GEOL110_Natural Hazards Exam3
GEOL110_Natural Hazards Exam3 GEOL 110
Long Beach State
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Doris M on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 110 at California State University Long Beach taught by Ewa Burchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters in Geology at California State University Long Beach.
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Date Created: 04/24/16
I-clicker questions How could a community/state/country best use a runup map to prepare for a tsunami? -Locate the areas most likely to be inundated to possibly move critical services outside these areas. What did scientists discover about tropical ecology after the 2004 Indonesian Tsunami? -Coastal mangrove forests partly protected villages from the energy of the tsunami where the waves were smaller. What is a difficulty in the probabilistic approach to tsunami hazard risk? -tsunamis are generally rare events at one particular location What is the difference btwn a tsunami watch and a tsunami warning? -watch-an earthquake that can cause a tsunami has occurred warning- a tsunami has been detected and is spreading across the ocean towards the area Even is a community is "tsunami ready" what is the potential problem? -Education of the hazard and what to do in a watch or warning When a tsunami watch or warning is issued, you can take your own personal actions. Which is not an action you should take? -assume the area is safe because there have not been any dangerous waves elsewhere. How can tsunami waves be so deceiving? -all of these are ways that tsunami wave are deceiving -the trough may arrive first -they look small out at sea because of the distance to the horizon -the time btwn waves may be as long as an hr -they normally don’t break like regular ocean waves What was no a problem associated with the 2011 Japanese Earthquake and tsunami? -the small village of Fudai had built a much higher wall than ppl thought was necessary in the 1960s. Magma begins to form if rocks are close to their melting temp and the pressure from above is decreased in the process called… -decomposition melting If you were watching waves from the shore and started counting the seconds btwn one crest to the next, what would you be measuring? -wave period Which doesn’t describe the size and movement of a wave? -swell The size of waves in the ocean or on a lake depend on -the speed and duration of the wind and length of the fetch Which is a serious coastal hazard? -tsunami Which doesn’t affect coastal topography? -population How can the color of the soil help in possible hazard risk assessment? -red soil usually signifies its poorly drained, which can lead to higher slope instability How does the study of soils help evaluate natural hazards? -all these are ways that scientists have used sol in evaluation of natural hazards -the chronology of deformed earth materials from faulting has led to better calculations of earthquake recurrence intervals -the frequency of landslide can be estimated from the relative age of the soils -soil properties can help determine natural floodplains With the addition of levees, how does the natural flood plain change? -the area of wetlands is decreased What distinguishes flashfloods from downstream floods? -flashfloods occur in the upper part of the basin Online study guide questions (1-10) Which of the following is the best match between climate and soil hazard? Expansive soils with distinct wet and dry seasons Where does the majority of soil originate from? It comes from weathered rock Which of the following is NOT a normal definition of soil erosion? Dissolution of flowing acidic groundwater to produce a large underground opening What is subsidence? A sinking of the ground surface Which of the following does NOT cause ground subsidence? Creation of permanently frozen ground where no thawing ever occurs Which of the following is NOT a Natural Service Function of subsidence? Sinkholes can be used for landfills. Which of the following is NOT usually caused by land subsidence or soil volume change? Disease Which of the following is the correct link between the soil and its horizon classification? O is organic material. How does pumping oil contribute to land subsidence? Oil is removed, which removes the buoyant support it provided for the earth material, causing it to be more compacted. In a region susceptible to sinkhole formation, the most likely times for collapse will be When groundwater levels are low. Vocabulary -weathering: the physical and chemical breakdown of rocks into smaller pieces and its 1 step in soil development. -soil horizons: a collection of distinct soil layers parallel to the surface -subsidence: a type of ground failure characterized by nearly vertical deformation -karst topography: subsidence is commonly associated with the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone, beneath the surface. -sinkholes: vary in size. Solution sinkhole and collapse sinkhole. -delta plain: in deltas, natural subsidence has to be balanced by additional sedimentation to keep the land surface of the delta, called delta plain, from sinking below sea level. -collapsible soil: soil and sediment where the entire deposit can then collapse and lower the land surface. -potential energy: stored energy -kinetic energy: motion energy -latent heat: the amount of heat that’s absorbed or released when there are changes to the substance. -conduction: the transfer of heat thru substance by means of atomic or molecular interactions. Relies on tem differences -convection: transfer of heat by mass movement of a fluid. Ex water or air -radiation: refers to wavelike energy coming from any substance that possesses heat. -atmosphere: the thin gaseous envelope that surrounds earth. -troposphere: lowest layer, rapid upward decrease in temp that results from decreasing air pressure w/ inc altitude -relative humidity: the ratio of water vapor present in the atmosphere to the max amount of water vapor that could be there for a given temp -atmospheric pressure: areas of low and high pressure -jet streams: westerly winds. Flows from west to east. Encircles the globe and creates severe weather and controls the path of storms -Coriolis effect: the greater the temp difference btwn the colliding air masses, the faster the jet stream flow. -front: the boundary btwn a cooler and warmer air mass -supercell storm: most damaging thunderstorm. Has an upward spiraling column of air -EF scale (Enhanced Fujita): a way to classify tornadoes by most intense damage produced by their path. -cyclone: ex. Hurricane sandy. An area or center of low atmospheric pressure characterized by rotating wind -tropical cyclones: form over warm tropical or subtropical ocean water. Not associated with fronts and have warm central cores. -hurricanes: located in Atlantic and pacific oceans. Happen north of the equator. Also known as typhoons
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