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Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Fatima Ahmed

Exam 2 Study Guide SOP 3932

Fatima Ahmed
GPA 3.75
Psychology of Drugs and Addiction
William Berry

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About this Document

Great review for the exam!!!
Psychology of Drugs and Addiction
William Berry
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Fatima Ahmed on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOP 3932 at Florida International University taught by William Berry in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 356 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Drugs and Addiction in Psychlogy at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 03/04/15
Alcohol 1 0 To obtain alcohol concentrations above 15 distillation is necessary 0 Proof is the alcohol content doubled Distilled products include whisky scotch vodka brandy and other liquors 2 Beer F aundice madness and epilepsy O A theory of alcohol directly affecting the part of the brain responsible for morals 4 O In the 1700 s most people drank and liked alcoholic beverages O 1784 Benjamin Rush wrote a pamphlet indicating a connection between heavy drinking of distilled spirits and jaundice madness and epilepsy seizures Temperance movement distilled spirits should be avoided as toxic grew in popularity throughout the early 1800 s In 1851 Maine was the first state to pass prohibition In 1855 13 states had prohibition but in 1868 9 had repealed them By 1917 64 of the population lived in a quotdryquot area 5 With arriving immigrants and the popularity of beer and wine the temperance movement moved toward abstinence from all alcoholic beverages 6 O In 1851 Maine was the first state to pass prohibition In 1855 13 states had prohibition but in 1868 9 had repealed them Underlying some of the movement toward prohibition was the middle class rural protestant evangelical concern that the good and true life was being undermined by immigrants with their lower standard of morality 000 O OO 7 7 males vs 35 females for reported heavy drinking 8 0 One theory about heavy drinking proposes that social stress and tension as in cities and who approve of alcohol use have more drinking problems 0 A study compared the stress index and alcohol norms and found a correlation with heavy drinking F 0 One drink consists of 1 ounce of spirits 4 ounces of wine or 12 ounces of beer 05 Lowered alertness inhibitions 10 Slower reaction impaired motor function 15 Large consistent increase in reaction time 20 Marked depression in sensory and motor capability 25 Severe motor disturbance staggering 30 Stuporous but conscious no comprehension of what is going on 35 Surgical anesthesia about LD minimal level causing death 40 dead 0 Heavy alcohol use affects every organ in the body 0 Alcohol or its metabolite acetaldehyde can directly damage tissue 0 Malnutrition occurs often in heavy alcohol users as a result of empty calories and feeling full 0000 Marijuana 6 questions l 1926 articles begin to appear associating marijuana with crime and the public then took interest 2 Glaucoma 3 Panic reactions I Some inexperienced smokers react with panic of losing control 4 Recent studies demonstrate rats and squirrel monkeys do selfadminister Studies in animals and humans demonstrate potential for abuse and or dependence 5 Irritability anger or aggression Nervousness or anxiety Sleep difficulty Decreased appetite or weight loss Restlessness Depressed mood At least one of the following physical symptoms causing significant discomfort Abdominal pain shakiness tremors sweating fever chills or headache Hallucinogens 7 questions 1 Used in treatments 2 I Hallucinogens have been used throughout history in a religious spiritual sense I Many of the people who became familiar with the plants were known as Shamans or Medicine Men I LSD is considered to be the most potent psychoactive agent known to man because it produces effects at such low doses I Most potent drug and hallucinogen is LSD 3 Used to try and create a model psychosisquot for study I Used in psychotherapy to get past roadblocks I Experimental treatment for alcohol dependence I Later used in the hope for terminally ill cancer patients to gain a better understanding of their mortality I Secret CIA and Army research F I Absorbed from gastrointestinal tract I Tolerance develops rapidly I Best evidence suggests LSD and other hallucinogens stimulate the serotonin 2A subtype of receptors 5 When the LSD goes into effect in the body the person has a trip A psychedelic experience hallucinations bright colors etc 6 Amphetamine Stimulants 9 questions 1 Angelo Mariani Coca wine 2 Dr WS Halsted Local anesthesia 3 Sigmund Freud Treatment for depression and morphine dependence Ephedrine used in tea in china for hundreds of years Considered a sympathomimetic drug Stimulates the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system Amphetamine is similar and was patented in 1932 first used as a replacement for ephedrine in the treatment of asthma OTC inhaler in 1932 for clearing stuffy noses Some use for narcolepsy 1937 used to treat hyperactivity in children Used by students to cram and truck drivers to stay awake during long hauls Used in WW1 and WWII to decrease fatigue in soldiers 3 IV users of heroin and cocaine learned of amphetamines ability to be substituted for cocaine at a cheaper price Although it was a prescription drug depression or obesity were common treatments Previous treatment for depression Weight control ineffective overall with only minor gains limited in duration over diet versus diet and amphetamine Narcolepsy Hyperactive children Attention Deficit Athletics Ampethamine Cocaine Ephedrine Animals will press a lever a hundred times to get one IV dose of amphetamine suggesting psychological dependence potential With amphetamines there is often a decrease in sexual inhibitions which can lead to changes in sexual orientation and practices while under the in uence 1 Coco paste used in south America mixed with tobacco and smoked 2 Cocaine hydrochloride a salt that mixes easily with water and is so