KIN212 Test 1 Study Guide
KIN212 Test 1 Study Guide KIN212
Popular in Sports Psychology
Popular in PHIL-Philosophy
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by taylor Notetaker on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN212 at University of Miami taught by Dr.Awari in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Sports Psychology in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 03/05/15
the scienti c study of people and their behaviors in sport and exercise activities and the practical application of that knowledge 0 two objectives 1 understand the effects of psychological factors on physical and motor performance 2 understand the effects of participation in physical activity on psychological development health and wellbeing Sport Psychology Specialties 1 licensed psychologists trained to work with people with severe emotional disorders trained to help athletes with problems such as eating disorders and substance abuse A experts in training and teaching skill acquisition 0 use mental coach approach understand psychology of human movement trained in physical education kinesiology or exercise and sport science 0 work with anxiety arousal performance issues adherence etc a process or rhethod of learning about the world through the systematic controlled empirical and critical ltering of knowledge acquired through experience what we learn through experience using many methods of knowing in order of decreasing accuracy Scienti c method experiment Systematic observation study Single case study Shared public experience lntrospection Intuition correlation doesn t mean causationquot Personality and its structure 0 things that stick out o the characteristics or blend of that make a person unique UUUUUU 0 structure the most basic and deepest attitudes values interests motives and selfworth of a personthe quotrealquot person ex religious values the way one typically adjusts or responds to the environment ex happygolucky shy how one acts in a particular social situation ex student parent friend 0 understanding personality behavior is determined by several unconscious constantly changing factors that often con ict with one another 0 why we make mistakes emphasis placed on understanding person as whole rather than isolated traits behavior determined by relatively stable traits that are fundamental units of personality predispose one to act in a certain way regardless of situation Eysenck s PEN model by combining these factors we can arrive at any description of personality no matter how complex 0 psychoticism o extroversion arousalintroversionextroversion brain tries to function at an optimal level brain tries to compensate for too little or too much activation levels of activation change constantly behaviors physical stimuli chemicals etc high levels of brain arousal low levels of arousal alcoholdepressantmakes more active amphetamines cure ADHD o neuroticism most people will behave according to a situation or environment 0 we have scripts that we act upon without realizing behavior is determine by both the person and the situational factors as well as by their interaction majority of contemporary sport and exercise psychologists favor this approach 0 measuring personality traits and states typical style of behavior situation s effect on behaviora quotright nowquot feeling that can change from moment to moment Cognitive Strategies and Athletic Success and are among the skills and behaviors that athletes use in competition 0 not personality traits in traditional sense but cognitive strategies re ect the behavior aspect of personality and interact with personality characteristics 0 both quantitative and qualitative cognitive strategy measures have been shown to differentiate between more and less successful athletes the direction and intensity of effort direction and intensity closely related 0 whether an individual seeks out approaches or is attracted to situations 0 how much effort an individual puts forth in a situation 0 views of motivation o participant or traitcentered view 0 situationcentered view 0 interactional view guidelines for building motivation 1 Both situations and traits motivate people 2 People have multiple motives for involvement Understand why people participate in physical activity motives for involvement 0 participate for more than one reason 0 may have competing motives for involvement 0 both shared and unique motives o motives change over time and differ across cultures 0 major motives for sport participants 0 improve skills havefun be with friends experience thrills and excitement achieve success OOOO 0 develop tness 0 major motives for exercise participants 0 joining health factors weight loss tness selfchallenge feeling better 0 continuing enjoyment like instructor like type of activity social factors 3 Change the environment to enhance motivation provide competitive and recreational opportunities 0 provide for multiple motives and opportunities adjust to individuals within groups 4 Leaders in uence motivation directly and indirectly 5 Use behavior modi cation to change undesirable participant motives realistic view of motivation o motivation key variable in learning and performance 0 physical and psychological factors must be considered because they in uence behavior 0 some factors more easily in uenced than others person s orientation to strive for task success persist in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishments o selfcomparison of achievement 0 in uences choice of activities effort to pursue goals intensity of effort persistence in the face of failure 0 high achievers high motivational orientation to achieve success 0 low motivation orientation to avoid failure 0 focus on pride of success ascribe success to stable and internal factors within their control ascribe failure to unstable and external factors outside their control 0 usually adopt task goals have high perceived competence and feel