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CSD 303 / Psych 365 Exam1

by: Michelle Lee

CSD 303 / Psych 365 Exam1 Psych 365

Marketplace > Northwestern University > Psychlogy > Psych 365 > CSD 303 Psych 365 Exam1
Michelle Lee
GPA 3.4

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all quiz 1 material
Brain and Cognition
Sazzad Nasir
Study Guide
brain, Psychology, cognition, EEG, visual agnosia, perception, selective attention, attention, neuroscience, brain imaging, lesions
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michelle Lee on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 365 at Northwestern University taught by Sazzad Nasir in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Brain and Cognition in Psychlogy at Northwestern University.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
Introduction    ➢ Cognitive neuroscience approach  ○ Provide brain­based account of cognitive processes  ○ Possible through technological advances  ○ Cognition mental action/process of understanding through thought      ➢ History  ○ Mind­body problem:​how physical substance (brain) can give rise to our            sensations/thoughts/emotions (mind)  ○ Dualism: mind and body are separate substances (Decartes)   ○ Dual­aspect theorythe belief that mind & brain are two levels of description to            the same thing (Spinoza)  ○ Reductionism: mind is explained soley in terms of physical or biological theory  ● Cognition → Biology  ○ Phrenology: different parts of cortex serve different functions  ● Personality traits differ due to cortical size/bumps on skull  ○ Functional specializati​different regions of the brain specialize for different          functions  ● Broca’s observations thru empirical methods ascertain diff  functions  ■ Patient with frontal lesion couldn’t speak but had  cognitive ability  ■ Inference that there are two independent language  faculties in brain made   ○ Made without knowing where in  brain located →  Cognitive neuropsychology  ○ Cognitive neuroscience: minds with brains  ● 1970: CT, MRI enabled precise images of brain (structural  imaging)  ● 1980: PET scan adapted to models of cognition  ● 1985: TMS first used (non­invasive), study of virtual lesions  ● 1990: fMRI used level of oxygen in blood used to measure cog  function     ➢ Brain structures  ○ Gray matte​neuron cells bodies on cortical surface  ● Handles perception, attention, and language  ○ White matteaxons, myelin, glia cells  ● Between cortical & subcortical regions  ● Compose commissures (corpus callosum), connecting  hemispheres  ○ Cerebral cortex  ● Gyri/gyru raised folds of the cortex  ● Sulci/sulc​buried grooves of the cortex  ● Brodmann’s area​regions of cortex defined by distribution of           cell types across cortical layers  ○ Subcortex  ● Basal gangliregions of gray matter involved in motor control   and skill learning  ● Limbic syste​region involved in relating organism to    environment  ● Thalamus:major relay center for sensory organs (minus smell)  ● Hypothalamus​specialized for different functions concerned with     body regulation  ○ Midbrain and hindbrain  ● Superior collinucleus forms a part of subcortical sensory        pathway  ● Inferior collnucleus that forms part of a subcortical auditory      pathway  ● Cerebellumthe “little brain” in charge of dexterity/smooth           movement and execution  ● Pons: link between cerebellum and cerebrum  ● Medulla oblonga​regulates vital functions (breathing, etc)  Methods    ➢ Electrophysiological methods  ○ Based on concept that neurons generate electrical signals  ○ Representations  ● Mental sense of properties of outside world copied by cognition  ■ i.e. colors, objects  ■ issues with mapping  ● Neural​the way properties of outside world manifest themselves  into neural signals  ■ How stimulus is represented → different spiking  rates for different stimuli  ○ Single­cell record measure responsiveness of a neuron to a given     stimulus   ● Action potential is directly measured by implanting small electrode  into neuron or outside of membrane  ● Count number of action potentials for one neuron  ● Best resolution, but impractical w/ regards to time  ● Grandmother cel​neuron that responds only to a stimulus  ● PROS: ​good spatial and temporal resolution  ● CONS: ​invasive (open­brain surgery)  ○ Electroencephalography (EEGmeasure rate of change electric signals         generated by brain  ● Use electrodes placed on different points on scalp  ● Measured instantaneously, useful for measuring relative timing of  neural activity  ● Compare voltage between 2+ sites of voltages (reference & test)  ○ Event­related potential (​average​mount​ of change in voltage at scalp      linked to timing of events  ● Based on EEG recordings, relates neural and electrical activity  ● Records the peaks of pos/neg series  ■ Timing and amplitude­ spatial bad, temporal good  ■ i.e. stimulus → response   ● PROS: instantaneously records electrical activity  ● CONS: ​not possible to derive where sources are in scalp (inverse  problem)   ■ Solved bydipole modeli​ assume how many   dipoles contribute to  signal recorded  ○ Face Recognition Using ERP  ● N170: neg peak in ERP specialized for faces  ● Associative primi reaction