context in uences our retrieval 0 Environmental context 9 being in the same physical setting for learningtesting of new material improves recall Statedependent learning 9 our internal states act as a type of context 0 Learning someone s name when drunk not remembering it while sober remembering it again when drunk the next time Mood effects 9 recall more when in same mood during study and test Spacing effect 9 memory is better for repeated info if the repetitions occur spaced over time than if they occur massed one after the other 0 As the of events bw repetitions increased the probability of recall increased 0 Long spacings lead to worse memory than shorter spacings at short retention intervals Retrieval Factors 0 What factors affect retrieval Many of the concepts listed above do and O O O O Typicality 9 we make faster veri cations when something is a typical member of a category rather than an unusual member Frequency 9 how many times you ve exposed to the info Regency 9 last time you saw the info Goals Memory Distinctions and Systems Declarative 9 knowledge of factual info including both episodic amp semantic info 0 quotknowing thatquot Ex name of class is cog psych my mom called today etc 0 Procedural 9 memory for skills how knowledge about the actual doing 0 Ex how to drive care how to speak English Explicit 9 conscious access to recollected info Implicit 9 involves tasks that are in uenced by prior exposure to some items wo any direct or conscious recollection of the experience Episodic 9 memory for speci c events or episodes in your life 0 Includes time related organization 0 Association bw memory and its source 0 Semantic memory 9 our ability to store and retrieve facts such as categories dog cat and types of events organized by content 0 Facts about the world 0 Amnesia 9 severe memory impairment 0 Anterograde 9 trouble forming new memories AFTER brain damage 0 Old memories are intact before accident but after accident can t encode new memories 0 Can t form new declarative memories 0 Retrograde 9 trouble remembering info BEFORE brain damage 0 Memories before accident cant be remembered but new memories are formed normally 0 Most likely to recover OLDEST memories 0 Most likely to lose ones NEARER trauma 0 Does not affect procedural memory or social skills 0 Infantile 9 inability of adults to retrieve episodic memories before the age of 24 yrs as well as the period before age 10 of which adults retain fewer memories than might otherwise be expected given the passage of time Caused by alcoholism or car accidents 0 Temporal gradient 9 memory loss is gradual forgetting curve older memories are better preserved than newer ones across a variety of causes Schemas Strategies and Knowledge 0 Schema 9 general knowledge structure used for understanding o It is an active organization of past reactions or past experiences Have to be activated 0 Help us to understandremember o Allows us to treat knowledge about events as connected rather than independent 0 Generate expectations about what is likely to be true 0 Can make a prediction of what s to happen if you re only presented w the rst few lines of the schema story In class example of burglar vs home buyer story 0 Diff schema helped you remember diff events 0 Problems Not clear how to implement the desired properties of schemas Can create situations in which we misremember something that came from our prior knowledge as being a part of the event itself Misinformation effect 9 Misleading info after an event leads ppl to be less likely to choose the correct alternative on a later test 0 Explanations Overwriting 9 assume misleading info alters og trace w the misleading info Source confusions 9 misleading info may not impair og mem but instead provide some competing info that can be retrieved amp used at times as if it were the og memory bc the source of the mem is not clear Misinformation acceptance 9 ppl may use misleading info bc they don t know better amp assume the misleading info is true 0 Concepts from the book ch 7 o Fashbub memories 9 highly vivid almost photographlike memory for the details of an event and the setting Have LG effect on our lives 0 Metamemory 9 people s ability to know how likely they are to be able to remember something or how effective some strategy may be We don t have direct knowledge of how well we know something we make an inference based on some aspect of our remembering Issues related to memory and acting o How do actors encode information Read scripts many times Work on actionsintentions Words ow based on actions 0 What is the difference between gist and rote memory Gist meaning Rote mechanical repetition of something to be learned Gist gt rote Imagery and Visual Memory Chapter 8 0 Analog representations 9 captures structural relationships of the image depending on which modality you re dealing with 0 Ex mental rotation Propositional representations 9 verbal description represents some object in the world w a set of labels Imagery 9 the mental representation of a nonpresent object or event 0 Can have diff types of sensory images Visual images of smells and sounds too 0 Differences between imagery and perception o Imagery requires commitment Small details more likely to be seen when closer to object Have to commit to various properties of the object you are imaging Imagery is not the same as seeing Reversals being able to reverse infoincoming picture 0 Difficulty hard to go back and forth bw reversed objects Generative can generate lots of additions to images Incompleteness images are incomplete certain features missing 0 Relation to visual perception When ppl image an object they activate the same brain regions they do when they physically see and object Ppl who lose color vision cannot image in color What do we use imaging for o Accomplishing tasks imagine husky creativity visualization therapies desensitization practice of physical skills sports surgery Picture superiority effect 9 pictures are better remembered than words 0 Difference is found even if the memory test involves simply the names of the pictures rather than the picture themselves Dualcoding hypothesis 9 items can be stored in either verbal code an imaginal code or code pictures are better remembered bc they are more likely to be stored in two independent codes than are words
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