Study Guide for Midterm
Study Guide for Midterm HIST1011
Popular in History since the 1500s
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Rewerts on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST1011 at George Washington University taught by Hugh Agnew in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 243 views. For similar materials see History since the 1500s in History at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 03/04/15
Mongols emerged in 700 CE practiced nomadism mobile pastoral livestock traderaid which made them selfsufficient population pressures and the allure of sedentary life forced them to settle plurality of religion don t know if they practiced shamanism but they were opentolerant of other religions because they counteracted the power of the shamen they believed in the idea of a Great Kahn single leader to unite fulfill destiny After the rise of Genghis Khan they conquered from Korea to Baghdad 12061258 They integrated conquered tribes into society gave them jobs and learned from them rather than killing them and used terror for submission They delegated local elites and controlled them through contracts that imposed a farming tax and invested in the loyalty of elites because they made the Silk Road safer by issuing permits allying them with the emperorputting them under his protection also allowed for the passage of peoplemarco polo and innovative ideas not just goods This increased the flow of such items to Europe and also increased their interest in the East They brought new people to power ie rise in turkish dominance under Mamluk new russian elites given powerprotection for eastern enemies by Mongols in return for obedience They also ended the political rule of the Arabs checked the expansion of Germanic peoples into slavic lands and started the first foreign dynasty in China that recentralized and reunited it bringing prosperity in the cities by extracting it from the countryside It also opened the flow of influence to China The time around the 1240s that Mongol rule was peaking William Rubruck a Franciscan described the Mongols as a most obedient people with no disputes This was an exaggeration but the Mongol peace is because it did make the steppeland safe and quicker to travel for outsiders with Mongols as highway police Silk roads Trading routes that crossed Eurasia to the south of the steppe through the Taklamakan Desert which developed over centuries because high mountains protected them from raiders though not totally secure Hard to travel Accounted for the flow of goods people and ideas from east Asia to Europe providing a rich productive new source It was originally piecemeal intermediary trade merchanttomerchant but then because safe to travel by Mongol partrols people could use it llKhans based in Persiamesopotamia IranIraq subordinate to the Great Khan Kubilai Khan in China Retained nomadic habits and delegated by tying themselves to locals through marriage Eventually adopted Islam in 1295 under break from the Mongol tradition that became militant Ends in 1343 with religious conflict and the death of the Khan with no heir because it opened China and Persia to each other bringing goods patterns and styles to persian markets like never before while Persian exported engineers mathematicians and astronomers to China Mandate of Heaven similar to the concept of the divine monarch king but for the Chinese Emperor dynasty tradition Well respected by the people used to justify the transfer of Dynasties not to incite revolution The is that the Song Emperor whose dynasty ruled China before the Mongols admitted in his abdication letter that The Mandate of Heaven had shifted to the Mongols Yuan dynasty which began with the unorthodox appointment of Mongols to positions that only Confucian elites were used to getting Also upheld some Chinese traditions showing the melding of the two cultures Sufis charismatic members of Islamic groups that cultivate mystical beliefs and practices Promoted inward conversionworship reflecting ProtestantCatholic Ref s Sufis have often been instrumental in spreading Islam esp in Southeast AsiaAfrica but traditionalist Muslim authorities have often distrusted them They were given taxfree grants of forest land for mosques and shrines because deforestation was considered an act of the state bc infidels were thought to live there They also established schools teaching math literacy and esp the Quran Empiricism The view that experience esp of the senses is the only source of knowledge signaled the shift of science toward concrete observations not just accepted factsauthority thus making science and knowledge in general more secular Franciscans religious order founded by Francis of Assisi in 1209 and dedicated to the virtues of humility poverty and charitable work among the poor loved nature inward worship Prominent in scientific thinking because Assisi believed God made the world worth observing empiricism Then became patrons of increasingly naturalistic art super real looking giving the onlooker the realest experiencescene when praying like a tribute to the senses that was reflected in science thus art linked science and piety of the age Black Death term for lethal disease or diseases that struck large parts of Eurasia and North Africa in the 13003 killed millions unsure of true diagnosis hypothesized result of climate change