KIN212 Test 2 Study Guide
KIN212 Test 2 Study Guide KIN212
Popular in Sports Psychology
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by taylor Notetaker on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to KIN212 at University of Miami taught by Dr.Awari in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Sports Psychology in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 03/05/15
Chapter 5 Competition and Cooperation 0 Competition and Cooperation De ned o a social process that occurs when rewards are given to people for how their performance compares with the performances of others during the same task or when participating in the same event 0 a social process through which performance is evaluated and rewarded in terms of the collective achievement of a group of people working together to reach a particular goal 0 the competition process 0 Stage 1 situation in which performance is compared with some standard of excellence in the presence of at least one other person who is aware of the comparison 0 Stage 2 how the person perceives accepts and appraises the objective competitive situation in uenced by personality factors such as competitiveness 0 Stage 3 whether a person approaches or avoids an objective competitive situation at the behavioral physiological and psychological levels 0 Stage 4 whether a person approaches or avoids an objective competitive situation at the behavioral physiological and psychological levels 0 psychological studies of competition and cooperation o cyclists were faster in competition than alone racing against the clock O selfcentered directed efforts at beating others had closed communication exhibited group con ict and distrust communicated openly shared information 0 developed friendships solved more puzzles o cooperation as opposed to competition produces superior performance although results may depend on the nature of the task 0 competition can serve as a positive source of motivation to improve and re ne skills psychological studies of competition and aggression 0 competition is not good or bad D it39s neutral 0 whether it leads to aggression or cooperation depends on the social environment and the way the performers view competition psychological studies on experimental games o prisoner39s dilemma competitors draw cooperators into completion class curve and test taking auctions elections O O traf c orange peels vs orange juice example split or steal game show sheriff and sheriff summer camp studies competition can be reduced through cooperative efforts to achieve where two or more people or groups must be involved to achieve a speci c goal psychological studies on competitive sport and success in life 0 O O athletes in educational programs have higher educational aspirations than nonathletes athletes have no more or less career success than nonathletes athletes are no more or less deviant than nonathletes competition and cooperation as complementary concepts 0 O 0 competition and cooperation are not polar opposites dynamics of how competition and cooperation complement how one another should be taught top performers employ a blend of competition and cooperation strategies attributes related to both competition and cooperation O 0000 0 sense of mission strong work ethic use of resources strong preparation ethic love of challenge and change great teamwork enhancing cooperation O 0 component structure of games 0 ex 100yard dash ex soccer basketball crosscountry skiing ex helping each other individually improve 0 ex keeping a volleyball from hitting ground enhancing cooperation and skill improvement cooperative games emphasize both cooperative means and cooperative ends can be taught through cooperative games can be devised by changing the rules of traditional games most skills can be learned better through cooperative games 0 general principles 0 maximize participation 0 maximize opportunities to learn sport and movement skills do not keep score maximize opportunities for success give positive feedback provide opportunities for youngsters to play different positions 0 guidelines for balancing competition and cooperation when competition leads to erce rivalry use superordinate goals to get the groups together provide positive feedback and encouragement to students and athletes regardless of the outcomes of the competition 0000 Chapter 6 Feedback Reinforcement and Intrinsic Motivation the use of rewards and punishment to increase or decrease the likelihood of a similar response occurring in the future 0 principles of reinforcement o good consequence ie reward causes tendency to repeat the behavior leading to additional positive reinforcement reward appropriate behaviors D choose proper behaviors to reward shapereinforce successful approximations of dif cult behaviors reward performance AND outcome reward effort reward emotional and social skill o unpleasant consequence ie punishment causes tendency to avoid repeating behavior to avoid additional negative consequences punishment can control and change behavior but keep 8090 of reinforcement positive support of punishment 0 can serve a useful educational purpose ie maintain stability order mastery can deter future cheating or wrongdoing drawbacks of punishment 0 can arouse fear of failure 0 can act as a reinforcer can create an unpleasant aversive learning environment guidelines for using punishment 0 be consistent D give everyone same type of punishment for breaking similar rules punish behavior not person D behavior that needs to change 0 allow