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Guide for Exam #2

by: Sheri Hill

Guide for Exam #2 BIOL 102

Sheri Hill
GPA 3.5
General Biology
Dr. Storfer

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About this Document

Each PDF file is one week towards the Exam and each has its own section for the exam to study from.
General Biology
Dr. Storfer
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sheri Hill on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 102 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Storfer in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 403 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biology at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 03/04/15
Week 1 towards Exam 2 Wednesday February 25 2 15 525 PM Biodiversity Speda on O A form of macroevolution 0 What is a species I Latin for quotkindquot or quotappearancequot I Originally taxonomy followed the 39morphological species concept39 III Species grouped by the way they look III BUT many look similar and are indistinguishable I Biological species concept Mayr 1927 groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other groups III Key reproductive isolation III Reproductive barriers 0 Prezygotic before egg 0 Temporal isolation salmon run 0 Habitat isolation no contact 0 Behavioral isolation courtship 0 Mechanical isolation parts do not fit 0 Postzygotic 0 Hybrid availability die 0 Hybrid sterility mule I However most species designations are nor based on molecular evidence III Phylogenetic species concept How do species form 0 Allopatric quotother countryquot species I A process 1 Barrier road volcano river 2 Local environments differ 3 Through time adapt to local environment evolution 0 Ex fruit flies O Sympatric quottogetherquot speciation I Not common in animals but in plants III Errors in cell division cause an extra set of chromosomes to form I Animal examples III Lake Victoria cichlids III Seasonal run of salmon How fast is speciation O Gradualism vs punctuated equilibrium I Gradualism slow gradual change whom Darwin thought about I Equilibrium long periods of stasis followed by rapid speciation 0 Fossil records show I Mass extinctions followed by rapid radiation I New species often appear more abruptly then predicted under 39gradualist39 Why do many species 0 Increases in atmospheric oxygen I Allowed aerobic and anaerobic respiration 0 Plate tectonics I Created geographic isolation among species which led to allopatric speciation Biology 102 Page 1 III Case study Australia contains lots of endemic species 0 Climate change I Regular glacial advances and recessions I Constantly changing geographic ranges of species and environmental conditions 0 Mass extinctions I Loss of many species led to many open niches for speciation to occur 0 Adaptive radiation I Evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage I Speciation and phenotypic adaptation of an array of species exhibiting different morphological and physiological traits III Starts from a single ancestor III Can exploit a range of divergent environments General Info 0 Eukaryotic Multicellular Heterotrophic obtain nutrients by eating Most animals reproduce sexually Over 2000000 described extant species Phylum chordata best known 5 z 95 described animal species are invertebrates Why so many animal diversity I quotCambrian Explosionquot formation of hard outer body shells 545 MYA I Radiation of most modern phyla I Well marked in fossil record III Before this soft bodied scavengers herbivores lived III After this more complex organisms lived I Why an explosion III Hypothesis 1 complex predatorprey relationships 0 Led to adaptations for feeding and protections III Hypothesis 2 evolution of gens control form OOOOOOO Cells HIV life cycle 1 Virus binds receptors on cell membrane and enters cell I Enzymes remove proteins of viral capsid 2 Reverse transcriptase RT catalyzes formation of DNA complementary to viral RNA 3 New DNA strand serves as template for complementary DNA strand 4 Double stranded DNA in incorporated into host cell39s genome 5 Viral genes transcribed into mRNA I Some viral DNA copied as the RNA genome for virions 6 mRNA messenger RNA translated into HIV proteins in cytoplasm 7 Capsids protein coats surround new viral RNA genomes 8 New viruses bud from host cell How does HIV get into a cell 0 First in enters through the cell membrane 0 Cell membrane I