colder gt famines weaker pop stimulated medical inquiry no germ theory moral impact despairresolve led to millinarianism huge population loss in regions beloweffects in CHINA transfer of power from Mongol Yuan to Ming loss of commercetrade bc Silk Road was closed resulting in loss of gov t revenue and resurgence of strict Confucian econ isolation agriculture instead of trade EUROPE serfdom declined because there were so few peasants gt gained bargaining leverage legal status monarchs aristocratic families weakened while others seized nobility increased religion but more personal deflation new entrepreneurs ISLAMIC WORLD weakened II Kahn in Persia economy bc of his mismanagement disruption of tradeloss of demand ISOLATED AREAS benefitted Japan Southeast Asia SubSaharan Africa The AmericasEcoimperialism 2 latter had huge expansion AntiSemitism Hatred against Jewish people Jews and muslims scapegoated in Europe as the cause of the Plague would be a continued trend throughout history Millenarianism Hope of deliverance in a transfigured world Based on Buddhist myth belief that the end of the world is about to occur as foretold in the biblical book of Revelations these two eventually mixed Franciscans and others brought to Spanish America where it resonated with Native Americans and eventually it merged with traditional protestant views In both North and South America prophetic leaders expected the end times and coming of the perfect world Also seen as a result of the plague can only get better now Shogun A hereditary military ruler of Japan who exercised real power in the name of the emperor who was usually powerless and relegated to purely ceremonial roles The last Shogun was removed from office in 1868 After the plague that didn t reach Japan Mongols declined as a threat which resulted in a lessening in the pressure to stay united and serve the state There was a century of peace which resulted in all classes becoming wealthier and social status losing the protection of complicated standards of eligibility Rival branches came to the throne In 1335 Ashikaga Takauji seized the shogun role and his dynasty lasted til 1573 powerful West African state that flourished in the 14C depicted in the Catalan Atlas with a king Mansa Musa holding pure gold he spent so much that it caused inflation in Egypt in the time he was visiting Nucleus of int l gold trade attractedobsessed the Europeans who had only limited silver resources regional power Zimbabwes Stone built administrative centers for rulers and the elite in southern Africa flourished in 15C Showedleft remnants of the great age of the Zimbabwes where luxurious burial grounds were located was a regional power and int l trade center for region in pre colonial Africa Challenged notions of primitive African culture Ecological imperialism sweeping environmental changes Europeans and other imperialists introduced to the regions they imperialized also used by Native Americans in MesoamericaAndes key to success in statebuilding by combining diverse regionsexploiting complementary products of contrasting ecosystems occurred in lnca Empire allowing for stockpiling and trading MOST diverse environmentsmicroclimates practiced tribute system of exchanging products between contrasting climates to ensure against disaster exploited ecological diversity resulting in efficient production and foodproduct security key to success in statebuilding by combining diverse regionsexploiting complementary products of contrasting ecosystems occurred in lnca Empire allowing for stockpiling and trading MOST diverse environmentsmicroclimates practiced tribute system of exchanging products between contrasting climates to ensure against disaster POLITICAL had to expand to maintain statehectic expansionextreme methods of subjugation deportationNO integration created grievances from massacresforced migrationslave labor accounted for foundationsuccess of Spanish conquered colonies but eventually had overreached their realistic limitations of their potential and suffered from civil war as vengeful people sided with the spanish against their Native American Overlords Incas Aztecs expanded during late 1516C through warfare also used tribute system for necessities and luxuries but unlike lncas they left governing mostly up to localities though still alienated them and made Aztecs super dependent on the system which helping the Spanish conquer them as the Spanish restricted it super into humansacrificealso most environmentally diverse empire with lncas Like Incas accounted for foundationsuccess of Spanish conquered colonies but eventually had overreached their realistic limitations of their potential Third Rome term Russias used for Moscow and Russian Orthodox Christianity in 1453 when Constantinople fell possibly to be replaced by Moscow who s neighbors were recently conquered expressed the belief that the russian czars were the divinely chosen heirs of the Roman and Byzantine emperors Russian orthodox leaders echoed the protestant and catholic reformations in their rejection of papal supremacy instead espousing divine right of czars shows the cultural influences Ottoman Empire roots in empire of Timur the Lame 13361405 moved from steppe replacing mongols and adopting roman admin captured Constantinople 1453 ruling it for a long time 1453 1700s decline happened Ottomans heirs to 3 traditions of the