times are faster to X after being  presented to Y if X and Y were previously associated together   ● Exogenous components:related to stimulus properties  ● Endogenous components:related to task properties  ○ Magnetoencephalography (MEG)noninvasive method for recording magnetic            fields generated by the brain at the scalp  ● Signal unaffected by skull, meninges, etc  ● Poor at detecting deeper dipoles, sensitive to sulci  ● Good temporal res and potentially good spatial res  ● Expensive and limited availability       ➢ Brain Imaging  ○ Structural imagimeasures spatial configuration of diff types of brain tissue  ● CT scans:related to x­ray absorption  ● MRI: no radiation (safer), provides a better spatial res than CT  ■ Better gray/white matter discrimination  ○ Functional imagi measures temporary changes in brain physio (fMRIs)  ● Voxel­based morphometry (VBM​technique for segregating &   measuring differences in  white/gray matter   ● Diffusion tensor imaging ​use MRI to measure white matter       connectivity btwn regions   ● PET scans: measures blood flow in region  ■ Poor temporal but good spatial res for whole brain  ● fMRI: measure blood oxygenation (BOLD)  ■ Changes in BOLD over time (HRF)  ■ Also poor temporal but good spatial res  ■ Some brain regions are hard to image  ○ Subtraction methodology  ● Experimental design in which activity in a control task is  subtracted from activity in experimental task  ○ Functional integrat the way different regions communicate with each other  ● Resting state paradigmeasures functional connectivity where   correlations between regions are  assessed while subject is resting  ● Default mode networkset of brain regions that is more active  in bloodflow during rest than during tasks  ● Block designstimuli from a given condition are present together  ● Event­related desigstimuli from two or more conditions are  presented randomly/interleaved  ● Data interpretation:  ■ Inhibiti​reduction/suppression of activity of   brain region, triggered by activity in  another region  ■ Excitatio increase of activity of brain region,   triggered by activity in another region  ■ Activatioincrease in physiological processing in         one condition compared to others  ■ Deactivatio​decrease in physio processing  ■ Can only tell when neurons are active, don’t know if  they’re inhibiting/exciting        ➢ Lesioned Brain  ○ Infer the function of a region by removing it and measuring system effect  ○ Damage of brain function comes through strokes, tumors, TMS  ● TMS:​ non­invasive stimulation of brain caused by rapidly   changing the current, creating a magnetic field and  disrupting cognitive function during that point in time   ● Single dissociati​dissociating and associating lesion with            effect  ■ If lesion in region 1 disrupts task A but not task B,  assume task A and B are managed by diff regions  ● Double Dissociationsderived from 2+ single cases    Vision  ➢ A constructive process  1. Light enters eye, triggers photochemical reaction in rods & cones at the  back of retina  2. Activates bipolar cells  3. Bipolar cells activate ganglion cells, where their axons converge to form  the optic nerve  4. Nerve transmits info to the visual cortex in brain’s occipital lobe  ➢ Anatomy of the eye  ○ Retina: internal surface of eyes consisting of multiple layers,    containing photoreceptors form the outermost layer,    farthest from lens  ➢ Images on retina are inverted and reversed  ○ Rods:​ function in dim lighting  ○ Cones:​ use spatial detail and color  ○ Fovea:​ has the highest visual acuity  ○ Receptive fiel​region of space that elicits response from neuron  ○ Blind spot point which the optic nerve leads the eye, no         rods/cones  ➢ Mapping of visual field  ○ Two optic nerves partially form an ‘X’ in the optic chiasm  ○ Nasal half of each retina cross in optic chiasm; temporal half of each retina don’t  cross  ● Depth perception  ➢ Perception and control  ○ Reflexive: retinal projection go directly to superior colliculus  ● Receives 10% of axons via superior colliculus  ● Orienting response (neck/head movement, etc)  ○ Perception: main route terminates in V1  ● Called the “geniculostriate pathway”  ➢ Pathways  ○ Magnocellularlarge visual field areas; respond to motion  ● Faster than p­cells  ○ Parvocellula respond to smaller detail and color  ● Slower than m­cells  ➢ Lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)  ○ Divided by right & left sides, as well as subdivision of layers  ○ Cells have ​enter­surroundeceptive field, respond to different light presence in  receptive field  ○ M­pathways: first two layers are magnocellular, sensitive to             motion and contrast  ○ P­pathways: last four layers are parvocellular, sensitive to form            and color    ○ Retinotopy organization of LGN cells mimics the retinal cells  ● Each location in LGN maps location on retina  ➢ Primary visual cortex (V first stage of visual processing,   retains the spatial relationships found on the retina and  combines simple   ○ Transforms info from LGN into processing codes  ○ Extracts basic info from visual scene (edges, orientations, wavelengths of light)  ○ Used later by stages of processing to extract info about