quotselectively permeablequot I Viruses and other diseases have to quottrickquot it to get in I Structure III Cell membrane structure similar among cells III Phospholipid bilayer 0 Hydrophobic water hating tail interact with aqueous medium Biology 102 Page 2 0 Hydrophilic water loving head oily core Why aren39t cells permeable to other things 0 Cells are selectively permeable I They can39t just let anything pass in or it would get destroyed I Cells need to rid themselves of waste I Cells need to communicate with other cells 0 Mechanisms of cell entry Diffusion I Particles move from an area of high to low concentration I Passive O Mechanism Osmosis I Diffusion of water I Passive I Hypotonic when medium has higher concentration of water than cell I Hypertonic more water in cell than the medium 0 Mechanism Facilitated Diffusion I Substances enter protein carrier and changes shape I After solute moves across membrane the protein returns to original shape I Bigger molecules can pass through I Requires no energy 0 Endocytosis I The substance engulfed by the cell in vesicle o Exocytosis I The substance packed up by the cell and quotsent of quot 11 Bulk transport 0 Mechanism Active Transport I Carrier protein binds to substance being transported and carries it to the other side of the membrane I Most often requires energy I Goes from low to high concentration I Carriers use energy from ATP 0 Mechanism Passive Transport I Downhill in energy I Goes from high to low concentration HIV cell entry 0 It binds to 2 cell receptor proteins in Tcells 0 Cells think it is a necessary protein and they quotlet it inquot Why are cells alive and viruses not 0 Viruses don t have the means of replicating themselves I Protein coats enzymes DNA or RNA 0 Cells are the quotfundamental unit of lifequot I Membrane I Organelles ways to make proteins and to replicate themselves without a host cell Biology 102 Page 3 Week 2 towards Exam 2 Wednesday February 252 2 15 525 PM Cell Structure and Function Once HIV is in what does it do 0 It utilizes the cell organelles to complete its life cycle Then HIV proteins and RNA are released into the cytoplasm O Cytoplasm I Mostly water I Contains proteins and other chemicals I Cell organelles quotfloatquot in it 0 Then HIV uses enzyme reverse transcriptase to change from RNA to DNA I Animal cells are controlled by DNA HIV then moves to the nucleus 0 Nucleus I Control center of the cell I Contains chromosomes III Hereditary material I Surrounded by nuclear envelope I Has nuclear pores III Allows communication with the cell protein synthesis III HIV gets into the pore we don t exactly know how 0 Then HIV uses enzyme integrase to insert itself into the cell39s DNA 0 After HIV starts making copies of itself from proteins I Proteins are made in ribosomes III Some ribosomes are in the cytoplasm while some are in the rough endoplasmic reticulum o Endoplasmic Reticulum ER I Complex networks of tubes and sacs I 2 types 1 quotSmoothquot 0 Small percentage 0 Where lipids and carbohydrates are made 2 quotRoughquot 0 Ribosomes make it bumpy 0 The site of protein synthesis HIV makes the necessary proteins in the rough ER Then has to transport these proteins to the cytoplasm The proteins enter transport vesicles that quotbudquot from the rough ER to the Golgi apparatus Components like lipids to assemble new virions are made in the smooth ER Golgi Apparatus I Directs proteins and lipids to their final destinations in the cell I quotsorting and shipping stationquot HIV uses the Golgi apparatus to sort and ship proteins and lipids to form new virions 0 HIV virions are assembled and parts leave the cell by exocytosis Mitochondria O Comes from the mother only 0 quotpower plantsquot of the cell Animal versus plant cells 0 2 main differences 0000 Biology 102 Page 1 1 Plants have a cell wall in addition to a plasma membrane 2 Plants have chloroplasts for making sugars food for the plant Cellular Communication Cells in multicellular organisms are specialized Although specialized they cannot in isolation Thus cells must communicate with each other 0 Brain feels pain pulls hand away from the heat 0 39Signaling molecules39 proteins and chemicals used for communication Signaling molecules 0 Received by quottarget cellsquot 0 2 types of receptors 1 In membrane III Hydrophilic molecules bind to receptors at the cell surface 2 Inside cell III Hydrophobic molecules pass through membrane 