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Exam 2

by: Amanda Barteczko

Exam 2 Soc 220

Amanda Barteczko
Intro to Sociology

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Exam 2 Review Chapter 4: Gender Inequality: • Sex- biological status, indicated by sex chromosomes, internal organs, external genitalia; potential categories: male, female, intersex • Gender- at...
Intro to Sociology
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda Barteczko on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Soc 220 at Purdue University taught by Beall in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 518 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Purdue University.


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Date Created: 03/05/15
Amanda Barteczko Soc 220 Exam 2 Review Chapter 4 Gender Inequalitv biological status indicated by sex chromosomes internal organs external genitalia potential categories male female intersex Gender attitudes feelings behaviors that a culture associates with a certain sex masculine vs feminine Gender identitv how a person identi es doesn39t necessarily match sex and therefore gender potential categories man woman transgender etc Gender expression the way in which a person acts in order to communicate their gender or gender identity to the rest of society how we present ourselves in basic everyday interaction Gender Strati cation unequal distribution of wealth power and privilege between men and women Sexism belief that one sex is innately superior to the other supports that men have power over women men running most companies and women performing clerical work 1972 congress passed title Xl educational amendment of civil rights act banning sex discrimination Men and women typically have different job types US society assigns women most of the responsibility for raising children women devote more of their time to home even if both sexes start out with exactly same jobs over time women typically fall behind their male coHeagues women suffer from gender discrimination employers can39t legally discriminate based on gender but gender inequality is rooted in the system Hiring process men are more likely to be chosen for many positions especially management positions given the same credentials ncome Gap between men and women glass ceiling subtle discrimination that effectively blocks the movement of women into the highest positions in organizations women are discourages from being aggressive and competitive Women hold more clerical and service jobs men hold more executive and professional jobs Women are expected to take care of children take time off to do so take jobs with exible schedules or that don39t require long hours or travel even if women start out with same jobs as men they fall behind Maternity leave expected to care for children yet given very little time argument that women taking more time off leads to higher gender inequality Empoyers notice women taking more time off and will give more promotions to men After maternity leave women fall behind in work need to be trained again which is costly one solution is to have fathers take paternity leave as well Median pay for men working full time 47745 median pay for women working full time 36931 or 77 of men39s median o Functionalist approach Everything in society exists because it is functional Hold society together Gender roles are functional Talcott parsons Complimentarv Roles 0 Men have a speci c role that is complimentary to women39s speci c role 0 Genderbased division of labor begins in huntergatherers societies 0 Modern societies still encourage some gender differences because they serve to integrate people and help them work together 0 Bene ting from joining families 0 Women take care of the children and household have an expressive role caretaking and emotional and relationships 0 Men participate in the workforce have an instrumental roe competitive goalfocused orientation emphasizing rationality 0 Gender differences help society to operate 0 Problem theory created by a man saying that women should act expressively and men should act instrumentally is problematic functional for whom today both men and women have instrumental roles in the workforce and expressive roles within their relationships o Symbolic approach Our gender and gender identity determine a lot about how we interact with others Men are allowed more freedom about what they can say and how they can act men use foul language and are aggressive whereas women listen and are polite Men are more likely to interrupt women even in classrooms professors are more likely to call on men interrupt women and question s women responses Men have a greater social power they use more space than women women takes the men39s last name Men and women are supposed to act and do certain things when they don39t fall into these patterns of behavior society looks down on them or punishes them Men use language more assertive and women use more hesitant language and qualify their statements more often women tend to smile more than men 0 Con ict theorv Marxist approach Men dominate the capital class Expoit men in factories for low pay and women in the home for no pay Men do the hunting and women to the vegetation men must claim ownership of property and control the sexuality of women lnter ection theorv Analysis how race class and gender interact Focused on