Fabian PSYC 1000: Final Exam Study Guide
Fabian PSYC 1000: Final Exam Study Guide PSYC 1010
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This 49 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayden McKenzie on Sunday April 24, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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CH 1: Psychological Science Failure of natural thinking style Hindsight bias – “I knew it all along” Perceiving order in random events Overconfidence – performance and accuracy Scientific Method Theory – the big picture, explains phenomenon, predicts future behavior Hypothesis – testable prediction, consistent with theory Operational definitions – defining research variables Replication – trying it again using the same operational definitions of concepts and procedures Strategies for Gathering Information Case study – examining one individual in depth, danger: can be unrepresentative information Naturalistic observation – observing “natural behavior” (just watching and not trying to change anything) Survey – gathering information through self-report, many cases, less depth, try to get a representative sample Sampling Random sampling – technique for making sure that every individual in a population has an equal chance of being in the sample Possible result of research Correlation – when two traits or attributes are related to each other, measure of how they vary together, one does not necessarily cause another Positive correlation – vary together in the same direction Negative correlation – as one factor goes up, the other goes down Correlation coefficient – measure of relationship, range of (-1.00, 1.00), closer to 0 is weak Experimentation Manipulating one factor while keeping others under control Experimental group – receives treatment Control group – does not receive treatment Random assignment – how to control all variables except one being manipulated Placebo effect Improving because you expect to improve Placebo – given to a control group, fake substance, control group is “blind” Double-blind – neither researchers nor control group know that it’s a placebo Variables Independent – variables manipulated, cause Dependent – the outcome factor, effect Cofounding variables – other variables that might have an effect on the dependent variable Drawing conclusions Reliability – nonbiased sampling, consistency, many data points Significance – reliable data, large difference between experimental and control groups CH 4: Nature/Nurture Behavior Genetics Study of how heredity and environment contribute to human differences Genes Parts of DNA molecules found in chromosomes in nuclei of cells Have the ability to direct the assembly of proteins that build the body Genetic protein assembly can be turned on and off by the environment or by other genes Any trait is a result of complex interactions of many genes and countless other molecules Fraternal and Identical Twins Fraternal “twins” – from separate eggs and are not more genetically alike than other siblings Identical twins – meant to be one person, split in two, genetically very similar Identical twins are more alike even if they were raised in separate environments Biological vs. Adoptive Parents Adopted children seem to be more similar to their genetic relatives than their nurture relatives Different siblings Siblings only share half their genes Genetic differences become amplified as people react to them differently Temperament General level and style of emotional reactivity Does not seem to change from childhood into adulthood Genetic Easy, difficult, and slow to warm up Heritability Amount of variation in the population that is explained by genetic factors DOES NOT tell us the proportion that genes contribute to the trait for any one person Also does not tell us whether genetics explain the differences between groups/populations Interaction between genes and environment Some traits are set by genes Other traits develop in response to experience Molecular genetics – studies structure and function of genes Molecular behavior genetics – how do structure and function of genes interact with our environment to influence behavior Self-regulation – genes turn each other on and off in response to environmental conditions Epigenetics – the environment acts on the surface of genes to alter their activity (without DNA change) Human approach nature and nurture Trait of being adaptable is built into the human genome We can change environments, behaviors, lifestyles, skills, etc. Evolutionary Psychology Study of how evolutionary principles help explain the origin and function of human mind, traits, and behaviors Ways in which humans are the same Phobias – ancestors who more readily learned to fear were more likely to survive Male and Female differences: mating Quantity – men think more about sex, men more likely to be okay with casual sex Men with the traits of promiscuity were more likely to have their genes in the population Women – a trait of promiscuity would not increase number of babies and greater survival costs Men seek women with a fuller figure – fertility Women seek men who are loyal and have resources Critiquing Evolutionary Perspective Differences are less in cultures with more gender equality Women can be socialized to accept casual sex Men can be socialized to value lifelong commitment Cannot explain homosexuality (population control is a guess) Hindsight bias – yes but making predictions for future behavior Attributing too much to genes – evolutionary past does not prevent our ability to act differently Experience and Brain Development Rats living in an “enriched” environment (more social interaction and physical play) experienced a greater growth in brain size and complexity than those living in an “impoverished” environment Brain Development Refers to growth AND pruning Experiences activate and strengthen neural connections Unused connections are “pruned” away If certain abilities are not used, they will fade Brain development does not end with childhood Parenting and Development Power of parenting is clearest at the extremes – severe neglect and abuse Non-abusive “average” parents should not take either blame or credit they assume for how their kids turn out Cultural Influences on Development Norms – standards for acceptable expected behavior Culture shock – feeling lost about whatever behaviors are appropriate Changes occur too fast to be rooted in genetic change Individualist – value independence, promote personal ideals strength and goals pursued in competition with others (might raise children to be self-reliant and independent) Collectivist – value interdependence, promote group and societal goals and duties (might raise children to be obedient, compliant, and integrated Gender Development Gender – characteristics that are culturally associated with male and female roles and identity Genetic differences or role difference nurtured by culture? Differences between Genders Biological – women enter puberty earlier, live longer, have more fat and less muscle Mental/behavioral health – women more likely to have depression anxiety and eating disorders, men more likely to have autism ADHD and antisocial personality disorder Men are more likely to be physically aggressive and socially dominant Gender and Social Connection: Play Boys playing – focus on activity, larger groups, more competitive, not much intimate discussion Girls playing – focus on connection and conversation, smaller groups, more social, tend to invite feedback Social communication Men – often talk aggressively, state their opinions and solutions, speak about things and actions Women – seek input and explore relationships, speak about people and feelings Both men and women turn to women when they want someone to talk to When coping