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KIN 512- Study Guide

by: Kieron Notetaker

KIN 512- Study Guide KIN 512

Kieron Notetaker
GPA 3.66

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About this Document

Study Guide/ Answers
Research Methods
Dr. Cole
Study Guide
research methods
50 ?




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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kieron Notetaker on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to KIN 512 at Western Illinois University taught by Dr. Cole in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Physical Education at Western Illinois University.


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Date Created: 04/24/16
KIN  512  (Research  Methods)   Exam  Study  Guide     1.    Definitions  of  various  terms  (research,  inductive,  deductive,  IRB,  variable,  ethics,  ethical,   and  ethic,  experiment,  reflexivity).     Experiment-­‐‑  the  investigator  manipulates  variables  while  observing  them   Research-­‐‑  the  process  of  gathering  information  to  solve  a  problem  or  answer  a  question   Ethic  –  “A  body  of  moral  principles  or  values”   Ethical  –  “of  or  pertaining  to  ethics”–“in  accordance  with  professional  standard  for  right  conduct   or  practice”   Ethics  –  “a  system  of  moral  principles”–“the  branch  of  philosophy  dealing  with  right  and  wrong  of   certain  actions  and  with  good  and  bad  of  such  actions   Reflexivity-­‐‑is  an  attitude  of  attending  systematically  to  the  context  of  knowledge  construction,   especially  to  the  effect  of  the  researcher,  at  every  step  of  the  research  process.   Inductive  research-­‐‑  involves  the  search  for  pattern  from  observation  and  the  development  of   explanations; is  concerned  with  the  generation  of  new  theory  emerging  from  the  data   Deductive-­‐‑is  aimed  and  testing  theory,  an  inductive  approach     Variable-­‐‑  is  defined  as  anything  that  has  a  quantity  or  quality  that  varies.   Theory-­‐‑  Set  of  interrelated  facts  presenting  a  systematic  view  of  some  phenomenon  in  order  to   describe,  explain,  &  predict  its  future  occurrences   Study-­‐‑  The  investigator  observes  or  assesses  without  changing  the  environment  in  any  way.       2.   Qualities  of  good  research   -­‐‑RESEARCH  QUESTIONS  with  practical  or  theoretical  SIGNIFICANCE   -­‐‑TERM  that  are  CLEARLY  DEFINED   -­‐‑RESEARCH  QEUSTIONS  adequately  POSITIONED  in  the  literature   -­‐‑Appropriate  PARTICIPANTS   -­‐‑APPROPRATE  INSTRUMENTAITON  for  generating  the  needed  data   -­‐‑Results  presented,  interpreted,  and  synthesized  to  answer  the  RESEARCH  QUESTION   -­‐‑Report  is  written  CLEARLY,  AESTHETICALLY,  AND  UNAMBIGUOUSLY       3.   The  different  types  of  research  methods  (i.e.  qualitative  and  quantitative)       Qualitative   Quantitative   Definitions   a  systematic  subjective  approach  used  to   a  formal,  objective,  systematic   process  for   describe  life  experiences  and  give  them  meaning   obtaining  information  about  the  world.  A   method  used  to  describe,  test  relationships,  and   examine  cause  and  effect  relationships.   Goals   To  gain  insight;  explore  the  depth,  richness,  and   To  test  relationships,  describe,  examine  cause   complexity  inherent  in  the  phenomenon.   and  effect  relations   Characteristics   •   Soft  science   •   Hard  science   •   Focus:  complex  &  broad   •   Focus:  concise  &  narrow   •   Holistic   •   Reductionistic   •   Subjective   •   Objective   •   Dialectic,  inductive  reasoning   •   Logistic,  deductive  reasoning   •   Basis  of  knowing:  meaning  &  discovery   •   Develops  theory   •   Basis  of  knowing:  cause  &  effect,   relationships   •   Shared  interpretation   •   Tests  theory   •   Communication  &  observation   •   Control   •   Basic  element  of  analysis:  words   •   Individual  interpretation   •   Instruments   •   Basic  element  of  analysis:  numbers   •   Uniqueness   •   Statistical  analysis   •   Generalization   Data  types   •   Words,  images,  themes,  objects  and  categories   •   Numeric  variables  and  statistics     Which  design  uses  a  “systematic  subjective  approach”?  -­‐‑  Qualitative     Which  design  seeks  to  determine  “cause  and  Effect”?  -­‐‑  Quantitative       Which  design  is  considered  the  a  “soft  science”  and  more  “holistic”?  -­‐‑  Qualitative       Which  design  is  has  a  “concise  and  narrow  focus”?  Quantitative       Which  design  has  “the  ability  to  generalize  results  to  large  groups”?  -­‐‑  Quantitative       Which  design  results  in  “richer  data”?  -­‐‑  Qualitative       Which  design  Results  in  more  “contextual  descriptions”?  -­‐‑  Qualitative       Which  design  Results  in  more  “tangible  information”?  -­‐‑  Quantitative               4.   APA  formatting     APA  is  complex  system  of  citation.    Use  the  correct  language,  Use  (and  convey)  the  correct   information,  Use  the  correct  format.       Use  signal  verbs:  Acknowledge,  contend,  respond,  report,  argue,  conclude,  maintain.       5.   Key  studies  that  have  impacted  research  methodology  and  the  treatment  of   participants/subjects   •1939  Stuttering  Study  (Iowa)-­‐‑ orphan  children-­‐‑  “Monster  Study”-­‐‑ Theory  improved  treatment  and   understanding  of  stuttering   •1932  Tuskegee  Syphilis  Study  (Alabama)  -­‐‑ 1932-­‐‑1972   •1947  Nuremberg  Code  (Germany)-­‐‑ Written  in  1947  as  a  result  of  the  human  experimentation  that   occurred  during  World  War  II   •1961  Milgram  Experiments  (Connecticut)     •1971  Stanford  Prison  Study  (California)   •2006  Stem  Cell  Research  (US  Government     6.   Literature  review   a.   What  is  it?   b.   How  is  it  different  from  a  research  paper  and  an  annotated  bibliography?   c.   What  sort  of  information  should  you  include  in  your  review  of  literature?   -­‐‑A  description  &  summary  of  the  published  sources  related  to  a  specific  topic   Difference  from  annotated:   -­‐‑Synthesizing  published  literature  by:   §   Summarizing   §   Classifying  and     §   Comparing   •   Select  a  topic   Identify  area  of  interest  and  narrow   •   Locate  overview  literature     Locate  literature  and  read  to  get  an  overview  of  issues  that  have  been  covered   (researched/investigated/accepted)   •   Establish  specific  purpose  for  review   Trace  historical  developments,  summarize  and  evaluate  issues,  estimate  degree  of   effectiveness,  identify  areas  for  future  research   •   Evaluate  and  interpret  literature   Consider  the  value  of  the  literature/studies,  the  methods  used  in  the  studies,  flaws  in  the   research,  supporting  theories   •   Synthesize  literature   Group  sources  according  to  similarities  and  differences   •   Plan  and  write  first  draft   Prepare  an  outline  and  write  review  following  the  outline   •   Revise  first  draft     Keep  at  it  until  you  are  happy  and  it  is  CLEAR  &  CONCISE     Experimental  design   d.   Types  of  designs   Pre-­‐‑experimental  Designs     One-­‐‑Shot  Study-­‐‑    XO   PROBLEMS-­‐‑  nothing  to  compare  result  to:     One-­‐‑  group  (Pre  and  post  test)  -­‐‑  XOX   PROBLEMS-­‐‑  no  control  group     Static  Group  comparison   PROBLEM-­‐‑  Differential  selection,  Experimental  mortality     True  Experimental  Designs:     Randomized-­‐‑Group  Design   Pretest-­‐‑Posttest  Randomized  Groups  Design   Solomon  Four  Group  Design   Quasi-­‐‑Experimental  Designs     Time-­‐‑Series  Design-­‐‑  OOOXOOO     Reversal  Design     Ex  Post  Facto  Design   Switch-­‐‑Replication  design   Factorial   3  or  more  levels  of  treatment  are  studied   Design  notations   X-­‐‑  Independent  variable  (the  CAUSE)   O-­‐‑  Observation  (measurement  of  effect)   R-­‐‑  Randomly  assigned  groups   X  &  O  -­‐‑  are  same  line-­‐‑  apply  to  same  subjects   -­‐‑-­‐‑-­‐‑  dashed  lines-­‐‑  NO  random  assignment  of  subject  to  groups   e.   