that achievement is within their control 0 seek out challenges able competitors and demanding tasks 0 perform well in evaluative conditions 0 low achievers low motivational orientation to achieve success 0 high motivational orientation to avoid failure 0 focus on shame and worry that may result from failure ascribe success to unstable and external factors outside their control ascribe failure to stable and internal factors within their control 0 usually adopt outcome goals have low perceived competence and feel that achievement is outside their control 0 avoid challenges seek out very dif cult or very easy tasks or competitors 0 perform poorly in evaluative conditions 0 disposition to strive for satisfaction when making comparisons with some standard of excellence in the presence of evaluative others 0 social evaluation or comparison 0 theories need achievement theory attribution theory attributions how people explain their successes and failures 0 stability 0 locus of causality o locus of control 0 examples wind direction external out of control unstable skills internal in control stables rolling dice external out of control unstable achievement goal theory 0 comparing performance with and defeating others improving relative to one s own past performances Judging competence in terms of af liation with the group and recognition of being liked by others 0 keys of theory 0 focus extra attention on taskoriented goals 0 foster mastery or task motivational climates 0 keys of theory 0 people are motivated to feel worthy or competent o feelings of competence and worth as well as perceptions of control determine motives stages of developing achievement motivation and competitiveness o autonomous competence stagepersonal 0 social comparison stage 0 integrated self and socialcomparison stage blend of psychological and physiological activation varying in intensity along a continuum varies during the day actively seek to manipulate arousal subject to involuntary arousal manipulation 0 ex horror movies skydiving relaxing on a beach stretching etc 0 ex theme park designs movie music commercials etc a negative emotional state with feelings of worry nervousness and apprehension associated with activation or arousal of the body trait vs state anxiety 0 o a personality disposition that is stable over time right nowquot feelings that change from moment to moment 0 people with high trait anxiety usually have more state anxiety in highly evaluative situations Measuring Arousal and Anxiety physiological signs heart rate respiration skin conductance biochemistry behavior variation in behavior Stress and the Stress Process 0 stress a substantial imbalance between physical and psychological demands placed on an individual and his or her response capability under conditions in which failure to meet demands has important consequences 0 stress process implications of the stress process for practice intervene at any of the stress process stages 0 sources of stress and anxiety 0 situational sources event importance reward or punishment ex typist given electrical shock uncertainty pavlov s dog neurosis 0 personal sources trait anxiety selfesteem social physique anxiety How Arousal and Anxiety Affect Performance Quality of performance n r Degree of arousal High I o 5 Performance Low High Physiological arousal Athlete A low IZOF In zone best performance 0m Of Eon e Athlete B moderate lZOF In zone best performance IOut of zone Out of zone Athlete C high IZOFli In zone out Of zone best performance 30 40 50 6 0 tow High State a nxiety level multidimensional anxiety theory Hugh High De nitive anxiety worry Performance i Low 7 High Pnyeml ogltal emal 0 how arousal affects performance depends on an individual s interpretation of his or her arousal level this is a cognitive theory 0 arousal can be interpreted as pleasant excitement or as unpleasant anxiety arousal interpreted as pleasant facilitates performance arousal interpreted as unpleasant hurts performance o individual s interpretation of anxiety symptoms is important for understanding the anxietyperformance relationship 0 to understand the anxietyperformance relationship must consider both the intensity how much anxiety one feels and the direction a person s interpretation of anxiety as facilitating or debilitating to performance 0 viewing anxiety as facilitative leads to superior performance 0 state anxiety is perceived as facilitative or debilitative depending on how much control the person perceives 0 developing cognitive skills and strategies helps people view anxiety as facilitative signi cance of all these views 0 arousal is multifaceted 0 consists of physical activation of arousal interpretation of arousal o doubtful that the optimal level of arousal is always at the midpoint of the arousal scale 0 arousal and state anxiety do not always have negative effects on performance gt can be facilitative or debilitative depending on the interpretation 0 selfcon dence and enhanced perceptions of control are critical to perceiving anxiety as facilitative 0 some optimal level of arousal leads to peak performance but optimal levels of physiological activation and arousalrelated thoughts worry aren t the same 0 interaction of physiological activation and arousal interpretation is more important than actual levels of each quotpsyching upquot strategies 0 athletes should have wellpracticed selftalk imagery relaxation and goalsetting skills for coping with anxiety 0 Why Arousal In uences Performance 0 increased muscle tension fatigue and coordination dif culties 0 changes in attention concentration and visual search 0 narrowing of attention 0 shift to dominant style o attending to inappropriate cues o performances worries and situationirrelevant thoughts 0 visual cues are differently identi ed and processed when performers are anxious 0 form of social facilitation theory 0 more support better play
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