with stress, women more than men turn to others for support Social learning theory Gender role behavior is learned through observation, imitation, rewards, and punishments Gender schema Cognitive frameworks for organizing boy-girl characteristics (young children motivated to categorize everything including people) CH 7: Learning Associative Learning Classical conditioning – learning that two stimuli go together Operant conditioning – behavior and consequence Cognitive Learning Mental learning Occurs when observing events and behaviors of others, using language to acquire information (like in class) Behaviorism Watson – proponent of classical conditioning BF Skinner – operant conditioning Mental life less important than behavior Ivan Pavlov Salivation in dogs Before conditioning – neural stimulus (ring a bell, no salivation) unconditioned stimulus and response During conditioning – ringing bell and giving dogs food After conditioning – begin to salivate upon hearing the bell, attracted to sound Acquisition Initial stage of learning/conditioning Association between neural stimulus (NS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) – food is given when bell rings Unconditioned response (UR) gets triggered by CS (conditioned stimulus) – drooling is triggered by bell NS must be before US Extinction Diminishing of a conditioned response If food stops appearing with bell, CR decreases Spontaneous Recovery Return of CR despite lack of further conditioning Generalization and Discrimination Generalization – tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by related stimuli, MORE stuff makes dogs drool (scratching triggered drooling) Discrimination – learned ability to respond only to specific stimuli, LESS stuff makes dogs drool (slightly different pitches did not make dogs drool) Pavlov’s Legacy Insight about conditioning – it occurs in all creatures Studying objectively Idea of triggers John B Watson: Playing with Fear Nine month old not afraid of white rat White rat brought out with scary clanging sound Nine month old then developed fear of rats and other soft and furry things Operant Conditioning Adjusting to the consequences of our behavior so we can learn what works and what doesn’t work Act of chosen behavior (“response”) is followed by a reward or punishment Reinforced behavior is more likely to be tried again; punished behavior is less likely Thorndike’s Law of Effect Puzzle box – cats were rewarded with food if they solved the puzzle Cats took less time to escape after repeated trials Law of effect – behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely B.F. Skinner Operant Chamber Extended Thorndike’s principles Pioneered more controlled methods of studying conditioning “skinner box” – allowed detailed tracking of rates of behavior change in response to different rates of reinforcement Reinforcement Only feedback from environment that makes a behavior more likely to occur Positive (adding) reinforcement – adding something desirable Negative (taking away) reinforcement – ending something unpleasant, NOT punishment Shaping Behavior When a creature is not likely to randomly perform an exact behavior, you can reward any behavior that is close to the one desired Discrimination Ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a response Dogs rats and even spiders can be trained to search for very specific smells from drugs to explosives How Often to Reinforce? Skinner experiments with reinforcements in different patterns or schedules to determine which worked best to establish and maintain a target behavior Continuous reinforcement – reward every time, subject acquires desired behavior quickly, good to establish but not maintain behavior Partial/Intermittent Reinforcement – give rewards part of the time, target behavior takes longer to be established but persists longer without reward, good to maintain but not establish Operant Effect: Punishment Punishments – opposite effect of reinforcement, consequences make target behavior less likely to occur in the future Positive punishment – adding something unpleasant Negative punishment – take away something pleasant When is punishment effective? Punishment works best when it approximates the way we naturally encounter immediate consequences Less well when the only consequence we encounter is a distant, delayed, possible threat Severity of punishments is not as helpful as making immediate and certain punishments Problems with Physical Punishment Punished behavior may restart when punishment is over Children may learn to discriminate among situations (avoiding those only where a punishment would occur instead of learning behavior Punishment can teach fear Physical punishment models aggression as a method of dealing with problems Punishing focuses on what NOT to do It doesn’t guide people to a desired behavior if undesirable behaviors stop, another problem behavior may emerge that serves the same purpose Lesson – to teach desired behavior, reinforce what is right more often than punishing what is wrong Applications of Operant Conditioning Parents and School - Rewarding small improvements toward desired behaviors is more effective than expecting complete success and punishing problem behaviors Sports – athletes improve most In the shaping approach, reinforced for performance that comes close to target goal Work – some companies pay as a result of performance not seniority, targeting specific behaviors to reinforce Self-improvement – reward yourself for steps you take toward your goals Role of Biology in Conditioning Biology constraints – one animal cannot be trained for the same behavior as another animal An animal’s capacity of conditioning is restrained by biology Classical conditioning – John Garcia found it was easier to learn associations if it makes sense for survival, can still be placed far apart, males in one study were more attracted to a woman in a picture with a red border (red = ovulation) Cognitive process Classical conditioning – when the dog salivates at the bell it may be due to cognition, knowing that our reactions are caused by conditioning gives us the option of mentally breaking the association Operant conditioning – in fixed interval reinforcement animals do more target behaviors around the time that a reward is more likely (as if expecting it), humans can respond to delayed reinforces such as a paycheck, setting goals for the self Learning, Rewards, and Motivation Intrinsic motivation – desire to perform a behavior for its own sake Extrinsic motivation – doing a behavior for rewards Intrinsic motivation can sometimes be reduced by external rewards Few rewards as possible and decrease over time Learning and Behavior Observational learning – watching what happens when other people do a behavior and learning from their experience Behavior of others serves as a model Vicarious conditioning Albert Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment Kids saw adults punching an inflated doll while narrating their aggressive behaviors Kids were then put in a toy-deprived situation and acted out the same behaviors they had seen Mirroring in the Brain Mirror neurons – when watching others doing or feeling something, mirror neurons fire in patterns that would fire if we were doing the action or having the feeling ourselves Our brain simulates and vicariously experiences what we observe We can grasp others’ stare of mind From mirroring to imitation Overimitate – from 18 months of age, routinely copy adult behaviors that have no function and no award Reflects an evolutionary adaptation that is essential to the transmission of human culture Children with autism – less likely to cognitively mirror and less likely to follow someone’s gaze Prosocial effects of observational learning Prosocial behavior – actions which