athlete39s input in making up punishments do not use physical activity as punishment 0 make sure punishment is not perceived as reward or attention impose punishment impersonally l do not berate or yell instead inform of punishment 0 do not punish athletes for making errors while playing 0 do not embarrass individuals in front of teammatesclassmates use punishment sparingly but enforce when you do behavior modi cation 0 O O systematic application of the principles of reinforcement to change behavior contingency management behavioral coaching behavior modi cation used to modify behaviors in sport and physical education feedback reinforcement in football behavioral coaching in golf recording and shaping in basketball improving attendance in swimming addressing inappropriate behaviors in tennis principles of behavior programs target behaviors you want to change de ne targeted behaviors record behaviors provide meaningful feedback state outcomes clearly tailor reward systems 0 any behavior can be broken down into a sequence of simpler actions ex autistic bicycle training 0 O 0 all behaviors we know have been shaped begin performance of a skill with the last step then add the secondtolast etc until arrive at rst step of the skill going above and beyond what is necessary to perform a skill so that competition will later seem easier by comparison 0 factors in uencing intrinsic motivation O 0 social factors success and failure focus of competition coaches39 behavior psychological factors need for competence autonomy and relatedness intrinsic motivation and extrinsic rewards 0 research shows that being paid for working on an intrinsically interesting activity can decrease a person39s intrinsic motivation for the activity classic studies deci soma puzzles lepper and greene nursery school expected and unexpected rewards how rewards are perceived is critical in determining whether intrinsic motivation increases or decreases 0 other determinants of intrinsic motivation 0 higher levels of intrinsic motivation are related to playing for an democratic vs a controlling coach participating in a recreational vs competitive league high vs low perceived competence high vs low perceived control epper and greene study 0 rewards and no rewards for drawing half schools get rewards and not noreward schools draw again one week later reward schools refuse to draw again one week later drawing for kids is an intrinsic reward normally but getting money reward made it an extrinsic reward for the reward schools 0000 Chapter 7 Group and Team Dynamics 0 Why study groups 0 almost any position in the sport and exercise eld requires understanding of processes and dynamics of groups 0 quottalent wins games but teamwork wins championshipsquot Michael Jordan 0 must consider nature of sport and exercise groups 0 two or more people who interact and exert mutual in uence on each other and share the following characteristics collective sense of identity distinctive roles structured modes of communication group norms o theories of team development familiarization formation of interpersonal relationships development of team structure 0 rebellion resistance to leader and to control by group interpersonal con ict 0 development of solidarity and cooperation team con icts resolved 0 channeling of energies for team success 0 ex TV show Lost development of teams is similar to life cycle D birth growth death o beginning of season 0 throughout season 0 end of season emphasis is on terminal phase of team39s existence 0 as team develops it psychologically prepares for its own breakup 0 model especially relevant for groupsteams lasting 1015 weeks shifts occur in interpersonal relationships during growth and development of teams 0 teams do not progress through linear phases 0 team structure involve behaviors required or expected of a person occupying a certain position dictated by the nature and structure of the organization 0 ie coach instructor captain evolve from the group39s dynamics or interactions among team members 0 ie enforcer mediator both role clarity and role acceptance are critical for team39s success role con ict exists when role occupant does not have sufficient ability motivation time or understanding to achieve goal a level of performance pattern of behavior or belief leaders need to establish positive group norms or standards especially of productivity 0 positive norms are important to establish modifying team norms 0 source of communication is critical in modifying more credible better liked similar attractive highstatus and powerful individuals are more effective persuaders 0 foreign speaker experiment 0 writings books encycolopedia no legal obligation to print truth books and encyclopedias can be wrong 0 celebrities endorse to get paid not because they actually use product 0 formal and informal team leaders 0 creating an effective team climate mutual respect and support enhance team climate 0 an exchange of resources between at least two people perceived by the provider and the recipient as intended to enhance the wellbeing of the recipient 0 provides appraisal information reassurance and cooperation 0 reduces uncertainty in times of stress 0 aids in mental and physical recovery 0 improves communication closer contact between members promotes team interaction the more distinctive the team feels the better the climate or lack thereof can bring a team closer together 0 ex coachesinstructors are mean to build a bond between groupteam greater closer climate 0 individual and team