stable it cannot be heated to form vapors for inhalation Intranasal or IV use 3 Freebase extracted into a volatile organic solvent like ether Mixing it with baking soda and water then drying it forms crack Used in WW1 and WWII to decrease fatigue in soldiers Irritation of the nasal septum Binging can lead to irritability restlessness and paranoia In severe cases paranoid psychosis can develop with auditory hallucinations Possible heart damage One of the largest proportions of D A admissions in the United States Most Species will selfadminister until death Crack Babies babies born under the in uence possibly exaggerated Studies indicate no consistent negative findings between prenatal cocaine use and scores on developmental measures in children 6 and under Risk of spontaneous abortion or torn placenta in pregnancy so the book doesn t recommend cocaine use when pregnant According to the DSM IVTR the essential feature of ImpulseControl Disorders is the failure to resist an impulse drive or temptation to perfrom an act that is harmful to the person or to others The behavior can also not be accounted for by another disorder 2 Whether process addictions controversial in the field of addiction treatment Process Addiction Process or behavioral addiction is described as a pattern of maladaptive behavior that results in negative consequences similar to those of substance dependence Identify which one is impulse control disorder Hypersensitivity Personalizing taking things personally False sense of entitlement when people felt like they are owed something Fortune Telling spending all the money on drugs but thinking it ll be okay Proiection blame other people for what is your responsibility Catatrophizing making a small problem seem like a huge problem Fear of emotion when people get high to avoid emotion Minimizing making a big problem seem like no problem Rationalization making a poor decision sound like a good decision lustifying defending choices The first tier of addiction recovery is a cognitive approach Cognitive therapy focuses on the way in which thoughts especially automatic thoughts affect the way we feel and behave Thoughts lead to feelings The chain of Behavior Activating eventgtCore beliefsgtThought59 Feelings Behavior 12 step meetings 2 questions AA Alcoholics anonymous NA Narcotics Anonymous was founded in 1953 and is the second largest 12 step support group CA Cocaine Anonymous is a 12 step support group that that has a similar format to AA It began in Los Angeles in 1982 and was founded by a member of AA Dual Recovery Anonymous is a 12step support group that was founed in Kansas in 1989 and like other support groups was adapted from AA This is intended for those who has been struggling with emotional and psychiatric illness as will as addiction What is different about this group is that in order to treat the psychiatric illness many members may be using prescription medication this may be frowned upon in other 12step meetings such as AA Al ANON Alateen aka AL ANON Family Groups This si the worlds largest support group for friends and families of the alcoholics Historically these meeting developed in the kitchens of the homes of those in AA as the spouses prepared to gather coffee and cakes Specifically it was founded by Lois Wilson wife of Bill Wilson founder of AA in 1951 Alateen serving the population aged 1319 begain in 1957 The majority of the members of AL ANON Family Groups are female The slogan is I didn t cause alcoholism I can t control it and I can t cure itquot This group also follows the 12step culture The first 12step support group Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in 1935 by Bill Wilson and Dr Bob Smith These groups can range from 2 to 200 people with meetings taking place in most cities throughout the country Each support group has a set of officer that are elected and this changes periodically Most groups have either Open O or closed C sessions Open anyone can attend Closed meetings for those who admit having the problem One drawback is that some find the spiritual or religious aspect offputting Brainwashing Recovery Process 0 Yes it is a normal part of recovery the recovery process assumes multiple relapses 0 Core process is recovering persons internal motivation One of the first and most important things that has to occur is the gaining of understanding of how addiction may have occurred for that individual This is important as it helps to begin removing the shame felt by the addicted person Often those caught in an addiction believe they are morally weak or crazy or otherwise fully to blame for their addiction The therapist can help the client become more selfaware and identify unconscious processes Temptation Thought the first level of desire which is the easiest to effect change Thoughts occur naturally and automatically but do not define who one is Automatic thoughts can be easily challenged Automatic thoughts may be entertained Entertaining a thought is when the individual plays with an automatic thought For example a thought of having a beer after a hard day may arise automatically but the individual thinks bout how good it would taste what it was like to drink with the boys in the past etc Urges the second level of desire Can be best described as a motivation for the substance use It can occur as a result of entertaining a thought or as a result of stress and other negative feelings that create more regular and powerful escapist thoughts It is stronger than a thought but can still be challenged Craving The third level of desire and most difficult to challenge is craving Cravings can occur because of withdrawal but can also occur as a result of environmental and psychological triggers for long after the substance is ceased This can occur when thoughts and urges go unchecked and worse when they are entertained Cravings early in recovery are the strongest when a recovering person is feeling overwhelmed by life s stressors experiencing strong negative emotions or when experiencing periods of selfdeprecation Relapse prevention Honesty Openmindedness Willingness


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