benefit others Antisocial effects of observational learning Antisocial behavior – actions that are harmful to individuals and society Children who witness violence in their homes but are not physically harmed might hate violence but still may be more violent than the average child Under stress we do what has been modeled for us Media models of violence Viewing media violence leads to increased aggression and diminishes prosocial behavior Violence viewing effect explained by: imitation (mirror neurons, modeling) and desensitization toward others’ pain Watching cruelty fosters indifference CH 10 INTELLIGENCE “Definition” of Intelligence Intelligence – whatever intelligence tests measure Generate scores, allows us to compare individuals College entrance test measures how good you are at scoring well on that test Beyond the test Intelligence – the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations There is not an agreement over whether intelligence is one construct or different abilities General intelligence or g Charles Spearman performed a factor analysis of different skills and found that people who did well in one area also did well in another These people have a high “g” (general intelligence) Thurstone’s Seven Clusters of Abilities These distinct seven abilities make up intelligence, not just one Found that these abilities tend to correlate Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences 8 relatively independent intelligence “savant syndrome” Sternberg’s Intelligence Triarchy A lot of research support for his theory 3 intelligences: practical, analytical, and creative Intelligence and Success “success in life” is more than high intelligence Wealth tends to be related to intelligence test scores PLUS daily effort/practice, social support/connections, and hard work/persistence Success – gift of nature plus a lot of nurture Social and Emotional Intelligence Being socially aware and self-aware Components of Emotional Intelligence Perceiving, understanding, managing, and using emotions Benefits – ability to delay gratification while pursuing long-term goals (not be driven by immediate impulses), contributes to success in career marriage and parenting situations Aptitude vs. Achievement Achievement tests – measure what you have already learned Aptitude tests – attempt to predict your ability to learn new skills SAT, ACT, GRE – supposed to predict your ability to do well in future academic work Origins of Intelligence Testing Problem – Paris schools needed to identify children in need of special classes Solution – Alfred Binet devised tests The goal was to measure each child’s mental age Binet -> Stanford-Binet Lewis Terman (Stanford professor) modified Binet’s test for American children He called it the Stanford-Binet intelligence test William Stern’s scoring of the test resulted in intelligence quotient (IQ) IQ = mental age/chronological age x 100 What do scores mean? Lewis Terman thought intelligence was inherited Later, he saw that scores can be affected by level of education and their familiarity with language and culture used in the test. Low scores – Binet would say study and develop self-discipline and attention span, Terman would say remove genes from population David Wechsler’s Tests: Intelligence PLUS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WSC) measure “g”/IQ and have subscores for: verbal comprehension, processing speed, perceptual organization, working memory Standardization To evaluate performance, we need to compare a score to other individual’s scores Average IQ score is 100 Reliability and Validity A test is reliable when it generates consistent results Split-half reliability – test split in half has same results Test-retest reliability – retesting gets relatively the same score as before Validity – a test accurately measures what it is supposed to measure Content validity – test is not doing what it is supposed to Predictive validity – test does not predict what it is supposed to Predictive validity: broad ranges Predictive power of aptitude scores diminishes as students move up the educational ladder At higher range of weights and success, weight is less of a valid predictor of success of football linemen Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence Even if we agree that “success” in life is caused in part by intelligence, there is still a debate over the origin of that intelligence Are people “successful” because of inborn talents or because of their unequal access to better nurture? Studies of Twins Raised Apart Difference in intelligence between identical twins raised together and identical twins raised apart which is proof of nurture Then, difference in intelligence between identical twins and fraternal twins which is proof of nature Adoption Studies With age, IQ scores of adoptees look more and more like their biological parents Environmental Influences on Intelligence Environment has more influence on intelligence in extreme situations such as abuse, neglect, extreme poverty, and malnutrition (depresses cognitive development) Schooling and Intelligence Schooling and intelligence interact, and both boost children’s chances for success What predicts college students’ academic achievement – study motivation and study skills Fixed mindset – intelligence is biologically set and unchanging Growth mindset – intelligence is changeable Praise EFFORT not ability Male-Female Ability Differences Boys are more likely than girls to be at the high or low end of the intelligence score spectrum Girls are better at locating objects, detecting emotions, and tend to be more verbally fluent Boys tend to perform better on spatial ability tests In overall math performance, girls and boys are very similar Within-group vs. between-group differences Group differences including intelligence test score differences between “racial groups” can be caused by environment factors Racial groups are not genetically different More differences within groups than between groups CH. 11 Motivation and Work Motivation Motivation – a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal Instinct theory Instinct – fixed pattern of behavior that is not acquired by learning and is likely to be rooted in genes and the body Humans are motivated by instincts Drive Reduction Theory Drive – an aroused/tense state related to a physical need (hunger, thirst) Humans are motivated to reduce these drives which restores homeostasis Drives come from within and push us to do something Incentives are external and pull us into our actions We have a drive to have food, money, .etc Seeking Optimal Arousal Some behavior is not directly linked to a biological need Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal Hierarchy of Needs/Motives Abraham Maslow – proposed that humans strive to ensure that basic needs are satisfied before they find motivation to pursue goals that are higher on the hierarchy People need to satisfy hunger and thirst BEFORE satisfying their self-identity Hunger Research shows that when we are hungry, thoughts about food dominate our consciousness Stomach contractions when hungry Receptors throughout the digestive system monitor levels of glucose and send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain Hypothalamus can send out appetite-stimulating hormones or appetite-suppressing hormones Regulating Weight Set point – a stable weight to which most mammals keep returning When a person’s weight drops or increases, the body adjusts hunger and energy use Basal metabolic rate – rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when at rest How much do we eat? Eating depends in part on situational influences Unit bias – we may eat only one serving/unit of food but will eat more if the serving size is larger Buffet effect – we eat more if more options are