BIO 106 study guide 2
BIO 106 study guide 2 2570
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Austin Horner on Wednesday March 4, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 2570 at Washington State University taught by Asaph Cousins & Raymond Lee in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 287 views. For similar materials see Bio 106- Organismal Biology in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/04/15
The portion of the systems energy that can perform work tells us whether or not a reaction is spontaneous or not more free energy results in a less stable system Ispontaneous Igreater work capacity system loses heat spontaneous system needs energy to react nonspontaneous 3 stages involves glucose I breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate occurs in the cytoplasm energy investment phase and energy payoff phase Completes the breakdown of glucose I Oxidative Phosphorylation accounts for most of ATP synthesis substance loses electrons substance gains electrons ITCA Krebs Cycle Also known as the citric acid cycle completes the breakdown of pyruvate C02 8 steps cycle oxidizes organic fuel derived from pyruvate generating ATP NADH FADH2 INADH and FADH2 relay electrons extracted from food to the electron transport chain Sustain themselves wo eating anything derived from other organisms Obtain their organic material from other organisms Both Autotrophs and heterotrophs in the thylakoids split H20 release 02 reduce NADP to NADPH Generate ATP from ADP by Photophosphorylation Icalvinbenson cycle synthesis part In stoma forms sugar from C02 using ATP and NADPH Regenerates its starting material after molecules enter and leave the cell Solar powered chemical factories membranes that transform light energy into the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH 393 phases of calvinbenson cycle ICarbon Fixation IRecqun Regeneration of the C02 acceptor RuBisCo IRuBisCo favors a 3 carbon compound C3 IPhotorespiration consumes 02 and energy releases COzWO producing ATP or Sugar IMinimizes photorespiration by concentrating C02 Iuses compartmentalization to 39pump C02 ICrassulacean acid metabolism CAM Iopen stomata at night incorporating C02 into organic acids IStomata close during the day and C02 is released from organic acids and used in the calvincycle ITop Soilcombo of organic and inorganic material Salt Silt and Clay equal parts Imineral particles living organisms and humus the decaying organic material Nitrate Phosphate and Sulfate Inot bound tightly to negatively charged particles Ialso leak out into ground water Magnesium Potassium and Calcium Ibound tightly Enriched in Nitrogen phosphorus and potassium lJan Baptista van Helmont Small tree in bucket experiment Discovered the soil only lost 06kg while the tree gained about 70kg condition in which leaves produce insuf cient chlorophyll results in color de ciency in plants usually effects oder organs more than young ones ILess mobile nutrient usually affects younger organs more than older ones ISymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation nitrogen plant plant l nitrogen xing bacteria sugars root colonizing bacteria that have a symbiotic relationship with the plants symbiotic relationship with fungus and roots grow nonparasitically derives moisture from air rain and deb s IParasites Derives nutritional requirements from other plants ICarnivorous plants Derive nutrients from trapping and consuming animals and protozoans Iafter receiving stimulation a receptor initiates a series of biochemical steps signal transduction I Reception I Transducts relays molecules or signal I Response activates cellular response Transcription factors control transcription expression of genes Includes activation of existing proteins in the signal Chemical signals that coordinate different parts of an organism often caused by hormones of cell elongation stimulate cell division and differentiation Terminal buds ability to suppress development of axillary buds after water is imbibed release of gibberellins from the embryo signals seeds to germinate induce cell elongation and division in plants Two of many effects of abscisic acid ABA ISeed Dormancy High levels of ABA IDrought Tolerance ABA accumulates in leaves during droughts and cuases stomata to close produce ethylene in response to stresses Also produced during ripening and programmed cell death senescence Light mediated development Icontrol hypocotyl elongation IStomatal opening Iphototropism Germinate when light and other conditions are near optimal growth in response to touch Thigmotropism Nonliving living cell wall expansion cell division and differentiation Stem elongation fruit growth germination Cell elongation and division seed dormancy and stomatal opening closing fruit ripening chemical signals that help plants grow can absorb nutrients from outside of their body Idecomposers Ipa rasites Imutualists Iearly colonizers of land probably as symbionts w plants long glucose chain long branching lamentous chain of fungus multicellular cells divide by groups of hyphae long strands of fungus IFungi can produce spores asexually and sexually Ifound in fresh water diverged early in fungal evolution I Zoospores unique with agellated spores fast growing bread and fruit molds Ifast growing bread of fruit molds Inamed for their Zygosporangia Isite of karyogamy and then meiosis Iaim sporangia towards good food souces IPilobolus aim their sporangia toward the light one of the 7 recognized phyla in the kingdom fungi Mycelium network increases root system increasing nutrient uptake quotfungus Idelivers minerals and receives organic nutrients grow in extracellular spaces of roots ll air pockets Hyphae go through cell wall to plasmamembrane and wrap themselves around plasmamembrane quotspore shootersquot Ilive in marine freshwater and terrestrial habitats Iproduce sacike contained in fruting bodies called Icommonly called sac fungi Iinclude mushrooms puffballs and shelf fungi Ibasidiomycetes are decomposers of wood Iessential recycling between the living and nonliving world IFungus Plant Symbiosis increase plant productivity symbiotic relationship Animal Symbiosis helps break down plant material composite symbiotic organisms emerging from algae Ifungal component is most often an Ascomycete IAlgae or cyanobacteria occupy an inner layer below the lichen surface 30 of known fungal species are parasites mostly on or in 392 o 3 rl39 U1 Imake cheeses alcoholic beverages and bread Iantibiotics produced by fungi treat bacterial infections IChlorphytes include unicellular colonial and multicellular forms Morphological and Biochemical Evidence IFive Key Traits Land Plants Share w Charophyceans ISimilarities in cell wall synthesis Iphotorespiratory enzymes Istructure of sperm Isimilarities during cell division Ihomologous chloroplasts IDerived traits of land plants I ve key traits appear in nearly all land plants but are absent in the charophyceans Iapical meristems Ialternation of generations Iwalled spores produced in sporangia Imulticellular gametangion Imulticellular embryos IAdditionaI Derived Units ICuticIe and secondary compounds evolved in many plant species prevents water loss IGrouping of Land Plants Based on the presence or absence of vascular tissue Non vascular plants IVascuIar plants Iseedless vascular plants Iseed vascular plants 393 phyla of herbaceous plants Iliverworts Ihornworts Imosses
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