Pros  and  cons  of  different  designs   7.   Internal  and/or  external  validity     a.   Definitions   b.   Threats  and  methods  to  minimize  threats   INTERNAL:   History-­‐‑events  occurring  during  the  experiment  that  are  not  part  of  the  treatment.   Maturation-­‐‑  processes  within  the  participants  that  operate  as  a  result  of  time  passing   Testing-­‐‑  the  effects  of  one-­‐‑test  on  subsequent  admirations  of  the  same  test   Instrumentation:  changes  in  instrument  calibration,  including  lack  of  agreement  within  and  between  observers   Statistical  regression-­‐‑  the  fact  that  groups  selected  ion  the  basis  of  extreme  on  subsequent  testing   Selection  bias-­‐‑  choosing  comparison  groups  in  a  nonrandom   manner   Experimental  mortality-­‐‑  the  passage  of  time  affecting  one  group  but  not  the  other  in  nonrandom  reasons   Selection-­‐‑maturation  interaction -­‐‑  the  passage  of  time  affecting  one  group  but  not  the  other  in  nonequivalent  group  designs   Expectancy-­‐‑  experiments  or  test  anticipating  that  certain  participants  will  perform  better   EXTERNAL:  The  extent  to  which  the  results  of  a  study  can  be  generalized  to  other  situations  and  to  other  people   -­‐‑Reactive  or  interactive   effects  of  testing   -­‐‑Interaction  of  selection  bias  and  the  experimental  treatment   -­‐‑Reactive  effect  of  experimental  arrangements   -­‐‑Multiple-­‐‑treatment  interference:   Methods  to  minimizing  threats:   1.By  Argument     2.By  measurement  or  observation     3.By  design    4.By  analysis    5.By  preventive  action   Qualitative     c.   Methods  for  gathering  data  –  using  qualitative  methodology       ∗ Quantitative  Methods   ∗   Qualitative  Methods   ∗   Interviews  (semi  structured  or  unstructured)   ∗ Closed  ended  survey  items   ∗   Observation-­‐‑  natural  and  challenging   ∗ Rating  scales   ∗   Focus  groups-­‐‑  6-­‐‑10  homogenous  ind.   ∗   Documents     ∗ Rankings   ∗   Videos   ∗   Audio  recordings   ∗ Measureable  responses   ∗   Flexible  style  of  collection  for  eliciting  and  categorizing  responses   (numbers  assigned  to  responses )     ∗ Rigid  style  of  collection  for  eliciting  and   -­‐‑Phenomenology-­‐‑Research  method  AND  philosophical  approach   categorizing  responses   -­‐‑Ethnography-­‐‑Anthropological  roots  in  identifying  the  many  cultures  we  inhabit   -­‐‑How  is  culture  shared/taught/communicated?  -­‐‑Symbols,  Policy,  Rituals,  Hierarchies   -­‐‑Grounded  Theory-­‐‑Sociological  foundation  in  early  20th  century   What  processes  occur  in  (a  social  context)?   Through  what  processes  does  (X)  happen?   -­‐‑Narrative  Inquiry-­‐‑  Designed  to  gain  deeper  and  richer  understanding  of  participants’  experiences   -­‐‑Action  Research-­‐‑Practical  inquiry  designed  to  produce  a  specific  change  or  improvement   -­‐‑Case  study   -­‐‑Historical   Interviewing   Types  of  interviews   1.   Informal  conversational-­‐‑ no  predetermined  questions  are  asked,  in  order  to  remain  as  open   and  adaptable  as  possible  to  the  interviewee’s  nature  and  priorities;  during  the  interview  the   interviewer  “goes  with  the  flow”.   2.   Predetermined  and  standardized  open-­‐‑ended-­‐‑  the  interviewers  adhere  to  a  strict  script,  and   there  is  no  flexibility  in  the  wording  or  order  of  questions   3.   Semi-­‐‑structured-­‐‑ the  interviewer  has  an  outline  of  topics  or  issues  to  be  covered,  but  is  free  to   vary  the  wording  and  order  of  the  questions  to  some  extent     Strengths  and  limitations  of  using     PORS:                 CONS:   -­‐‑Gathers  large  of  data  quickly   -­‐‑Intervene  may  bee  unwilling  to  share  all  that  the  interviewer  hopes   -­‐‑Can  take  place  in  person,  on  internet,  or  phone        -­‐‑  Interviewer  may  not  ask  questions  that  evoke  long   narratives   -­‐‑Provides  more     depth  about  the  topic                                  -­‐‑Responses  may  not  be  comprehended  as  intended                       Steps  in  the  process:   1.   