ideas of advantages and disadvantages Being a women of minority race can doubly disadvantage you Black women earn less than nonhispanic white and Hispanic women earn even less OOOO Feminism o A political movement that seeks the social equality of men and women M 1 Importance of gender out society de nes masculinity and feminine behaviors 2 Importance of equality feminist claim that everyone could bene t from equality 3 Importance of choice all people be free to decide for themselves 4 Important of sexual freedom have the right to control their sexuality and reproduction support gay rights movement 5 Activism against patriarchy opposes all form of sexism and gender inequality 6 Activism against gender violence violence against women in form of rape sexual harassment and domestic abuse Sexual Harassment unwanted comments gestures or physical contact of a sexual nature about 50 of women claimed to have received unwanted sexual attention in the workforce Chapter 5 Agim and Inequalitv Life expectancy has been steadily rising over the past century With increasing life expectancies come and increasing number of older individuals with different needs Baby boomers are reaching 605 and older By 2040 the 20 of the US will be 65 Life course socially constructed stages that people pass through as they live out their lives Gerontology study of aging and elderly illnesses are more common by age 40 considered as growing down psychical strength declines hair turns gray and falls out skin is wrinkled Gerontocracv a social system that gives a society s oldest members the most wealth power and prestige Life expectancy the average life span of a country s population 0 Life expectancy in US females 81yrs Males 76 yrs 0 Three levels of old 0 6574 quotyounger oldquot live independently and enjoy good health 0 7584 quotolder oldquot need support services 0 85 quotoldest oldquot who needs most assistance 0 Social isolation o Declining health limits their ability to get around out of touch old fashioned which discourages others from interacting with older people as time goes on friends neighbors and family members die making older person39s social world smaller and smaller older men and women who lose their spouses become lonely and depressed older men remarry more than older women Typical caregiver is working married mother in her 505 Pay cuts and losses of pension plans for those close to retirement as a result older individuals are left with little or no money saved up must continue to work past what was considered quotretirement agequot 0 Some companies encourage older individuals to retire to make way for younger people 55 provide welfare to individuals that are retired estimated to keep about 20 of the elderly population above the poverty line 0 Retirement bene ts are currently strained with the large in ux of older individuals one solution is moving the retirement age back to 66 from 62 0 Medicare is a government program designed to provide medical care to older individuals older individuals not only have more medical conditions but are likely retired with little or no income pays about half the cost of medical and longterm care 0 Cost of Medicare is rising and people are having to pay more and more out of pocket or turn to private sources Ageism prejudice and discrimination directed toward older people 0 De nes physical traits gray hair wrinkled skin evidence of being less worthy 0 De ned as narrowminded senile devalue them as human beings o In the workplace employers may pass over the application of someone who is elderly may encourage elderly individuals to retire early 0 By health specialists doctors and nurses all sometimes unfairly write symptoms off as old age 0 In the media not portrayed often in stereotypical roles mostly applies to women Agebased prejudice negative prejudgments about the elderly employers pass over a job application from an older person because they prefer ring someone younger depicting older people as quotsick senile useless ugly isolated poorquot Agebased discrimination unfair treatment age discrimination US equal employment opportunity 0 Elder abuse brought up as a social issue as more people become older can be passive neglect or active psychical or emotional abuse 00 O O 5 of elder experience abuse everyday 1 out of 20 0 Many victims are afraid of complaining aren39t in position to get away from abusers might be treated worse might be institutionalized wouldn39t be believed 0 Only 15 of cases are reported 0 Can be abused by family members often times with other issues alcoholic hard drug users emotional issues etc 0 Can be abused while being in a nursing home organization attempts to cut costs hire fewer workers workers are stressed or don39t have time lash out or neglect 0 Elder abuse involve neglect of older people wo cannot care for themselves active physical or psychological abuse wrongfully taking an older person39s propertymoney o Caregiving informal and unpaid care provided to a dependent person by family members other relatives or friends Middleaged people are a quotsandwich generationquot who may well spend as much time caring for their aging parents as they did raising their young Poverty elderly poverty rate at 9 government bene ts SSretirement bene ts medicare struggle with paying medical costs smaller retirement bene ts from companies AJe Strati cation social inequality among various age categories