0 Types of signaling molecules I Short range affect only the cells around them III Have a short life span III Ex nitric oxide expansion of the blood vessel walls lowers blood pressure I Long range can travel through the blood I Longer life span III Ex hormones adrenaline estrogen testosterone III Adrenaline response 1 See frightening stimulus snake 2 Brain sends signals to adrenal glands on kidney 3 Produce adrenaline 4 Adrenaline goes to liver 5 Liver breaks down glucose 6 Adrenaline goes to heart 7 The heart beats more increasing the blood flow How can snake venom kill you O Cobra venom has neurotoxins that block signals among nerve cells I quotpostsynaptic blockquot I Results in muscles freezing diaphragm III Leads to difficulty breathing death Biology 102 Page 2 Week 3 towards Exam 2 Wednesday February 25 2 15 5637 PM Cell Division and Cancer Cancer is caused by abnormal cell division 0 Cell division is part of a normal cellular process Cell Cycle 0 Most of the time cells are in interphase I G1 cell growth and normal metabolism I S DNA replication and chromosome duplication I G2 growth and preparation of mitosis O S phase initiates division in chromosomes I Before mitosis DNA replicates and forms into 2 sister chromatids connected by a centromere Chromosomes I DNA slightly wound in cell nucleus III 12 meters of DNA is packed in 5 micrometers I Each species has different numbers and shapes of chromosomes gt karyotypes I Most animals are diploid meaning they carry 2 copies of chromosomes I Pairs of chromosomes are homologous III 1 from mom and 1 from dad I Cells in human body contain 46 chromosomes each III Exception eggs and sperm cells 0 During S phase chromosomes double creating 4 copies 0 Then G phase 0 Then 4 stages of mitosis 1 Prophase III First stage of mitosis III Chromatin condenses ad becomes visible in nucleus III Centromeres move to opposite poles of the cell III Microtubules begin to grow out from centromeres 2 Metaphase III Chromosomes attach to spindle fibers at centromeres III Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell 3 Anaphase III Daughter chromosomes separate III Pulled by spindle fibers to opposite sides of the cell 4 Telophase III Spindle fibers dissolve III New nuclei form III Cytokinesis breaks 2 quotdaughter cellsquot apart How does cancer occur though 0 A single cell loses control of mitosis o Daughter cells divide uncontrollably producing more cells with the same problems 0 If contained the tumor is quotbenignquot 0 If these cancerous cells spread to other parts of the body the tumor is quotmalignantquot Why don t we see cells divide out of control all of the time 0 Cell division is heavily regulated 0 Genes that produce proteins involved in cell division are called quotprotooncogenesquot 0 Tumor suppressor genes prevent cell from dividing Biology 102 Page 1 O For a cell to divide protooncogenes must be turned on and a tumor suppressor must be turned off 0 Certain types of DNA damage causes cells to lose control on mitosis How a cell turns cancerous O Protooncogenes become oncogenes which cause excessive cell division I Works with single mutation o Damage to tumor suppressor genes I Both copies have to be damaged Cancer related to life style 0 Behavioral changes can reduce risk of many types of cancer 0 Smoking is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the US 0 Skin cancer MOST COMMON Meiosis 0 Division of gametes O Produces sperm and eggs 0 2 cellular divisions I Before 2nd division DNA doesn t replicate 0 Major differences from mitosis I Ends up with only 1 copy of chromosomes in eggs and sperm haploid vs 2 copies from mitosis in the rest of the somatic cells diploid I Results in 4 daughter cells 0 It causes variation I Sexual reproduction fusion of gametes causes variation in offspring I There are new chromosome combinations from parents I Variation also is caused by crossing over III Homologous chromosomes switch sections creating new combinations New terms 1 Gametes cells produces for sexual reproduction sperm and eggs 2 Diploid 2 copies of chromosomes 2N found in somatic nonsex cells 3 Haploid 1 copy of chromosomes N found in gametes 4 nterphase noncell division phase not S phase 5 Chromosome pack of tightly wound DNA 6 Homologous chromosomes matching chromosomes inherited from each parent 7 Chromatid when chromosomes replicate sister chromatids are the copies 8 Centromere place where sister