Determine  the  interviewees   2.   Formulate  questions   3.   Establish  a  communicative  atmosphere   4.   Plan  method  for  recording  response   5.   Create  an  interview  guide   6.   Conduct  interview   Participant  observation-­‐‑    Natural  and  challenging,  -­‐‑  effective  b/c  access,  intuitive  understanding   Media  analysis-­‐‑     Process  for  collecting  and  organizing  data  –   i.   Deliver  question     ii.   Listen  to  the  respondent   iii.   Observe  the  respondent   iv.   Evaluate  the  response   v.   Probing  the  response   The  I’s  have  it:   •   Immerse   •   You  organize  the  data,  become  as  familiar  with  it  as  possible   •   Incubate     •   Let  the  data  sink  in,  let  it  just  stew  in  your  head     •   Insight   •   Meaning  will  come  from  the  data,  what  is  the  data  telling  you   •   Interpretation   Code  and  recode  development  of  meaning  and  working  to  “tell  the  story   Identifying  categories   1.   Word  or  phase  describing  segment  of  your  data   2.   Identify  similarities  and  differences  among  the  data   3.   Discrete  (i.e.  a  variable)   4.   Generated  from  theories  or  emerge  from  the  data   5.   It  is  personal  to  you     6.   Examples   Trustworthiness-­‐‑  Persuasion  of  audience  that  data,  analytic  methods,  and  analytic  findings  are  merit  attention;   Reasonable  claim  of  methodological  soundness;  What  is  the   truth  data  and  process   Credibility-­‐‑ Plausibility  of  stud  findings;  Key  question  or  issue  addressed;  Do  results  capture  what  is  really  occurring?;   Achieved  through  triangulation  of  data,  long  term  engagement,  peer  examination  and  member  checks   Dependability-­‐‑ Ability  to  learn  and  understand  wha t  is  really  occurring;  Are  the  results  believable;  Achieved  through   triangulation  of  data,  peer  debriefing,  and  member  checks   Transferability-­‐‑ Ability  to  apply  findings  to  similar  environments;  Is  there  enough  descriptive  information  to  allow  a   reader  to  determine  whether  results  are  applicable  to  similar  contexts;  Achieved  through  rich  descriptions  of   participants  and  themes   Confirmability -­‐‑  a  degree  of  neutrality  or  the  extent  to  which  the  findings  of  a  study  are  shaped  by  the   respondents  and  not  researcher  bias,  motivation,  or  interest   Audit  Trail-­‐‑ Reproducible  progression  of  study  design,  data,  and  analytic  steps   Rich  and  thick  Description-­‐‑ Thick,  meaning-­‐FULL  explanations  and  depictions  clearly  and  sharply  defining   concept/subject  matter  to  reader   Triangulation-­‐‑  Verification  of  findings  by  compare/contrast  with  similar  sources/reports/accounts   Peer  Debriefing-­‐‑ Formal  debrief  by  content  or  methodological  expert;  Typically  examines  background  info,  data   collection  and  management  procedures,  ALL  data,  a nalytic  procedures  and  research  findings   Member  checking-­‐‑  Participants  given  data  and  asked/allowed  to  verify  findings;  Discussion  of  disagreements  should   refine  findings   2.   Survey  research   —   Surveys  are  common  in  psychological  and  educational  research.   —   A  quality  survey  aligns  with  purpose  and  mode  of  data  collection.   —   Pilot  testing  and  modifications  improve  quality.   —   Response  rate  and  nonrespondents  are  important  issues  for  interpretation  of  survey  results.   —   Various  means  can  be  used  to  collect  survey  data.   —   Researchers  should  consider  the  implications  of  the  survey  method  used.   —   Design  Methodology,  Determine  Feasibility,   Develop  Instruments ,  Conduct  Pilot  Test,  Revise   Instruments,  Select  Sample,  Conduct  Research,  Analyze  Data,  Prepare  Report  


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