shape, color, movement  ● Simple cell cells that respond to light in particular orientation  ■ On center / off surround  ■ Orientation selective  ● Complex cell​cells that respond to light in a particular  orientation but not to single points of light   ■ Combination of simple cells  ○ Spatial arrangement (BA 17)  ● Retinotopic organizat​spatial arrangement of light on retina         retained in V1 response properties  ○ Cortical blindness  ● Damage to V1 areas result in blindness for corresponding region  of space  ● Blindsighdamage to geniculo­striate route   ● impairs conscious vision; patients cannot see stimuli in particular  region but can still perform visual discriminations accurately  ■ Other routes can act unconsciously  ○ Functional specialization beyond V1  ● Ventral strea pathway extending from occipital to temporal   lobe, involved in object recognition & memory  ■ “What” pathways (parvocellular)  ● Dorsal strea pathway extending from occipital to parietal lobe,    involved in visually guided action and attention  ■ “Where” pathways (magnocellular)  ● V4: main color center of brain  ■ Color constanc​color of surface perceived  constant even when in different lighting  ■ Damage to V4 see world in black & white  (achromatopsia)  ● V5/MT: main movement center of brain  ■ Do not respond to color, only movement directions  ■ Damage to V5 see world in series of still frames  (akinetopsia)  ➢ Recognizing Objects  1. Early visual processing  2. Grouping of visual elements (Gestalt principles)  3. Structural description: matching visual description to representation from brain  4. Semantic memory: attaching meaning to object  ● Agnosia​disorders in recognition  ■ Apperceptive​ failure to understand meaning of  objects due to lack​bject perception  ■ Associative failure to understand meaning of  objects due to lack​emantic memory  ○ Figure­ground segregati​segmenting visual displays into objects, not             background surfaces  ● Law of proximity: elements close together are grouped   ● Law of similarity: elements sharing visual attribute are grouped  ● Law of good continuation: edges grouped together to avoid  changes or interruptions  ● Law of closure: missing parts are filled in  ● Law of common fate: elements that move together are grouped  ➢ Face Recognition  ○ Fusiform face area (FF in the inferior temporal lobe, responds to faces and                      processes facial identity  ○ Prosopagnosia: impairments of face processing = inability to recognize faces  ○ Why faces are special  ● Task difficulty  ● Holistic processing   ● Visual expertise  ● Domain­specificity   Attention    ➢ The process by which certain info is selected for further processing, others discarded  ○ Inattentional blindnfailure to be aware of a visual stimulus b/c attention is      directed away from it  ○ Change blindness​failure to notice the appearance/disappearance of objects           between two alternating images  ○ Feature attenti​bind together different aspects of conscious perception  ➢ Spatial and Non­spatial Attention  ○ Salien an aspect of stimulus that stands out from the rest (spotlight metaphor)  ● Orientin​movement of attention from location to another  ■ Covert:orientation w/o moving the eyes/body  ■ Overt: orientation by movement of eyes/body  ■ Exogenous: attention that is guided by stimulus  ■ Endogenous: ​attention guided by perceiver’s goal  ○ Inhibition of re slowing the reaction time associated with going back to           previously attended location  ○ Visual searc task of detecting the presence/absence of target object in array  ➢ Top­down/Bottom­up processing  ○ Top­down processing​holding target in mind, endogenously driving orientation  ○ Bottom­up stimulus driven and perceptual identification of objects and features   ○ Voluntary attenti intentionally attending to something, goal driven  ○ Reflexive attent​bottom­up, stimulus­driven process where sensory event            (i.e. loud bang, flash of light, etc.) captures our attention  ○ Early selecti info selected according to perceptual attributes  ● Limited­capacity stages: bottleneck  ○ Late selecti info processed to semantic level before selected for processing              ➢ Feature Attention: Feature Integration Theory  ○ Model of how attention selects perceptual objects and binds different features of  objects  ○ Visual search paradigm  ● Pop­out: ability to detect an object among distractor objects   ■ Top array  ● Negative primingan ignored object suddenly becomes attended         object, they will process it slower  ■ Bottom array  ○ Make salience map: spatial layout emphasizing most of the behaviorally             relevant stimuli in environment  ○ Evidence agains​FIT:  ● Negative priming  ● Semantic info required, causes processing beforehand to distract  ● FIT works better for bottom up (stimulus driven)    ➢ Cortical Areas for Selective Attention  ○ Frontal eye fields (F posterior portion of mid­frontal gyrus  ● Responsible for voluntary eye movements (planning)  ● “Activates” in preparation for shift in attention  ○ Superior parietal lobule (Sfrontal­inferior temporal gyrus of Broca’s  ● Involved in planning and/or reorientation of attention   


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