within a society the income peaks about the age of fty with income falling as people get older and enter old age 0 Most elders prefer to quotage in placequot staying in the same homes they occupied while working and raising their children 0 Loss of strength slowing of reaction time weakening of eyesight stairways are challenging maintenance repair lack of insulation require heating and air maintenance 0 Categories of elders at high risk of poverty Africanamericans women and rural Housing 80 of elderly own their own home still must pay utilities or mortgageswhich can leave elders asset rich but income poor many elders like to stay in houses they have occupied for a while driving can be dif cult Retirement communities are options for elderly individuals is living in retirement communities provide access to health care transportation and meals expensive some govt programs can assist with affordable housing about 11 of elderly individuals share a household Death life expectancies are extending as new technologies improve health in low income nations people learn to accept death as a common part of everyday life and are accompanied with family and friends Euthanasia assisting in the death of someone with an incurable disease 0 Two types Passive Euthanasia turning off life support 54 of elderly have a living will Active Euthanasia lethal injection to a dying person to bring a painless end to life Physicianassisted suicide physician writes prescription for lethal drugs 0 debate about euthanasia and physician assisted suicide argument that people would like to be able to decide when and how they die should people who are close to death be allowed to die if they want what if is it the result of depression many argue that depression or tired of living in and not a suf cient reason concerns about whether elderly will be pressured into assisted suicide families need money or cant afford to pay medical bills hospitals might unconsciously convince poorer individuals because of nancial reasons insurance companies weigh in legalization of assisted suicide in Washington and Oregon Hospice homelike care that provides physical and emotional comfort to dying people and their families 0 0 More than 5000 hospice organization care for more than 15 million people each year People die in comfort and with dignity some hospice organizations operate homes where dying people go to spend their nals days workers go to homes of dying people to assist them and their families Growth of hospice re ects the fact that many people want to avoid the impersonal and highly regimented environment of a hospital Drugs could be used to control pain but making no efforts to extend life unnaturally Functionalism O 0 Society as an organism develops ways to deal with potential social issues as people get older productivity in work goes down responsibilities may become dif cult Disengagement theory the idea that modern societies operate in an orderly way by removing people from positions of responsibilities as they reach old age Retirementolder workers lack skills in modern technologies and training young workers are eased in behind them with more up todate knowledge disengagement is functional for society functional for older individuals Symbolic interactionism O O Focuses on the meaning people nd in their everyday lives As individuals age and retire they have less and less responsibilities more time on their hands expand hobbies volunteer travel Active theorv older individuals are happier when they stay active however this is not possible for some physical incapability limited opportunities low income social isolation still an issue Also reminds us that older people are diverse with differing needs abilities and interests 0 Con ict theorv O O O Focuses on age strati cation pointing in ways in which US society limits the opportunities and resources available to older people Older individuals have been with companies longer require more pay and can rack up bene ts Companies eager to higher younger individualswill work for less potentially more productive Eager to get rid of older individuals Society values individuals on being productive o Feminist theory 0 O 0 Look critically at gender differences in terms of old age Gender inequality in income widens as individuals get older Women in 65 category makes 71 as much as men Result from lack of mobility in theirjobs work in low paying jobs lag from higher gender inequality Older women and other minorities subject not only to ageism but also to sexism and racism are much more disadvantages as intersection theory 0 Intersection theory 0 O 0 Looks at how combinations of identity race class gender interact in different ways Older AfricanAmericans and Hispanic women have poverty rates that are far higher Race and gender combine to create even more inequality Being a member of a minority race and gender creates unique disadvantages and challenges 0 Inequalitv O O O Discussed several different types of inequality Income and wealth class Racial and ethnic Gender inequality Class race and gender are important characteristic of individuals Almost every statistic in sociology varies along these lines Always ask yourself how might this be different for other groups How might my experiences vary depending on which group I m in Moving into other social issues class race and gender will be very important Chapter 6 Crime Violence