Biology 107_Study Guide
Biology 107_Study Guide Biology 107
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Tarr on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 107 at Washington State University taught by William Davis in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Cell Biology and Genetics in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/04/15
SARAHTARR BIOLOGY 107 STUDY GUIDE Chapter 6 and 7 Cell Biology and Cell Membrane 1 How we study cell a Cell Fractionation i separates major components of cell from each other ii Have industrial and medical applications b Microscope 3 important parameters i Resolutionclarity of image dependent on wavelength of energy ii Contrast visible difference in brightness iii Magnification ratio of objects image size to real size c Magni cation i Fluorescence microscopy multiple cell components can be speci cally label with high contrast d Electron Microscopy i Wavelength of electrons is smaller ii Travel in short distance iii 2types 1 Scanning electron Microscopes SEM 2 Transmission electron microscopes TEM 2 Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells a Difference and similarities between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells have Similarities Prokaryotic DNAbounded Plasma No nucleus b by membrane 0 Unbound DNA membranous Cytosol o No membrane nuclear Chromosomes o Flagella envelope 0 Ribosomes Membrane bound organelles Larger Morecomplex Nucleolus I Site of ribosomal RNA rRNA synthesis ii DNA organize into Chromosome iii Chromatin when DNA and proteins of chromosomes are together iv Nuclear lamina 1 Have proteins maintain shape of nucleus 3 Endomembrane system consist of a nuclear envelope b endoplasmic reticulu Connect c Golgi apparatus ed d Lysosomes e Vacuoles f Pa5ma membrane Communicate using vesicle transport SARAHTARR BIOLOGY 107 STUDY GUIDE g Endoplasmic Reticulum Biosynthetic Factory i Two regions 1 2 Smooth ER no ribosomes a Synthesis lipids b Metabolizes carbohydrate c Stores calcium Rough ER ribosomes on surface a Bound ribosomes b Distributes transport vesicles c Membrane factory h Gogi Apparatus shipping and receiving i Made up of cis and trans cisternae ii Not connected to other membrane but receivesends vesicles to other organelles iii Functions 1 2 3 Protein produce by RER Manufactures macromolecules Sorts and package protein for transport 4 Mitochondria and chloroplasts a Mitochondria site of cellular respiration uses oxygen to generate ATP i Double membrane ii Contain circular DNA molecules and free ribosomes iii Inner membrane folds in cristae iv Inner membrane creates mitochondrial matrix b Chloroplasts found in plants an algae photosynthesis site i Double membrane ii Contain circular DNA molecules and free ribosomes iii Contain green pigment chlorophyll iv Structures 1 2 3 4 Outerinner membrane Internal thylakoids Stroma Plastids c Peroxisomes Oxidation i Scavenge reactive oxygen deals with dangerous chemicals ii Peroxisomes specialized metabolic compartments bounded by single membrane d Cytoskeleton i Network of polymers ii Organizes cell structures activities iii Have three layers 1 2 3 4 Microtubulesthickest Microfilaments thinnest components Intermediate filaments bers with diameters in middle range Cilia and agella a Difference in beating patterns b Use for movement Biological Membranes contains SARAHTARR BIOLOGY 107 STUDY GUIDE i lipid bilayer ii amphipathic molecules with hydrophobic hydrocarbon chain tails b plasma membraneouter most cell membrane i uid with embedded proteins uid mosaic model ii unsaturated c Cholesterol range of temperature that a membrane maintains functional uidity i More uidlow temperature ii Less uidhigh temperature 6 Membrane Associated Proteins a lntegral proteins interact with lipid hydrocarbon chains i Anchored in one lea et of lipid bilayer ii Transmembrane extend from one side of membrane 1 Single pass one alpha helix 2 Multipassalphahelical passes through membrane b Peripheral proteins attached to membrane not to lipid bilayer itself c Glycosylation can have either proteins lipids or both major source of information between cells d Membrane associated Protein Functions i Transport ii Enzymatic iii Cell joining iv Attachment to cytoskeleton 7 Synthesis and sidedness of membranes a Inside of ER becomes outside of plasma membrane during secretion b During endocytosis the outside of cell becomes inside of endosomes and lysosomes c Biological membranes are asymmetrical 8 Selective Permeability of Membranes Osmosis equal water concentration 5 of solutes Tonicity solution attract water molecules Hypertonic water levels the cell Hypertonic water enters the cell lsotonic water is equal balance in and out of cell i Crenulation hypertonic environments ii Lysis hypotonic environment iii Plasmolysis hypertonic environment iv Wilting hypotonic environment v Turgor Pressure cells in hypotonic solutions 9 Passive transport a Simple Diffusion Dunc91 SARAHTARR BIOLOGY 107 STUDY GUIDE i Small hydrophobic molecules easily cross membrane ii Small uncharged polar molecules iii Large uncharged polar molecules iv lons do not cross cell membraneneed Chanel Protein or carrier protein to cross cell membrane b Facilitated Diffusion 1 Concentration move from high to low no energy is needed 2 Protein structures produce by cell allow the crossing to cell membranes 3 Can be regulated open closed and turned on or off ii Channel proteins 1 Simple tubes through membrane 2 Open and closed iii Carrier Proteins 1 Conformation changes allow things to bind on one side or membrane and release on other side
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