Steppeaffected by shifting economic center of gravity of Europe to the North and the high seas still located aside Europe and Asia since 1453 Had Sultans and Topkapi Palace lslam empire lack of clear succession role of harem women of sultans waiting areareally nice place inside This empire had religious tolerance expansion into the Balkans brought in many Christians higher taxes for nonmuslims Sultan was the ultimate authority and was powerful military and civilian leader of the empire The end of the expansion of the empire happened in Vienna in 1683 and they turned back population stagnated and trend worsened in 18 C WWI One of the largest empires in the world from 1518 C Empire stretched from Iraq across North Africa to Morocco to the Balkans to Hungary Present day Istanbul and Turkey lt3 Renaissance humanistic revival of classicalrealist art architecture literature and learning from ancient RomeGreece that originated in Italy in 140 accentuated in the 15C and spread throughout Europe in 16C reflected wealth in secular hands rather than the church aka loss of power royal courts breeding groundpatronage also a sign of shifting power from church gt monarch redefined what it meant to be human equality despite religion impetus of scientific revolution which changed the way we think about everything Tradingpost empires term for networks of imperial forts and trading posts that Europeans established in Asia in the 17C accounted for the majority of European involvement in Asia until second half of the 17C usually conducted by monopolists of Portugese English and Dutch much more significant than trade with New World in valueextent because of the established activity of the native Asians interest in maritime imperialism these native people used the Western empire builders for their own econ exploitation sent home ie Spanish Manila Dutch East India Company 1619 dutch colonies in Asia centered in present day Indonesia that had a monopoly on trade between Dutch and Asia Economy was actually cultivated by the Chinese who saw the dutch as subordinate money made by chinese colonists economic refugees enriched China in spite of the tight commercial controls by chinese gov t Jointstock company business whose capital is held in transferable shares of stock by its joint owners 1 st one dutch east india company helped nations like the dutch exploit opportunities of trade as a monopoly which allowed for empire building and challenged power of Spanish trade with New World grew ambition for empire building in Asia also connectedreinforced the growing trend toward marittime imperialism controlling trade rather than territorial trade controlled production English East India Company 1600 British trading company played key role in colonization of India that ruled much of the subcontinent til 1857 challenged Mughal Empire in India in an attempt to increase its share of trade successful more than others because of advanced techmechanisms over traditional native populations Gradually in 18C Europeans would take moremore control of production building up land empires in Asia transforming global economy The EU profits made bc of Asian trade in 1617C reversed their ageold trade deficit with Asia bc they now influenced marketsmanipulated production Caesar title of Russian Emperors until revolution in 1917 strong rulers that depicted the breadth of their power in both terrifying and progressive ways Mughal Empire mid15005 until 1857 Muslim Dynasty founded by Babur that ruled India at least nominally idea of soveriegnty derived from oldfashioned Mongols right to rule by conquest leaving political econ social structures in place and exploiting them through tribute treated empire at storehouse for loot economic demands of statecourt luxuries stimulated economy newestfastest growing empire of this type in late 160 Babur s grandson Akbar r 15561605 turned toward riches instead of spiritual war turning the empire into a business investing in power and majesty with returns in taxestribute significant example of tribute systemwar machinereligious tolerance perhaps ignorance despite lack of succession rivalries internal struggles fronteir kept expanding Safavids of Persia 1501 1773 Located between the Ottomans and Mughals Persian Kings as rulers as well as Muslim political thought for legitimacy never built uniform bureaucracy like Ottomans Religion became strictly Shiite Muslim No pluralism like Mughals no toleration for Ottomans Minorities were expelled converted or killed Emphasis on messianic leaders and ancient martyrs rejection of nostalgia for steppelanders nomad tradition known for bloody enforcing rule Ruler of empire was Shah Abbas l he imprisoned his sons and killed his remote enemies restricted opportunities for expansionist policy showed some similarities w neighbors Ottomans benefitted from location aside the Silk Roads breaks up bc of Uzbecs in 16c shows decline of Steppe imperialism Hispaniola 1496 modern Haiti and Dominican Republic conquered by Columbus native pop virtually wiped out gained by Columbus s war 1st step toward creating a Spanish territorial empire began slave importing in 1510 24000 in 3rd q of 17C Stranger Effect People like new people and therefore were nicer them and think of them as higher and great people Native people regarded Spanish people to be from heaven accounting for their timid yet huge generosity Manila