and Criminal iustice Norms rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members 0 O Unwritten rules that are expected to be followed Punishment raging from stares or warning to social exclusions Ex talking loudly in the library Laws are norms that are formally codi ed 0 They speci cally prohibit certain actions or activities usually with legal consequences 0 TVpes of Laws Civil law de nes the legal rights and relationships involving individuals and businesses Ex automobile accident prompts one person to sue another to receive payment for loss or damages divorces division of property family law Criminal de nes everyone s responsibility to uphold public order causes harm to another person or their property offense against societyEx a drunk driver drives into a car and is likely to face arrest for a criminal violation involves charges of wrong doing leading to arrest and punishment Crime the violation of a criminal law enacted by the federal state or local government 0 Divided into two major categories depending on severity Misdemeanor a less serious crime punishable by less than one year in prison Felony a more serious crime punishable by more than a year in p son Levels in Indiana 0 Class A misdemeanor prison up to one year and a ne up to 5000 0 Class B misdemeanor prison for 180 days and a ne up to 1000 0 Class C misdemeanor jail for 60 days and ne up to 50000 0 Class ABCD felonies Tvnes of Felonies 0 Crime against property crime involving theft or destruction of property Burglary larceny motor vehicle theft arson 0 Crime aoainst persons crime that involved violence or the threat or violence against others Murder manslaughter aggravated assault forcible rape robbery UCR includes only crimes known to the police many have not been reported 0 50 of violent crimes and 40 of property crimes are reported to the police UCR gathers statistics on quotstreet crimesquot but not quotelite crimesquot which include business fraud insider stock trading corruption price xing and illegal dumping of toxic wastes Violent Crimes account for just 12 of all serious offenses 0 Murder manslaughter aggravated assault forcible rape robbery 196019905 a lot of crimes increased and then decreased due to strong economy 1 Murder intentionally killing another person 0 In 2010 there were 14748 murders 0 Most murders are by people the individuals know 78 of victims knew their murderer 25 of cases victims were related to murderers o 77 murder victims are men 0 Half of all murder victims are black despite making up a smaller percent of the population 1015 0 47 of murder victims are white 0 The vast majority of murders are interracial 90 of black victims are murdered by black perpetrators 83 of white victims are white perpetrators 0 White individuals are more likely to kill women 375 percent of females are killed my boyfriends or husbands o Stalking as repeated efforts by someone to establish or reestablish a relationship against the will of the victim 2 Manslaughter also killing another person but with different circumstances 0 Many states separate manslaughter to involuntary or voluntary Voluntary intention to kill or cause serious harm 0 Legally different from murder 0 Mitigating factors make it less severe Provocation Accidental killing when meaning to cause harm Heat of the moment Belief that a situation requires deadly force Involuntary without malice and premeditation no intention 0 Can involve killing while participating in an unlawful act Running a red light and hitting someone 0 Can involve negligence Failure to perform a duty owed Doctor fails to notice problems with a patient Mothers fail to feed child 3 Forcible Rape more often termed quotsexual assaultquot 0 84767 rapes were reported in 2010 o 35 of women who are raped reported to the police 0 Vast majority of women who are raped know their assailant 0 Statutory rape sex with a minor under 18 4 Sexual Assault de nitions of rape vary by state 0 Indiana39s de nition sexual intercourse means an act that includes any penetration of the female organ by the male sex organ 0 Rape is often de ned that males cannot be victims 0 Usually classi ed as aggravated assault or sexual offense 5 Aggravated assault is attempt to cause serious bodily harm to someone o Involves the use of a weapon or a high degree of injury 0 Accounts for 62 of all violent crime reports 0 Majority of offenders and victims are young males 6 Robbery involves both stealing and threatening another person making this act both a property crime and a violent crime 0 Not the same as burglary or larceny 0 One of the few crimes that victims don39t know the perpetrator 0 Mostly younger male perpetrators under 25 o Pronertv crime 0 O O 88 reported crimes are crime against property Crime involved raking or destruction of property Burglary larceny motor vehicle theft arson o 1 Burglary O O O O O 2 million burglaries in 2010 Vast majority are younger male perpetrators Involves entering private property and taking business or residential quotbreaking and enteringquot Can lead to violent crime if caught 2 Larceny forms of stealing such as shoplifting picking pockets purse snatching taking property from a motor vehicle and bicycle theft 0 O O O O 0 OOO Accounts for 60 of all serious crimes Little to no force public slight majority male 3 Motor vehicle theft involved stealing cars trucks buses etc Vast majority were male and half under the