available Obesity and Weight Control Fat is an ideal form of stored energy Once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it Eating less slows metabolism A formerly obese person who lost weight will have to eat less than the average person just to prevent weight gain Social psychology of obesity Weight discrimination is stronger than race and gender discrimination People who are obese are more likely to be depressed or isolated Genetics and Obesity Weight resembles biological parents Identical twins (even when raised apart) are more similar than fraternal twins Many genes involved – burning calories, converting calories to fat, when intestines send “full” signal, how much to fidget, etc. Another human motivation: sex Sexual motivation enables our species’ survival Sexual arousal depends on the interplay of internal and external stimuli Hormones and sexual motivation Sexual desire and response is not as tied to hormone levels in humans as it is in animals Increase in sexual arousal <-> increase in testosterone During ovulation, women show a rise in estrogen and testosterone As this happens, sexual desire rises in women and also in men around them (whose testosterone level rises) Effect of External Stimuli The brain is our most significant sex organ Men and women become aroused when they see, hear, or read erotic material (effects are stronger for men) Psychological and social-cultural factors play a bigger role in sexual motivation than biological factors Sexuality in the media (TV, internet, magazines, etc.) – extremely stereotypical in portrayal of the sexes especially females, women as sexual objects, with repeated exposure to any erotic stimulus response lessens (habituates), adolescents (perception of peers, permissive attitudes, and early sex) Sexual Orientation Having a homosexual orientation puts one at risk for anxiety and mood disorders (because of discrimination, rejection, isolation) Causes of homosexuality? – domineering mother?, absent father?, hatred of other sex?, molested as a child by adult homosexual? None of these Differences appear to begin in the prenatal period -> genetic or exposure to hormones or antigens in the womb Fraternal birth order effect – the more older brothers a male has, the more likely he is to be homosexual (doesn’t apply to women or left-handed men) Sexual orientation is neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed Biological Differences associated with sexual preference Brain differences Genetic influences Prenatal influences – seem to be pretty significant Prenatal hormones In mammals, female fetuses exposed to extra testosterone and male fetuses exposed to low levels of testosterone often grow up with bodies, brains, and faces with traits of the opposite sex and/or same sex desires Another motivation: “to belong” We have a need to affiliate with others, even to become strongly attached to others in enduring, close relationships People in every society on Earth belong to groups Evolutionary psychology perspective – seeking bonds with others aids survival in many ways Balancing Bonding with Other Needs What makes life meaningful – close satisfying relationships with family, friends, or romantic partners We also need autonomy (independence) and a sense of personal competence/efficacy (individual ability) – balanced with our need for relationships Much of our social behavior seeks to increase our social acceptance and avoid rejection Disrupted Bonds, New Beginnings Life’s worst moments can be when close relationships end Being ostracized (excluded socially, not fitting in anywhere) can lead to real physical pain Another Area of Motivation: Work Income can satisfy the drive for food and shelter For some, work can feel like a calling (fulfilling and socially useful activity) “flow” – feeling purposefully engaged, deeply immersed, and challenged; some people may seek this optimal work experience Personnel psychology Selecting, hiring, and placing employees Strengths-based selection system – match the strengths of people to tasks of organizations -> prosperity and profit, focus on accentuating strengths and talents rather than correcting deficiencies Interviewer illusions – interviewers overestimate their ability to “read” people (interviewer’s preconceptions or moods, situational variables, best predictor of the person we will be is the person we have been) How to predict future job performance – aptitude tests, job knowledge tests, work samples, past job performance, structured interviews Appraising/Evaluating Performance Personnel psychologists can help employers to objectively assess the performance and value of employees Goal: employee improvement and retention and helping determine job shifts, salary, and promotion Performance feedback can affirm workers’ strengths and motivate needed improvements Organizational psychology Worker motivation, satisfaction, engagement, productivity Teamwork and leadership Grit – combination of desire for achievement and the ability/willingness to persist at hard work Successful people are more ambitious, energetic, and persistent Best predictor of school performance, attendance, and graduation honors: self- discipline Managing employees well Harnessing talents – good managers focus training time on drawing out and developing strengths, reinforce positive behaviors through recognition and reward Being positive – a good coach tries to offer players four or five positive comments for every negative one Useful goals are specific, challenging, measurable, immediate Human Factors: Work that Fits People Human factors psychology – taking design of body and the functioning of the mind into account when designing products and processes CH 12: Emotions, Stress, and Health Emotion A full body/mind/behavior response to a situation Expressive behavior, Bodily arousal, Conscious experience James-Lange Theory Body arousal happens first Then conscious awareness and label for the feeling Emotion is awareness of arousal Cannon-Bard Theory We have a conscious/cognitive experience of an emotion at the same time as our body is responding Triggers both thoughts and feelings and arousal Schachter-Singer “Two Factor” Theory Emotions do not exist until we add a label to whatever body sensations we are feeling Spillover effect – arousal was caused by injections of adrenaline, subjects interpreted their agitation to whatever emotion the others in the room appeared to be feeling, the emotional label “spilled over” from others Robert Zajonc, Joseph LeDoux, Richard Lazarus Some emotional reactions develop in a “low road” through the brain skipping conscious thought (bypassing the cortex) In one study, people showed an amygdala response to certain images without being aware of the image or their reaction Embodied Emotion Physiological arousal felt during various emotions is orchestrated by the sympathetic nervous system (arousal) which triggers activity and changes in various organs It is difficult to see differences in emotions from tracking heart rate, breathing, and perspiration There are some small differences in brain activity: hemispheric differences (positive emotions correlate with LEFT frontal activity, negative emotions correlate with RIGHT frontal activity) Emotional Expression People read a great deal of emotional content in the eyes and the faces We are primed to quickly detect negative emotions Those who have been abused are biased toward seeing fearful faces as angry (better at detecting anger) Gender and emotional expression Women are more skilled at detecting emotions and reading nonverbal behavior Women are more likely to describe themselves as empathetic and more likely to express empathy Male and female did not feel much different after watching a movie but the women’s faces showed emotion Cultural and