galleon Spanish galleonsbig ship that sailed each year between the Philippines and Mexico with a cargo of silk porcelain and other Asian luxury goods that were paid for in Mexican silver provided direct exchanged of new world silver for Chinese porcelain and silks linked Africa to America the need for slaves led other European merchants to Spanish colonies Ecological exchange columbian Exchangejust newold world exchange of plants and animals between ecosystems of the New and Old Worlds transfers went in both directions and taken together constitute greatest human intervention in course of world development changed the course of evolution by transplanting species and human genetics to isolated populations resulted in a better nourished world in the 18C better equipped with medical drugs derived from plants contributed to the pop explosion that increased exponentially ever since BUT also accounted for the exchange of microbes that spread diseases to formerly isolated areas of which they were not naturally susceptible people movement voluntary of not set stage for mental transformations NEW gt OLD Maize potatoes could be concealed underground aka safer yams took time to become accustomed to but could sustain whole populations cocoa OLD gt NEW weeds grass helped bind the soil food for grazing animals animals horses cattle contributed to lots of work activity sugar cane Brazilgreatest exporter induced need for labor aka slave trade created new industries for refining and distilling alcohol also helped coffee tea chocolate industries created political conflict in EU wheat rice sugar bananas coconuts apples pears peaches plums cherries oranges lemons dandelions almonds grapes onion coffee sheep chickens pigs horses cattle Also created ecological devastation by end of 18C new energy sources and landscape changes bc of cultivation Military revolution change in warfare in 1617C that accompanied the rise of firepower tech attributed as one reason for shift from pastoral to settled life also accounted for the rise of gunpowder empires that grew to combat the Steppe calvary and overwhelm that lifestyle ancient empire of West African the present day country of Mali reached height of power in 1500 CE headed by al Mansur in 1588 half of the caravan died those that made it dispersed and conquered efficiently creating a colony of 20000 men basically a Spanish equivalent that saw the Moroccan desert as their own Atlantic sea separating them from goldriches Eventually gold dwindled and the Sahel was retained by pastoral nomads but this was an important nearly unthinkable mission with initial success mimicking the Spanish in the Americas East India trade Maritime trade between western Europe and New England and Asia between 16 and 1800 Westerners paid cash for items from Asia such as porcelain tea silk cotton textiles and spices This was one of the first major trade routes developed by the Europeans Council of Trent 15451563 series of meetings held by bishops who acknowledged the pope s authority ordered that the cults of saints be purged of perversion by the people into boisterous festivities Worked to standardize doctrine aimed to cleanse ritual practice relies local saints and festival behavior Played a large part in the Catholic Reformation acknowledged the Pope s authority and put down lay competition with clergy through folk religionmagic by refocusing on a religion of salvation in the next life made church more understandable musicscripture not only in latin by removing the mysteries that lay people had sought to reveal through magic shows that the counterreformation wasn39t simply a reaction to the protestants Inquisition a tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church that was charged with suppressing heresy and immorality Spanish Inquisition 1478 led by Cardinal Cisneros designed to monitor the sincerity of former JewsMuslims who d converted to Christianity under gov t pressure By 2nd half of 16C most cases involved sex only tolerated if license symbolized the Church s expanding control and intrusion into private life of sex and marriage said to be for the protection of young girls fooled into marriage and then abandoned and possible prosecution showed bottomup strategy in EU Reformation the protestant break from the Roman Catholic Church in 16C stirred by Martin Luther believing that the redemption of sin by the grace of God was freely offered to all mankind making Church role less vital believed the church was corrupt anyway salvation by faith alone challenged traditional role of the catholic church imagery stressed access to scripture desire to purify led to the creation of protestantism split between luther and calvin predestined CounterReformation The Catholic effort to combat the spread of Protestantism in the 16th and 17th centuries reconverted some churches to Roman obedience New religious orders of the Jesuits were able to be created purified the religion focused on education shows syncretism unite despite differences between both faiths Jesuits Order of regular clergy strongly committed to education scholarship and missionary work Founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 Most significant missionaries and educators of the Roman Catholic Church in Europe and in the wider world tried to bring it to Japan bottomup started by converting feudal lords somewhat successful then went