age of 25 4 Arson intentionally burning of another house or property Majority younger and male Crime Data Police dept report crimes to FBI regularly FBI compiles date into an annual report Uniform crime report Gives data on felonies Only includes crimes known to police Police could arti cially attempt to make their district look better National crime victimization survey NCVS Attempt by FBI to get at reports missed by police Survey sent to random sample of individuals Estimates that 50 violent crimes and 40 property crimes are reported Does not report quotelite crimesquot 0 Street crimes most visible and apparent crimes 0 They are often easy to see and easy to point blame Elite crimes are not in the public eye and nearly as often harder to see or point the blame White collar crimes illegal activities conducted by people of high social position during the course of their employment or regular business activities 0 Occurs in banks and corporations and often involved offenders who are important members of the community quotcrime in suitsquot Fraud embezzlement insider trading Often seen in civil court just have to pay for damages Not usually jail time Not labeled as criminal Get off easy even if seen in criminal court 47 of embezzlers saw jail time 0 Since 2008 recession people are more aware of whitecollar crimes 0 Often not seen as bad as quotstreet crimesquot 0 Can involve the theft of billions of dollars yet carried no jail time Fines are sometimes a small percentage of what was gained 0 Street crimes carry much more harsher sentences including large nes and jail time Corporate Crime illegal act committed by a corporation or by person on its beha 0 Gross Negligence Company knows they are producing a faulty product but pulling it would lose them a lot of money Faulty 19705 Ford Pinto rear end collision could rupture its gas tank causing an explosion and re can cause many deaths from negngnce 0 Where do we draw the line between charging individuals and charging corportations o Enron corporation alone costs the country 50 billion 0 Cost of whitecollar and corporate crime easily dwarfs all property crime wanized Crimes a business that supplies illegal goods and services 0 Gambling sex and drugs Victimless crimes public order crimes offenses that directly ham only the person who commits them 0 Gambling prostitution drug use vagrancy public drunkenness 0 Against the law because they violate conventional norms and values Juvenile delinquency violation of the law by young people under the age 18 o Incarcerated in juvenile detention center rather than prison 0 Protect the community and also to serve the best interests of youthful fenders themselves Hate crime a criminal offense against a person property or society motivated by the offenders bias against a race religion disability sexual orientation or ethnicity or nation origin 0 Bias motivated crimes 0 Gay men with color Who commits street crimes 0 Age rates for violent and property crime park in the early 205 and late teens 0 Gender men make up majority of property crime and 80 of violent crimes larceny embezzlement runaway youth and prostitution have higher rates of women perpetrators Class lower class individuals are most often arrested for street crimes 0 Race whites are more often arrested for street crimes African Americans are most likely to be arrested than white black males are 6X more likely to spend time in jail Felony record and jobs 13 of black men in their 205 were in jail probation or on parole O African americans are most likely to be poor Distrust of the system and police Police patrol poorer areas more often Tendency to arrest blacks more readily than whites Leads to further distrust 0 Violence a social issue Four questions to ask when thinking about violence as an issue 0 Do actors intend for violence to happen car crash o Is the violence socially acceptablefootbal Does the violence threaten social order o Is violence committed by or against government 0 lnstitutional violence carried out by the government representatives under the law most people believe that a certain amount of violence is necessary for society to keep operatingdefend our nation from foreign enemies war capital punishment police SWAT teams targeting political leaders killing in war is taking another39s life just like murder people accept this police brutality or killing of innocents is looked down upon 0 Antiinstitutional violence violence directed against the government in violation of the law 2001 attacks on the world trade center Violence behavior that causes injury to people or to property Mass murder the intentional unlawful killing of four or more people at one time and place shootings occur at homehusband killed wife and kids Serial murder the killing of several people by one offender over a period of time o Commits one murder and then waits for a week or month before killing again Youth gangs groups of young people who identify with one another and with a particular territory 0 Poor singleparent family in a neighborhood with high rates of crime and drug abuse and that offers few jobs Criminal justice sLstem society s use of due process involving police courts and punishment to enforce the law Police group of people given power by the state to enforce the law and preserve order 0 Legitimized use of force potentially deadly force Govt has restricted police power in the past Miranda