Emotional Expression Universally understood facial expressions People blind from birth show the same facial expressions as sighted people Cultures do differ in how much emotion in expressed Linking Emotions and Expressive Behaviors Facial feedback effect – facial position and muscle changes can alter which emotion we feel (forcing yourself to smile makes you happier) Behavior feedback effect – behavior can influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions Anger A flash of anger gives us energy and initiative to take action Persistent anger can be harmful to our bodies Controlled expressions of anger promote reconciliation rather than retaliation Catharsis myth – we can reduce anger by “releasing it” (hostile outbursts) In most cases, anger breeds more anger Coping with anger – wait, distract yourself (exercise, verbal expression, hobby), forgiveness calms the body Happiness Happy people are better decision makers, cooperate more easily, live healthier, are more tolerant, and more socially connected The feel-good, do-good phenomenon Positive psychology – study of what leads to happiness and well-being Happiness has its ups and downs (fluctuates) Can Money Buy Happiness? If money gets someone out of poverty, it relates to happiness Once you have enough money for comfort and security, gaining more and more money matters less and less Happiness is relative to our own experience – the adaptation-level phenomenon, we adjust our neutral levels Happiness is relative to others’ wealth, success, etc. During least half century, average U.S. citizen’s buying power has tripled but reported happiness has not changed Influenced by genes, culture, personal experiences, and outlook, we each seem to develop a “happiness set point” Stress Stressor – an event/condition that we view as threatening, challenging, or overwhelming Appraisal – refers to deciding whether to view something as a stressor Stress reaction – emotion and physical response to stressor Stress – process of appraising and responding to a stressor Stressors Categories – catastrophes, significant life changes, chronic daily hassles, low social status/power Body’s Stress Response System Our body’s way of resisting threat and harm “fight or flight”, sympathetic nervous system, epinephrine and norepinephrine, cortisol and other stress hormones General adaptation syndrome – alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion The immune system Psychoneuroimmunology – finding out how stress increases risk of disease It takes energy to fight off intruders Stress creates a competing energy need and leaves us less able to resist infection Stress and heart disease Stress is closely related to coronary heart disease One factor, but not the only factor that contributes to heart disease Type A personality – impatient, reactive, verbally aggressive, competitive, easily angered Type B – calm, easygoing Type A is more likely to have a heart attack The most toxic component of this personality is anger Health Consequences of Chronic Stress Cortisol – stress hormone helps our bodies respond to brief stress Chronically high cortisol levels damager the body Coping with Stress Problem-focused coping – changing the stressor or the way we interact with stressors Emotion-focused coping – reducing the emotional impact of stress by getting support and comfort from others Perceived level of Control and Optimism Experiment – executive rats were able to turn off shocks, subordinate was not. Subordinate had worse stress and more health problems. Losing control provokes an outpouring of stress hormones Blood pressure increases, immune response drops Optimistic people expect to have more control and to cope better with stressful events External vs. Internal locus of control Locus of control – do you see yourself as controlling or controlled by your environment? Internal – I control my circumstances (achieve more in school and work, better at helping with stress, less risk of depression) External – chance or outside forces determine my fate (less motivation to achieve, anxiety might occur Self-Control The ability to control impulses and delay gratification Marshmallow study: kids who resisted the temptation to eat marshmallows later had more success in school and socially Promoting Health: Social Support Having close relationships is associated with improved health and longevity Social support calms, reduces blood pressure and stress hormones Social support fosters a stronger immune system Confiding in others helps manage painful feelings Aerobic Exercise and Mental Health Aerobic exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, cognitive decline and dementia, and early death Aerobic exercise reduces depression and anxiety, and improves the management of stress Lifestyle Modification Survivors of heart attacks – lifestyle modification Control group – diet, medication, and exercise advice Result: modifying lifestyle led to reduced heart attack rates Religious Involvement and Health Religiously active people tend to live longer than those who are not religiously active Healthy lifestyle behaviors, social support, hope for the future, feelings of acceptance, relaxed meditation of prayer CH. 13: Personality Personality An individual’s characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Persisting over time and across situations Freud: Psychoanalysis Belief that physical symptoms could be caused by purely psychological factors He “discovered” the unconscious Free association – speaking freely, supposed to bring up the unconscious Psychoanalysis – name for his theory and treatment techniques Freud: personality/mind iceberg The mind is mostly hidden Unacceptable passions and thoughts are repressed Personality arises from a conflict between impulse and restraint Id (pleasure), Ego (reality), Superego (moral compass) The ego is the mediator Freud’s Theory of Psychosexual Stages Id is focused on the needs of erogenous zones (sensitive areas of the body) People can get fixated at one stage Male Development Issues “Oedipus complex” – boys in the phallic stage develop unconscious sexual desires and view their father as a rival Resolution of the conflict – boys identify with their fathers rather than seeing them as a rival Defending Against Anxiety We are anxious about our unacceptable impulses so the ego represses the anxiety with the help of defense mechanisms Assessing the Unconscious: Psychodynamic Personality Assessment Freud tried to get unconscious themes to be projected into the conscious world through free association and dream analysis Projective tests – ambiguous prompts should reveal the inner workings of your mind (Thematic Apperception Test) Rorschach Test – what do you see in the inkblots? Results do not link well to traits (low validity) and different raters get different results (low reliability) Evidence has updated Freud’s Ideas development is lifelong peers have more influence on personality dreams, as well as Freudian slips, do not reveal deep unconscious conflicts and wishes traumatic memories are usually intensely remembered NOT repressed gender and sexual identity seem to be more of a function of genetics few objective observations, few testable hypotheses Humanistic Theories of Personality The “third force” in psychology They studied healthy people and the conditions that support healthy personal growth Maslow: the Self-Actualizing Person People are motivated to keep moving up a hierarchy of needs Self-transcendence – meaning/purpose beyond the self Self-actualization Rogers’ Person-centered Perspective 3 conditions that facilitate growth and fulfillment – genuineness, acceptance, empathy If our self-concept is positive, we tend to act and perceive the world positively Critiquing the Human Perspective Encouraging