chromatids are connected before separating during anaphase 9 Crossing over when sister chromatids exchange chunks of chromosome during meiosis 10 Spindle Fibers attach to centromeres and help drag copied chromosomes to opposite sides of the sell during anaphase 11 Cytokinesis furrowing quotpinching offquot of cell membrane to complete cell division process Immunity and Vaccines Given that bacteria viruses and fungi are everywherewhy aren t we always sick 0 Animals possess an immune system that protects them against most infectious agents 0 3 lines of defense I External defenses on the surface of the body are the first line of defense in animals I Internal defense system III Innate immune system is the second line of defense III Adaptive immune system third line of defense highly specific with specialized defense cells 1st line of defense skin and mucous 0 Skin provides general protection Biology 102 Page 2 O Mucus traps microbes amp debris in respiratory tract 0 Cilia lining walls sweep away mucus amp foreign matter 0 Bypassing 1st line of defense easy for many pathogens I Many pathogens take advantage and breaks into the skin to gain entry to their hosts I Other pathogens are vectored by blood feeding hosts I Yet others are ingested by breathing 2nd line of defense innate immunity 1 Phagocytosis I Macrophages modified white blood cells engulf amp digest microbes by phagocytosis 2 Cellular defenses I Natural killer cells III Modified white blood cells III Do not kill normal cells bc they recognize self proteins in cell membrane III Kill antigens by releasing poreforming proteins III Dissolve cell membrane amp it leaks to death 3 Inflammation I Symptoms III Reddening increased blood flow III Swelling leaky capillaries III Heat increased metabolism and phagocytosis III Pain pressure or damage to nerve endings I Process III Skin is torn III Damaged cells and mast cells release histamine III Histamine makes blood vessels leaky III Macrophages squeeze through leaky vessels and engulf bacteria by phagocytosis III Platelets help seal off wound clotting 4 Fever I Effective part of body s defense against infection I Most bacteria viruses adapted to 986 37 C for replication I Raising body temperature reduces replication rate of invaders I Bacteria need iron at higher temps growth reduced I Higher temperature increases white blood cell activity I Fever induces production of interferon travels to uninfected cells amp increases resistance to virus attack 3rd line of defense adaptive immunity 0 The adaptive immune system has two types of responses 1 Antibodymediated immunity uses B cells to make antibodies 2 Cellmediated immunity uses T cells to destroy cells harboring pathogens 0 Involves 3 steps I Immune system recognizes invader antigen I Immune system launches attack I Immune cells retain a memory of that invader o 2 main players white blood cells I B cells III Mature in bone marrow I T cells III Mature in thymus 0 Step 1 immune system recognizes antigen I Antigens are III Foreign molecule III Unique for each type of foreign invader Biology 102 Page 3 III Unique shapes on cell surface III Different lymphocytes recognize a specific antigen 0 Receptor on this membrane 0 Similar to a lock and key 0 Step 2 attack I Nonspecific defenses attack I B cells and T cells become activated III Bearing receptors specific for antigen III Results in clonal selection 0 Antibody production antibodymediated immunity 0 T cells that match antigen replicate cellmediated immunity 0 Step 3 immune memory I B and T cells that bind to the specific antigen have now have replicated III Disproportionately represented among population of white blood cells III B cells are producing antibodies III Circulating in blood I Antibodymediated immunity III memory B cells produce antibodies specific for antigen 0 Activate complement proteins make holes in plasma membranes 0 Increase phagocytosis 0 Antibodies bind directly to antigens neutralizing toxins and proteins I Cellmediated immunity III Memory Helper Tcells show antigens to other cells in immune system III Memory Cytotoxic Tcells destroy bodies own cells that are infected damaged 0 Bind to infected cells 0 Release poreforming proteins and dissolve cell membrane I Immune Response Memory III 1st encounter takes the body several days to mount attack I 2nd encounter 0 Much quicker response 0 During primary response 0 Memory B and T cells already activated