rights can39t search without warrant Can39t hold individuals for a long period of time Stronger guns combat boots military tactics Arrests 6 factors that affect the likelihood of an arrest Seriousness of the crime Does the victim demand it 00000 Are they uncooperative Do they have a record Are others watching What is the race of the suspect 0 Police crackdowns police use crackdowns to deter crime in a speci c dangerous area or situation war on drugs Argue that crackdowns help decrease crime If the problem is not xed states will argue that more policing necessary if it is xed states will argue that successful and more policing to decrease crime even more Plea bargaining negotiation in which the ate reduced a defendant39s charge in exchange for a guilty plea Punishment can range from nes to jail time to death 0 In 2010 23 million people were incarcerated 0 US has the highest percentage of its population in prison than any other country hasn39t noticeably affected crime rates 0 Some reasons for high rates Half of the states have gotten tough on crime Half of the states have a three strikes and you are out policy Mandatory prison sentences for speci c serious crimes War on drugs 0 Four reasons for punishment 1 Retribution society in icts equal suffering on the offender eye for an eye offenders upset the moral balance equal punishments rights 2 Deterrence punishment is used to prevent further crime more modern 18th ce speci c deterrence by punishing the offender general deterrence by showing society what happens assumes rational criminals 3 Rehabilitation reforming an offender to prevent further offense 19th century if the reason is a bad environment than should give them a good environment to reform them attempts to help people improve that than cause suffering 4 Societal protection protecting the public by incarcerating or executing offender so they will not commit further offenses US build prisons at a rate of a new 100 bed facility every week in recent decades Recidivism later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes 0 43 of inmates in 2004 were back in jail within 3 years does prison actually deter crime 0 Arguments that it might encourage crime Criminals share knowledge and skills Become an identity War on drugs series of policies and tactics begun in the 19705 to limit drug use in the 805 the number of arrest and drug related crimes rose 6X higher than other arrest rates 126 o Unfairly targeted minorities AfricanAmericans Drug and prisoners 60 of people in prison for violent crimes claim they were under the in uence of alcohol or drugs when they committed the crime 0 1 in 5 to committing a violent crimes to obtain drug money 0 Selling illegal drugs is a lucrative business and outweighs the risk of p son Theoretical perspective 0 Functionalism functions of crime Crime exists everywhere so it might be useful for society 4 functions of crime Af rms norms and values Clari es boundaries of right and wrong 0 People unite against crime 0 Encourage social change Crime is created by society Strain theorv Robert Merton Society has goals nancial security white picket fence 0 Doesn39t always provide the means to attain those goals good education good jobs 0 Two questions does an individual accept the goals of society Does an individual accept the means to the goals 0 Four answers 0 1 Conformity goalsmeans individual is taught and accepts the conventional goals has the ability to attain the goals 0 2 Innovation no meansgoals strain of not being able to achieve conventional goals feel they have no choice but to turn to other methods drug dealing and stealing o 3 Ritualism no goalsmeans given up on achieving society s goals lives strictly by the rules clerk who always quotdoes the right thingquot and is happy where they are 0 4 Retreatism no goalsno means turning away from approved goals and means drop out of society drug addicts street people 0 5 Rebellion added to the fth type individuals advocates a new system with new goals and means religious cults revolutionary leaders 0 Control theory Travis Hirschi 0 Social and emotional attachments to others lowers likelihood of crime Being well integrated Attachment to other people Involved in activities sports clubs Belief of rightness and justness of norms o Svmboliclnteractionism 0 Learning Theorv whether or not people move towards conformity depends on who they associate with Youths turn to drugs and are more sexually active when their peer groups encourage the behavior 0 Labeling theorv no action is tight or wrong in an absolute sense Society determines right wrong A criminal act is only wrong because we say so Drinking alcohol is acceptable depending on the context Labeling someone as a criminal can be a form of stigma a powerful negative social label that radically changes a person39s selfconcept and social identity deepen a person39s deviant identity 0 Primary secondary deviance Primary many common violations skipping school underage drinking experimenting with drugs bring little reaction from others Secondary reaction of others to primary deviance can provoke in secondary deviance in which the person begins to change now basing choices on this identity 0 Social con ict theory 0 Capitalism provides most wealth and power to a small elite who use the criminal justice system against those who challenge the system


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