self-indulgence, self-centeredness The human capacity for evil Rogers saw “evil” as a social phenomenon, not an individual trait Humanist response – self-acceptance is not the end, it then allows us to move on from defending our own needs to loving and caring for others Trait theory of personality Trait – a characteristic pattern of behavior or a predisposition to feel and act a certain way We are made up of a collection of traits that can be identified and measured, traits that differ from person to person More concerned with describing traits than with explaining them Traits: Rooted in Biology? Brain - extroverts seek stimulation because their normal brain arousal is relatively low Body – the trait of shyness appears to be related to high autonomic system reactivity (an easily triggered alarm system) Genes – selective breeding of animals, can select for traits, suggesting genetic roots for these traits The “Big Five” Personality Dimensions Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Openness Extraversion Questions About Traits Stability – change over the lifespan? Not much. With age, traits become more stable However, everyone in adulthood becomes more conscientious and agreeable, less extroverted and neurotic, less open Heritability – in general, genes account for 50% of variation for most traits Predictive value – do traits predict behavior? The Person-Situation Controversy Specific behaviors can vary in different situations We change interests, careers, relationships But averaging your behavior across many occasions does reveal distinct traits Personality traits can even predict mortality and divorce Social-Cognitive Perspective Albert Bandura Personality – result of an interaction between people’s traits (including their thinking) and their social context (conditioning or observing others) Reciprocal Determinism Reciprocal – back and forth influence, no primary cause Personality shaped by – traits, behaviors, environment 3 ways in which individuals and environments act - different people choose different environments, our personalities shape how we interpret and react to events, our personalities help create situations to which we react CH 14: Social Psychology Attribution Attribution – a conclusion about the cause of an observed behavior/event Attribution theory – we explain others behavior with two types of attributions: situational and dispositional Fundamental attribution error – when we go too far in assuming that a person’s behavior is caused by their personality, we think a behavior demonstrates a trait, we tend to overemphasize dispositional and underemphasize situational Attitudes and Actions Attitudes affect our actions Public attitudes affect public policies Actions affect attitudes as well Foot-in-the-door phenomenon Start behaving in a way to support something Attitudes become more supportive Role Playing Even if we know it’s just pretending, we usually tend to adopt the attitudes of the role we are playing and become the role In arranged marriages, people often come to love the person they marry Actors say they lose themselves in their roles Participants in the Stanford prison study ended up breaking down after three days Cognitive Dissonance When our actions and our attitude clash Cognitive dissonance theory – we resolve dissonance by changing our attitudes to fit our actions Conformity: Mimicry Adjusting our behavior or thinking to go along with a group standard Some mimicry is automatic – yawning, arm folding, adopting regional accents and grammar, empathetic shifts in mood, adopting coping style of parents and peers e.g. copycat school shootings, copycat suicides Conformity: Responding to Social Norms When we are with other people, our behavior may follow a social norm rather than following our own judgement Asch Conformity Studies – about one third of people will agree with obvious mistruths to go along with a group More Likely to Conform You are not fully committed to one set of beliefs or style of behavior Group is medium-sized and unanimous You admire the group’s status The group tries to make you feel incompetent, insecure, and closely watched Your culture encourages respect for norms Two types of social influence Normative social influence – going along with others in pursuit of social approval and avoiding rejection, clothing choices Informational social influence – going along with others because groups provide information, deciding which side of road to drive on Milgram’s Obedience Study How would people respond to direct commands? “Teacher” (real participant) shocking the “Learner” (fake participant) The majority of participants continued to obey until the end Increasing Obedience When orders are given by someone with authority, someone associated with a prestigious institution, someone standing close by When the “learner”/victim is in another room No role models for defiance Lessons from Conformity and Obedience Studies When under pressure to conform or obey, ordinary people will say and do things that they never would have believed to do The real evil may be in the situation To look at a person committing harmful acts and assume that the person is cruel/evil would be to make the fundamental attribution error Social Facilitation Strengthened performance in the presence of others Increase motivation for those who are confident Social Loafing Hating group projects because others free-ride on your efforts The tendency of people in a group to show less effort Deindividuation Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint Group participation makes people both aroused and anonymous Group Polarization The beliefs and attitudes you bring to a group grow stronger and more polarized as you discuss them with like-minded others Groupthink In pursuit of social harmony and avoidance of open disagreement, groups will make decisions without an open exchange of ideas Prejudice Prejudice – an unjustified, usually negative attitude toward a group Beliefs (stereotypes) Emotions (hostility, envy, fear) Predisposition to act (to discriminate) Social Roots of Prejudice Social inequality – when some groups have fewer resources and opportunities than others The just-world phenomenon – those doing well must have done something right so those suffering must have done something wrong Us vs. Them: Ingroups and Outgroups Even if people are randomly assigned to groups, our natural drive to belong leads to ingroup bias Cognitive Roots of Prejudice: The Other-Race Effect One way we simplify our world is to categorize When we categorize, we tend to stereotype “They” look and act alike but “we” are more diverse We have a greater recognition for our own race faces Cognitive Roots of Prejudice: Judging Based on Vivid Cases We don’t always rely on statistics Vivid cases easily come to mind Islam and terrorism Thinking Habits Reinforce Prejudice Availability heuristic – stereotypes are built on vivid cases rather than statistics Confirmation bias – we are not likely to look for counterexamples to our stereotypes Hindsight bias – “they should have known better” blames victims for misfortunes Cognitive dissonance – “my culture and family treats minorities this way, can we be wrong?” Social Relations: Aggression Behavior with the intent to harm another person Biological factors – genetic factors (heredity), neural factors (stimulation of amygdala, underactive frontal lobes), biochemistry (testosterone, alcohol) Social Relations: Psychosocial Factors and Aggression Frustration-aggression principle Aversive stimuli can evoke hostility Reinforcement (sometimes aggression works) Modeling (when parents scream and hit, they are modeling violence) Aggression in Media: Social Scripts Aggression portrayed in video, music, TV, and other media follows and teaches us social scripts When we are in new