bad and made illegal in 1630 and China topdown tried to integrate with long standing culture ie ancestor worshipsaints started with emperor but the chinese were ultimately more interested in their western science knowledge Orthodox Church Dominant Christian church in the Byzantine Empire the Balkans and Russia This church broke away from Eastern Christendom in 1621 because of the conflicts between the Christianity of clergy and the religion of ordinary people This led to a change in the christianity of Eastern Europe since 1621 echoed protestant refute of papal supremacy seem as more pure Patriarch Cril Lukaris influenced by calvinism reform based on scripture and Nikon brought russian orthodox in line with contemp greek church caused resistence by old traditionalists Dalai Lama The ruler of Tibet head of the Buddhist establishment Guided reform of Mongol customs human sacrifices were forbidden and blood sacrifices of all sorts were stopped helped unify kingdom through bud39ism by destroying shamanism Confraternities Black Lay Catholic charitable brotherhoods vital institutions for colonial society generally melding the culturally uprooted into a coherent community renewing their sense of identity and belonging comforted blacks in a white community showed syncretism Sikhism lndian religion founded by Nanak Guru in the early 16C that blends elements of the Hindu and Muslim traditions This organization developed their own society military organization and traditions of selfdefense and by 18C ruled a significant state centered in Punjab shows syncretism of muslim and hindu religions bc of location in bwtn Copernican revolution Development of a model that believes the Sun is the center model of the solar system began in 1543 by Nicolas Copernicus a polish churchman and astronomer showed the world was moving forward with science the Renaissance period totally turned the conventional thinking on its head paradigm shift further from church power Inductive method method by which scientists turn individual observations and experiments into general laws Francis Bacon 1562 1650 idea and studying radical doubt and the development of the scientific revolution Epistemology how we know what we know a concept brought about by Rene Descartes 15961650 impact of Western Scientific thought and the scientific revolution Chinese Board of Astronomy Official department of the Chinese imperial court created in the early 17 Century that was responsible for devising the ritual calendar headed by jesuit Ferdinand Verbiest in 1669 givene them the latest equitment better than previous muslim also allowed for western adaptation of eastern tech 2way flow Celestial order harmonies with earthly Auspicious timing for a wide variety of ceremonies and undertaking to ensure success made study of movement of the heavens very important to Chinese observatory had 4 centuries of existence behind itJesuits missionaries skilled in different technical areas but astronomy was most important State system Organization of early modern Europe into competing nationstates following the 30years war and treaty of westphalia in 1648 The dream of bringing back the Roman Empire was not going to be possible anymore with the splitting of powers and states with different rulers est the modern idea of soveri gnty and state serving a moral virtue and happiness Holy Roman Empire 1519 A loose federation of states under an elected emperor that consisted primarily of Germany and northern Italy It endured in various forms from 800 to 1806 After European states solidified their political independence and exerted more control over their inhabitants hopes of reviving unity of Ancient Roman Empire b faded so King Charles Hapsburg ruler of Spain came up with this idea Realpolitiks realistic politicsstate serves only itself and is not subject to moral law any excesses permissible for state security rulers sole guide was his own interest maintaining his power should pretend to be virtuous keeping faith only when advantageous Last influence of the Prince book from 1513 by Machiavelli Law of nations Thomas Aquinas said all states must obey and that governs the relationships between them never said what it was or how it was codified Made it possible to construct an international order along lines first proposed earlier in the 16C by a predecessor in Spain positive human law could rule in sprite of religion helped est the right to make laws admin justice in their realm and btwn through use of treaties Ming dynasty 1368 1644 China the world s wealthiest state the time probably true to the 18C Emperor in theory had unlimited powers Mandarins 20000 educated in Confucian Classics Confucian econ tradition restored after Mongol rule thought some mongol practices were kept science restricted it in practice Emperors tried to play other forces Buddhist clergy churches army off against Mandarins but failed FALL OF DYNASTY Ecological disasters and civil strife Since 1590s relied on Manchu to police Mongolian frontier Noted for its flourishing foreign trade and achievements in scholarship and the arts Manchus A people native to Manchuria who ruled China during the Qing Their army started a Chinese civil war and conquered China and dethroned the last Ming emperor in 1644 They imposed their own values on China The Manchu ruled China until 1912 they commanded everyone to shave their heads in