performance in sport while individual ability is important the individual abilities of team members alone are not good predictors of how a team will perform 0 actual productivity potential productivity losses are due to faulty group processes 0 losses result from motivation and coordination increase relevant resources through training instruction and recruiting reduce process losses through enhancing cohesion and emphasizing individual contributions to the team 0 how individual skills relate to group performance the greater the need for cooperation and interaction in a task the more the importance of individual ability decreases and the importance of team productivity increases teams of equal ability tend to play best 0 phenomenon by which individual performance decreases as the number of people in the team increases 0 when individuals within a group or team put forth less than 100 effort due to loss of motivation conditions that increase social loa ng an individual39s output cannot be independently evaluated task is perceived to be low in meaningfulness an individual39s personal involvement in the task is low a comparison against group standards is not possible 0 other individuals contributing to the collective effort are strangers teammates or coworkers are seen as high in ability 0 individual team members perceive their contribution to the outcome as redundant the individual is competing against what he or she believes to be a weaker opponent eliminating social oa ng emphasize the importance of individual pride and unique contributions 0 increase identi ability of individual performances determine speci c situation in which social oa ng occurs divide the team into smaller units 0 enhancing the desire for team success desire for team success is a teamoriented motive or goal 0 basis is the team members39 desire to derive pride and satisfaction from the team if it is successful in accomplishing its goals strategies for developing the desire for group success emphasize a prideinteam approach with a unifying team goal 0 ensure that each member39s contribution is valued and recognized by coach and teammates place strong emphasis on good leadership from the coach and captains actively work to develop both task and social cohesion encourage uni ed commitment to the team effort 0 reward pursuit of excellence use effective communication to keep all members feeling part of the team Chapter 10 Communication quotIt is not what you tell them its what they hearquot Red Auerbach communication keys 0 purposes persuasion evaluation information motivation problem solving 0 contains content what is said and relational information how we say it and how they receive it 0 there is a text what you say and a subtext what you mean 0 types of communication 0 we constantly send out messages even when we aren39t aware of it 0 at least two people in a meaningful exchange 0 selftalk the communication we have with ourselves the study of the use of space 0 used in many types of settings educannal architectural commercial transportation etc sending messages effectively 0 make verbal messages clear and concise 0 pick the right time and place to deliver verbal messages 0 enhance trust with receiver to ensure verbal messages are appropriately interpreted 0 physical appearance posture and gestures are important components of nonverbal messages 0 do not underestimate importance of nonverbal communication 5070 is nonverbal harder to hide powerful receiving messages effectively 0 ask questions paraphrase attend to main and supporting ideas acknowledge and respond give appropriate feedback and pay attention to the speaker39s entire communication verbal and nonverbal keys to active listening mentally prepare to listen 0 don39t mistake hearing for listening paraphrase what the speaker said breakdowns in communication 0 people usually believe that the fault lies with the other person 0 a failure at any of the 5 stages of communication process will result in a breakdown barriers to effective communication 0 receiver not paying attention to sender 0 lack of trust between individuals attempting to communicate o differences in power and rank boss vs employee adult vs child 0 differences in the mental set or perception between people 0 embarrassment creates interference o tendency to tell people what they want to hear 0 dif culties in expression or reluctance to communicate o belief that silence is safer o inconsistency between actions and words a facetoface discussion among people in con ict often seen as negative but when properly used it is a part of effective communication problems have to be solved not tolerated when to use or avoid confrontation 10 0 don39t confront someone when you39re angry 0 do confront someone when you are in control you can express your feelings constructively have a wellthoughtout reason for doing so 0 key points in knowing how to confront all parties39 needs are legitimate and must be attended to enough resources to meet all needs untapped power and capacity people in con ict know what they need process is as important as content because it provides direction and focus everyone is right from his or her own perspective 0 solutions and resolutions are temporary states of balance and are not absolute or timeless to constructive criticism 0 quotSally you are really working hard out therequot 0 quotnext time try to slow down and not get 0000 O ahead of the musicquot 0 quotyou re getting there keep up the good workquot
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