situations, uncertain how to behave, we rely on social scripts Effects of Social Scripts Studies: Exposure to violence and sexual aggression on TV Sexual aggression seems less serious Believing the rape myth Increased acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations Increased punitive behavior toward women More Media Effects on Aggression Active role-playing in video games Playing positive games can increase real life prosocial behaviors Violent Video Games Can prime aggressive thoughts and decrease empathy Increases in hostility and physical aggression NOT a “release” for aggressive impulses Desensitization to violence Social Relations: Understanding Attraction Proximity – mere exposure effect Physical Attractiveness – different cultural standards, some universal aspects of attractiveness Similarity – shared attitudes, beliefs, interests (even age, race, religion, education, economic status, etc.) Altruism Unselfish regard for the welfare of other people Helping and protecting others without need for personal gain Bystander Intervention Attention – notice incident? Appraisal – is it an emergency? Social Role – assumes responsibility? Taking Action – attempts to help Bystander effect – fewer people help when others are available Strongest predictor of helping behavior – we are happy/in a good mood Conflict and Peacemaking Conflict – a perceived incompatibility in goals, ideas, and actions between people or groups Those in conflict tend to form diabolical images of each other Peacemaking Contact – exposure, interaction, familiarity Cooperation – shared goals Communication – sometimes with mediators Conciliation CH. 15: Psychological Disorders Psychological disorder A syndrome marked by a clinically significant disturbance in an individual’s cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior Syndrome – a collection of symptoms that show up together, not just a single symptom Disturbed (dysfunctional) thoughts, emotions, or behaviors are maladaptive – they interfere with normal day-to-day life Functional impairment Distress Understanding the Nature of Psychological Disorders One reason is diagnose a disorder is to make decisions about treating the problem To treat a disorder, it helps to understand the nature/cause of the psychological symptoms Pinel’s New Approach Proposed that madness is not demonic possession but a sickness of the mind Emphasized “moral treatment” His human environmental interventions improved lives but did not effectively treat mental illness The Medical Model The discovery that syphilis causes mental symptoms suggested a medical model for mental illness The medical world began searching for physical causes and treatments of mental disorders Classifying Psychological Disorders Diagnostic and Statistical Manual – book that classifies disorders and describes symptoms, used to justify payment for treatment, consistent with diagnoses used by medical doctors worldwide GAD: Generalized Anxiety Disorder Emotional-cognitive symptoms – excessive and uncontrollable worry Physical symptoms – autonomic arousal (trembling, sweating, fidgeting, agitation, sleep disruption) Functional Impairment Panic Disorder Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks (episodes of intense fear including feelings of terror, chest pains, trembling, feeling faint) A feeling of a need to escape Agoraphobia – a fear or avoidance of situations in which escape might be difficult when panic strikes Specific Phobia Persistent and unreasonable fear of an object or situation and an intense desire to avoid it Functional impairment Some Fears and Phobias Social anxiety disorder – fear of being watched and judged by others Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Persistence of unwanted, repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and actions (compulsions) that interfere with everyday living and cause distress Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Intrusive, distressing recollections of the event Nightmares Social withdrawal Jumpy anxiety Classical Conditioning and Anxiety Learned associations – associate a certain object/place with a feeling of fear Sometimes, such a conditioned response becomes overgeneralized Operant Conditioning and Anxiety Feel anxious in a situation? – leave AVOIDANCE reduces anxiety and reinforces it Observational Learning and Anxiety Humans and monkeys learn fears by observing others Cognition and Anxiety Worried thoughts Interpretations, appraisals, beliefs, predictions Hypervigilance Perceived loss of control, sense of helplessness Examples of Cognitions that can worsen anxiety Cognitive errors Irrational beliefs Mistaken appraisals Misinterpretations Biology and Anxiety: Genes and the Brain Genes - twin studies, fearfulness runs in families, inborn sensitive, high-strung temperament, genes regulate levels of neurotransmitters Brain – overarousal of brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behaviors, traumatic experiences can burn fear circuits into the amygdala and these circuits are later triggered and activated Criteria of Major Depressive Disorders Depressed mood most of the time Dramatically reduced interest or pleasure in activities Significant challenges regulating weight or appetite Significant challenges regulating sleep Lethargy or physical agitation Fatigue or loss of energy Worthlessness or guilt Problems in thinking or concentrating Recurring thoughts of death or suicide Bipolar Disorder Two polar opposite moods are depression and mania Depression The #1 reason why people seek mental health services Depression appears worldwide Women’s risk of depression is nearly double that of men’s Biology of Depression: Genetics Twin/adoption heritability studies DNA linkage analysis reveals depressed gene regions Biology of Depression: Brain Depressive states – diminished brain activity, left frontal lobe less active, reduced norepinephrine and serotonin Mania – overabundant norepinephrine Understanding Mood Disorders: Social-Cognitive Depression associated with – low self-esteem, learned helplessness, rumination (stuck focusing on what’s bad), depressive explanatory style Depressive explanatory style How we analyze bad news predicts mood Belief that the problem is stable, global, and internal which leads to depression Depression’s Vicious Cycle Depressed mood changes a person’s style of thinking and interacting in a way that makes stressful experience more likely Depressed people are at high risk for divorce, job loss, and other stressful life events Suicide and Self Injury Typically when depression begins to lift Often an impulsive act, so environmental barriers can save lives Non-suicidal self-injury has other functions such as sending a message, distraction from pain, or self-punishment Schizophrenia Psychosis – mental split from reality and rationality Symptoms – disturbed perceptions (hallucinations), disorganized thinking (delusions), disorganized speech, inappropriate emotions Onset – late adolescence, early adulthood Prevalence – 1 in 100 people, slightly more men than women Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia Positive (presence of problematic behaviors) – hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought and speech, problems with selective attention, inappropriate emotions, bizarre behaviors Negative (absence of healthy behaviors) – flat affect, reduced social interaction, anhedonia (no feeling of enjoyment), mute (no speech), catatonia (no movement) Course of Schizophrenia Acute – positive symptoms appear after a major stressor (recovery is likely) Chronic – develops slowly, with more negative symptoms (much more difficult to treat, poverty and/or social problems) Understanding Schizophrenia Abnormal brain structure and activity – too many dopamine/D4 receptors Poor