against pathogen 0 Antibodies Vaccines O Vaccines work by simulating adaptive immunity by exposing people to antigens 0 Two types of vaccines I live a live virus or bacterium is used although attenuated III Attenuated pathogens are usually missing key genes that make the host sick I Dead or antigen pathogen is not alive or perhaps just antigen is in vaccine Myths about vaccines I They cause autism I Vaccinated people can make other people sick I quotIt39s my right to refuse it won39t hurt anybodyquot Concerns I Vaccines can make you sick true but very RARE Benefits I They far outweigh the costs I We have virtually wiped out or completely eradicated certain diseases with vaccines III Ex small pox polio mumps whooping cough tetanus rabies etc Why don t flu shots work as well as other vaccines I There are several strains all with different antigens Types of immune cells 0 Nonspecific O O O 0 Biology 102 Page 4 I Macrophages White blood cells that engulf invading microbes amp alert other immune cells I Neutrophils phagocytic white blood cells I Natural killer cells WBCs that destroy infected cells 0 Specific I B cells Lymphocytes that produce antibodies III Plasma cells secrete antibodies into bloodstream III Memory B cells provide future immunity I T cells Lymphocytes that regulate response III Cytotoxic cells destroy specific targeted cells III Helper T cells stimulate immune responses III Memory T cells provide future immunity Biology 102 Page 5 Week 4 towards Exam 2 Monday March 2 2 15 213 PM Traits Widow39s peak dominant Detached earlobes dominant Attached earlobes recessive Phenotype description of the physical appearance Genotype the genetic basis for appearance and other unseen traits Look a cell 0 Chromosomes are found in the nucleus Human chromosomes are in pairs diploid One pair is homologous Locus location of a particular gene on a chromosome Homozygous 2 copies same allele blueblue Heterozygous 2 copies different alleles red green Say that the red allele means detached earlobes and green allele means attached I We know that attached earlobes is dominant I So the persons genotype is redgreen BUT their phenotype is detached earlobes 0 Look at the locus codes for hairline I Blue means straight hairline phenotype I This person will have a straight hairline resulting only when both alleles are the same color or blue Dominant allele one dominant allele present in the genotype automatically expressed in the phenotype masks recessive Recessive allele both copies on a homologous chromosome must be the same for the recessive trait to be expresses in the phenotype OOOOOO Inherhance Meiosis division of gametes 0 Makes sperm and eggs 0 Has 2 cellular divisions I Before 2nd division the DNA does not replicate 0 Major differences from mitosis I Ends up in 1 copy of chromosomes haploid in eggs and sperm VS 2 copies diploid from mitosis in the rest of the somatic cells I Results in 4 daughter cells 0 This causes variation I Sexual reproduction fusion of gametes causes variation in offspring I New chromosome combinations are made from the parents I Sometimes caused by crossing over homologous chromosomes switch sections creating new sections I Can create new chromosome combinations III Homologous chromatids can cross over III Sexual reproduction causes variation in offspring III I can roll my tongue dominant but my mom cant recessive 0 Let39s say R is the allele for rolling and r is the allele for not 0 Can my dad roll his tongue yes 0 What my mom39s genotype rr 0 What my dad39s genotype either Rr or RR Gregor Mendel O Austrian monk Biology 102 Page 1 0 Studies on plant hybridization inheritance Laid foundation for modern genetics Results published in 1865 I Not recognized till 1900 His first experiment 1 He removed the stamens from a purple flower preventing selffertilization 2 He transferred the pollen from the white to the purple plant 3 The plants made seeds 4 He planted the seeds and observed the offspring F1 phenotypes 5 He then bred the F1s together 6 He observed the F2 phenotypes I Results F1 generation were all purple F2 generation 34 were purple 14 were white being purple was dominant and white recessive I These experiments resulted in the Principle of Segregation III Paris of alleles segregate separate during gamete formation and the fusion of the gametes at fertilization creates allele pairs again 0 His second experiment I Dihybrid cross green or yellow and