Manchu fashion rather the Confucian ways of keeping their hair because it was sacred to them Qing dynasty 16441912 Dynasty of the Manchus Last imperial Chinese dynasty founded when the Manchus a steppeland people from Manchuria conquered China it was succeeded by a republic Qing means pure water and replaced the Ming which means fire Scholars mandarins saw Qings as guarantors or people who owed them money Qing rulers deferred to Confucian traditions Warlords a common enemy Qing had a power base in Manchu warrior elite Held in power their rule for the longest of all of Chinese dynasties Power base in Manchu warrior elite strengthened chinese identity from same culturelanguage Samurai traditional warrior class suffered from peacetime brought them low wages low land values high interest rates and stagnation in their pensions eventually most became freelance soldiers who would move from lord to lord to make money was a large part of Japanese society that were part of the elite class that fell to the low class because of peacetime in the Japanese colony Daimyo Japanese feudal lord who ruled a province and was subject to shoguns underemployed freelance soldiers drifting between service to different lords who rarely got paid samurai proper salaries contributed to Japanese society preserved peace Tokugawa A family of shoguns that ruled Japan in the name of emperors from 1603 1868 Ruled with daimyo and were the sole leaders of Kyoto during their time period helped to make political alliances They brought stability and economic expansion rise of money economy merchants and peasant prospered hard for traditional samurai warrior elite Maroons Runaway slaves in the America who formed autonomous communities and even states between 1500 and 1800 little kingdoms Spanish colonizers and conquerors found native wives in these communities Dahomey rises early 17C presentday Benin Warrior society not economically dependent on slave trade but actively participated correlation of slave economy and levels of violence became a strong force in the Africa in 1617 century Kongo Kingdom located in west central Africa along the Congo River founded in the 14 C The Portuguese converted its rulers and elite to Catholicism in the 15C Malthus Thomas Malthus theory that population growth would always outpace growth in food suppw Overpopulation is rare in history People tend to breed less when they attain prosperity the world has reached over 6 million but our food supply has increased also Urbanization Process of which urban area develop and expand 18 C Urbanization increases in Europe and the Americas concentration of landholdings in Britain concentration of landholdings in Britain most intense concentration of industry found in East and South Asia economic boom in Korea and Japan Highlevel equilibrium trap a situation in which an economy that is meeting high levels of demand with traditional technology finds that it has little scope to increase its output China couldn t increase production of cotton but England was increasing their cotton output by a lot made chinese market vulnerable China relied on traditional production methods and Europe could make production faster and more efficient Industrialization The process by which an industrial economy is developed when complex set of economic demographic and technological events that began in western Europe and resulted in the advent of an industrial economy lt created jobs technology and advanced societies in Europe sanitary and increased productivity Scientific revolution The sweeping change in the investigation of nature and the view of the universe that took place in Europe in the 16 and 17 C This is the time when the Copernicus Revolution happened Francis Bacon Rene Descartes and Issac Newton and Galileo all made significant ideas and contributions to science and society Physiocrat18th French political economist who argued that agriculture was the foundation of any country s wealth and recommended agricultural improvements ln 17903 Agricultural promoted Englishstyle changes in Spain and Spanish America and similar movements were happening all over Europe MAJOR THEMES OF THE COURSE possible essay questions but don t really know how to make specific examples of this Contact and exchanges between peoples and cultures Trade and economic relations Exchange of ideas germs foods Con ict and warfare exchange of military methods and technologies Exchanges or migrations of populations voluntary and involuntary Political institutions their challenges and developments Organizing states over large distances Relationships between one or few and many rulers and ruled The nature of the body politic subjects of the Emperor Members of the nation Citizens of the Republic Economic links and changes Shaping of the global system of economic exchange Imperialism Globalization Industrial revolution manufacturing mechanization their impact on society Global haves and have nots at various periods in history their relations Culture religion arts and society Contact and exchanges between societies in thought and religion Western science and technology and their challenges and acceptances in other societies Enlightenment globally Socialism globally Christianity Islam and Buddhism globally Challenges to the dominant rational Enlightenment paradigm from East and West
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