coordination of neural firing in the frontal lobes Thalamus – fires during hallucinations as if real sensations were being received There is a general shrinking of many brain areas Biological risk factors – low birth weight, maternal diabetes, older paternal age, famine, oxygen deprivation during delivery, maternal virus during mid-pregnancy, impairing brain development Genetic factors – if an identical twin has schizophrenia, the co-twin’s chance of having it are 6/10 if they shared a placenta (1/10 if separate placentas), adoption studies also confirm genetic link Research shows many genes linked to schizophrenia, but it may take environmental factors to turn on these genes Socio-psychological factors – social or psychological factors (such as parenting) alone do not cause schizophrenia But acute factors such as stress may influence the onset of schizophrenia Dissociative Disorders Dissociative identity disorder (DID) – a person’s conscious awareness separates from painful memories, thoughts, and feelings Development of distinct and alternating personalities DID: real or not? Real – different personalities have different brain wave patterns, a way to cope with anxiety or abuse Not real – an extreme form of playing role, a recent cultural construction, created or worsened by therapists encouraging people to think of different parts of themselves Eating Disorders: Associated Factors Family factors – having a mother focused on her weight and on the child’s appearance and weight, negative self-evaluation in the family, for bulimia if childhood obesity runs in the family, for anorexia if families are competitive high- achieving and protective Cultural factors – unrealistic ideals of body appearance Personality Disorders Inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning 3 categories – anxious (fear of social rejection), eccentric/odd (flat effect, no social attachments), dramatic (attention-seeking, self-centered, amoral) Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD) A lack of conscience for wrongdoing even toward family and friends Risk factors – biological relatives, decreased physiological arousal, lower levels of stress hormones, beginning in childhood (impulsive, uninhibited, unconcerned with social rewards), abused or neglected in childhood combined with genetic vulnerability Biosocial Roots of Crime: The Brain In people with antisocial criminal tendencies, the emotion-controlling amygdala is smaller Frontal lobes are also less active (impulse control) CH. 16: Therapy Current Forms of Therapy Psychotherapy – therapy using psychological techniques to help overcome difficulties or achieve growth Biomedical therapy – therapy using biological treatments to reduce symptoms Combining therapies – an eclectic approach Psychoanalysis A set of techniques for releasing the tension of repression and resolving unconscious inner conflicts Techniques – free association, interpretation Very time-consuming and expensive Psychodynamic Therapy Discover themes across important relationships Focus is on improved self-awareness and insight into unconscious thoughts and feelings which may be rooted in past relationships Interpersonal Therapy Further extension of psychoanalysis Less focused on insight and past experiences Improve relationship skills Reduce symptoms Humanistic Therapies Humanistic psychology – Maslow and Rogers, emphasizes the human potential for growth Humanistic therapy – attempts to boost self-fulfillment by helping people gain self- awareness and self-acceptance “Client centered therapy” The therapist should exhibit empathy and unconditional positive regard and should listen without judging or interpreting The present and future are more important than the past Behavior Therapy Sometimes insight and self-awareness do not reduce symptoms Behavior therapy uses the principles of learning especially classical and operant conditioning Maladaptive symptoms – learned behaviors that can be replaced by adaptive behaviors Classical Conditioning Techniques Counterconditioning – refers to linking new positive responses to previously aversive stimuli If you have been conditioned to fear stores because you have had panic attacks there, you could be led to a store and helped with relaxation exercises in order to associate stores with relaxation Exposure Therapy AVOIDANCE of the feared situation worsens a conditioned fear Avoidance is reinforced because it quickly reduces anxiety Guided exposure to the feared situation eliminates avoidance Systematic desensitization – construct a hierarchy of anxiety-triggering situations, gradually increase the exposure intensity while using relaxation techniques Virtual reality therapy Aversive Conditioning When a person has been conditioned to have a positive association with a drug, aversive conditioning can associate the drug with a negative response Condition an aversion to something the person should avoid Ex: alcohol and nausea Operant Conditioning Therapy Behaviors are influenced by consequences Behavior modification – reward desired behaviors, withhold reinforcement for undesired behaviors Select appropriate reward Token economy Cognitive Therapies Our thinking influences our feelings If thinking patterns can be learned, they can be replaced In the cognitive perspective, the cause of depression is not bad events, but our thoughts about those events Cognitive Therapy Aaron Beck’s therapy for depression Many problems arise from irrational thinking or errors in thinking (catastrophizing) Change negative self-talk Stress inoculation training – restructure your thinking in stressful situations Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Works to change both cognitions and behaviors that are part of a mental health disorder Family therapy – family as a social system, communication, conflict, parenting strategies Group therapy – one therapist for several clients, less cost per person, clients realize that others share their problems, can develop social skills Self-help groups – led by group members instead of a therapist, the focus is more on support Using Outcome Research in Therapy Evidence-based practice – the use of therapeutic techniques proven to be effective Randomized clinical trials – use of an experimental design to determine if a therapy worked (control group does not get treatment) Drug (Medication Therapies) Psychopharmacology – study of drug effects on mind and behavior To evaluate effectiveness, experimental design (control group gets placebo) Types of medication – antipsychotic (blocks dopamine receptors), antianxiety (depresses central nervous system activity), antidepressant (increases serotonin or norepinephrine by inhibiting reuptake) The antidepressant benefit compared to the placebo is minimal or nonexistent on average in patients with mild or moderate symptoms Types of medication – mood stabilizers (treats bipolar disorders, Lithium, still looking into it), ADHD “stimulants” (blocking reuptake of dopamine from synapses) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) Causes shock-induced seizures For patients who have not responded to drug therapy, ECT works well to relieve severe depression This might allow neural rewiring and might boost neurogenesis Therapeutic Lifestyle Change Human bodies and brains were designed for physical activity and social engagement The effects of regular exercise and a full night’s sleep are similar to the effects of antidepressant drugs Renew the disintegrating family, change environments that breed loneliness, empower those that feel helpless, love and nurture your children Risk and Protective Factors for Mental Disorders Risk factors – increase risk of mental disorders Protective factors – protect from getting a mental disorders
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