round or wrinkled peas 2 traits III F1 generation all yellow peas yellow and round are dominant III F2 generation he predicted 31 ratio 0 He got 9331 ratio 9 were yellow round 3 were yellow wrinkled 3 were green round 1 was green wrinkled This is because there were 2 different loci and chromosomes sort independently so all possible gametes are formed III These experiments resulted in the Principle of Independent Assortment 0 Each pair of alleles segregates independently of one another during gamete formation 00 0 00000 Types of dominance O Codominance example ABO blood types I Gene that controls ABO blood type codes for enzyme that dictates the structure of a glycolipid on blood cells I 2 alleles IA or IB are codominant when paired I The 3rd allele i is recessive to others 0 Incomplete dominance I Mendel39s 3rd experiment with snapdragons I When mixed red and white flowers F1 generation was pink intermediate I F2 generation had a 121 ratio III Of homozygous red III To heterozygous pink III To homozygous white Most traits though are not coded for by single genes 0 Polygenic traits influenced by multiple genes I Ex skin color eye color 0 Human skin color is codominant and influenced by 3 genes 0 The greater the number of genes and environmental factors that affect a trait the more continuous the variation in versions of that trait Genetic Disorders 1 Single gene mutation I gt6000 known disorders I 1 in 200 inherit predictably Biology 102 Page 2 I Ex cystic fibrosis sickle cell anemia Huntington39s disease 2 Multifactorialpolygenic I Combinations of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes I Ex breast cancer 3 Chromosomal I Duplication part of chromosome is repeated and passed on to offspring I Inversion a linear stretch of the DNA is inverted in the chromosome I Deletion loss of a segment of a chromosome and most are lethal I Nondisjunction III Problem during meiosis when homologous chromosomes do not separate properly during Anaphase 1 III Causes aneuploidy in offspring 0 Major cause of human reproduction failure 0 Most human miscarriages are aneuploids 0 Ex of aneuploidy Down syndrome Turner syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Jacob syndrome 4 Mitochondrial I Very rare Inheritance patterns 0 Autosomal in nonsex chromosome recessive if both parents are heterozygous the child will have a 25 chance of being affected I Ex CF 0 Autosomal dominant trait often appears in every generation I Ex Achondroplasia O Xlinked recessive carried X chromosome only I Males show more than females I Son cannot inherit from father I Ex color blindness hemophilia Genetics terms 1 genotype genetic type what genes a person has for a particular trait usually represented by 2 alleles for example genotype Ff 2 phenotype physical appearance influenced by one or many genes for example a person with genotype Ff or ff has freckles which is their phenotype 3 gene segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein 4 allele different forms of a gene 5 chromosome tightly wound up DNA that contains many loci and therefore many genes 6 homologous chromosomes pairs of chromosomes that contain the same genes inherit one from mom and one from dad 7 diploid 2 copies of chromosomes and hence the genes on them 8 homozygous 2 copies of the same allele eg FF or ff on homologous chromosomes 9 heterozygous different alleles on homologous chromosomes eg Ff 10 Punnett square determines offspring genotypes by matching up parental genotype Genetic Concepts 11 dominant if one dominant allele is present in the genotype it is automatically expressed in the phenotype although there are 2 copies in diploid organisms it masks the other allele on the other chromosome Freckles are a dominant trait so if a person has either the genotype FF or Ff they will have the freckle phenotype 12 recessive for a recessive allele to be expressed it has to be present on both chromosomes No freckles are recessive so a person must have the genotype ff to have no freckles as their phenotype 13 codominant both copies are expressed eg quotredquot gene on one chromosome and white gene Biology 102 Page 3 on another chromosome gt genotype redwhite but phenotype pink A plant with codominant flower color genes would have red flowers if the genotype is RR white flowers if the genotype is WW and pink flowers if the genotype is RW Biology 102 Page 4


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