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Geology 101 Final Exam

by: Madeline Wilson

Geology 101 Final Exam GEOL 101 001

Madeline Wilson

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final exam study guide
Introduction to the Earth
Dr. Knapp
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Madeline Wilson on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 101 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Dr. Knapp in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to the Earth in Geology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE The cryosphere is the ice component of the climate system Region A would receive the most precipitation Ventifacts are wind-faceted pebbles Petroleum and natural gas are considered non-renewable energy resources The Greenland and Antarctic ice caps are approximately 3km thick A moraine is an accumulation of rocky, sandy, or clayey material deposited at the end of a glacier A snow deposit contains approximately 90% air. Glacial ice contains approximately 20%. Gravity causes tides Iron oxides are responsible for the orange-brown colors of weathered surfaces in the desert Permeability is the ability of a solid to allow fluids to pass through Wind forces create ocean waves The hydraulic gradient is the ratio between the elevation difference and the flow distance in an aquifer The lowering of the water table near the well is called a cone of depression Elevation is a balance between tectonic uplift and erosion High permeability and high porosity make for the best groundwater reservoir Foraminifera shells, the most abundant biochemically precipitated pelagic sediment, are made of calcium carbonate Curves and bends in a stream channel are called meanders An aquiclude is bounded above and below by relatively impermeable beds The largest mass of ice on earth is located on Antarctica Landforms are the product of erosion, sedimentation, and tectonics The Dead Sea has the lowest elevation of all continental landmass Crude oil is a fossil fuel Crude oil forms at a depth of 2-5rkm in the Earth’s crust Coal forms from large accumulations of plant material The major environmental impact of burning coal is the release of carbon dioxide, release of sulfur that contributes to acid rain, and strip mining The Montreal protocol is responsible for phasing out ozone depletion substances The amount of windblown material that wind can carry does not depend on the temperature Most volcanic activity on the seafloor takes place at mid-ocean ridges Turbidity currents erode and deposit fine-grained sediments on the continental slope and rise The deepest part of the ocean is about 10km deep If a very large iceberg in the ocean were to melt, the sea level would remain the same A continental glacier is an extremely slow-moving sheet of ice that covers vast land areas Fjords are glacial valleys flooded with seawater A point bar is a curved, coarse-grained sedimentary deposit that forms on the inside curve of a stream Air flows and stream flows are mostly turbulent Precipitation does not increase the amount of dust in the atmosphere Trade winds in the tropics blow from east to west Most windblown sand consists of quartz The process by which surface water becomes groundwater is called infiltration Suspended load includes all material temporarily or permanently suspended in the flow Sand is most easily eroded from the bed of a stream A 10-year flood is a flood that occurs on an average of every 10 years Chemical weathering will be the most rapid in hot and humid climates After the oceans, glaciers and polar ice caps contain the most water Solar energy powers the hydrologic cycle Sandstone has the highest porosity Effluent streams are fed by groundwater and are characteristic of humid regions Sinkholes are a possible danger in regions underlain by limestone


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