BSC 216 LAB Exam 2 Study Guide w/ models labeled
BSC 216 LAB Exam 2 Study Guide w/ models labeled 10617
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gretchen Pierce on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 10617 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 371 views.
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Date Created: 03/05/15
BSC 216 LAB Exam 2 Unit 2 1 Respiratory System 1 Structural Divisions of the Respiratory System a Upper Respiratory Tract in head and neck i Nose through larynx b Lower Respiratory Tract organs of the thorax i Trachea through lungs 2 Major Divisions of the Respiratory Tract a Conducting Division zone of the respiratory system i Those passages that serve only air ow ii No gas exchange iii Nostrils through major bronchioles b Respiratory Division zone of the Respiratory system i Consists of alveoli and other gas exchange regions 3 Respiratory System in Order of Entering Air ow a Conducting Division i Nasal cavity ii Pharynx iii Larynx iv Trachea v Main bronchi R amp L vi Lobar secondary bronchi vii Segmental tertiary bronchi viii Bronchioles ix Terminal bronchioles 23 b Respiratory Division i Respiratorybronchio ii Alveolar ducts iii Alveolar sacs Eplgloms Pharynx Larynx Trachea um msln bronchus Lobsr bronchus Segmental bronchus Bronchloles and alveoll shown In detoll later 4 Anatomy of the Upper Respiratory Tract Nasal cavlty Pharynx Nasophatynx Ompharynx r quot A 39 Laryngopharynx J cquot a A I A I quot 391 3 Aquot ff 3 39 Trachea 139 x Esophagus W Larynx I m 5 Anatomy of the Larynx Commquot GYM urnMn Gamma m m mum to Wm arenay 6 Anatomy of the Lower Respiratory Tract Thyroid Lory cartilage Crlcoid cartilage Trachoa K Carina f Trechealla 39 muscle x x V a a quot 2 Kw f l i quot Lobe Hyaline v ix bronchi Main cartilage ring 1quot o a quoti i bronchi 3 Lumen J V 39 0 Segmental 1 I bronchi quot Ty or a i I n w V 7 The Lungs and Bronchial Tree a Lungs are crowded by adjacent organs they neither fill the entire ribcage nor are they symmetrical b Right Lung i Shorter than left because the liver rises higher on the right ii Has 3 lobes superior middle and inferior separated by horizontal and oblique fissure c Left Lung i Taller and narrower because the heart tilts toward the left and occupies more space on the side of mediastinum ii Has indentation cardiac impression notch iii Has 2 lobes superior and inferior separated by a single oblique fissure Trachea Superior lobe of right lung Superior lobe at left lung 1 39 J Right maln s W l A primary quot 5 bronchus Lobar secondary bronchus Segmental tertiary Inferior lobe of left lung Middle lobe 2 5 quot bronchus of right lung h l l Interior lobe 39 quotI of rlght lung 7 The Pleurae and pleural membranes a Visceral pleura serous membrane that covers lungs b Parietal pleura adheres to mediastinum inner surface of the rib cage and superior surface of the diaphragm c Pleural cavity potential space between pleurae i Normally no room between the membranes but contains a film of slippery pleural uid d Functions of pleurae and pleural uid i Reduce friction ii Create pressure gradient 1 Lower pressure than atmospheric pressure assists lung in ation iii Compartmentalization 1 Prevents spread of infection from one organ in mediastinum to others The Bronchial Tree a Bronchioles i Lack cartilage ii 1mm or less in diameter iii Divides into 5080 terminal bronchioles 1 Final branches of conducting division 2 Measure 5mm or less in diameter 3 Each terminal bronchiole gives off two or more smaller respiratory bronchioles b Respiratory Bronchioles i Have alveoli budding from their walls ii Considered the beginning of the respiratory division since alveoli participate in gas exchange iii Divide into 210 alveolar ducts iv End in alveolar sacs grapelike clusters of alveoli arrayed around a central space called the atrium Flaapiratory bronchiolaa quot Alveolar duct 9 Alveoli a Each alveolus surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by the pulmonary artery b Respiratory membrane the barrier between the alveolar air and blood Broochlolo Pulmonary arteriole Pulmonary mule Caplllary network around alveoli Ez l IPA q 10Histology of the Lung and Trachea 4 l 39 Pnuou39nnllnr rllalnl LOUTMM a llll olun F mu nuan quid Branch 00 pulmonary l y quotpdquot tmlllgl Alveolarducl 39 thugsquot fben Simple squamous epithelium Unit 22 Respiratory System Physiology 1 Pressure Resistance and Air ow a Boyle s Law pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume i If the lungs contain a quantity of a gas and the lung volume increases their internal pressure intrapulmonary pressure falls 1 If the pressure falls below atmospheric pressure the air moves into the lungs ii If the lung volume decreases intrapulmonary pressure rises 1 If the pressure rises above atmospheric pressure the air moves out of the lungs 2 Spirometry The measurement of pulmonary ventilation a Spirometer a device that recaptures expired breath and records such variable as rate and depth of breathing speed of expiration and rate of oxygen consumption b Respiratory Volumes i Tidal Volume TV volume of air inhaled and exhaled in one cycle during quiet breathing 500 mL ii Expiratory Reserve Volume ERV air in excess of tidal volume that can be exhaled with max effort 7001200 mL iii Inspiratory Reserve Volume IRV Air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with max effort 19003100 mL iv Residual Volume RV air remaining in lungs after maximum expiration 11001200 mL c Respiratory Capacities 6000 5000 m 4000 Lung volume mL 9 O O O 2000 1000 Maximum voluntary t expiration i Inspiratory Capacity IC max amount of air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal expiration 1 IC TV IRV 24003600 mL ii Functional Residual Capacity FRC amount of air remaining in lungs after a normal tidal expiration 1 FRC RV ERV 18002400 mL iii Vital Capacity VC total amount of air that can be inhaled and then exhaled with max effort 1 VC ERV TV IRV 31004800 mL iv Total Lung Capacity max amount of air the lungs can contain 1 TLC RV VC 42006000 mL Maximum possible inspiration n m m n n n lnaplratory lnaplratory mam voluma capacity ANUL Total lung capaclty Vital capacity 11dal volume WV Enlmm naTn volume l 7 Functional residual Residual WW volume 1 I Unit 24 Urinary System Anatomy 1 Main Functions of the Urinary System Kidneys a b Filers blood plasmas separates waste from useful chemicals returns useful substances to blood eliminates waste Regulate blood volume and pressure by eliminating or conserving water Regulate the osmolarity of the body uids by controlling the relative amounts of water and solutes eliminated Secretes the hormone erythropoietin which stimulates the production of red blood cells Collaborate with the lungs to regulate the PC02 and acidbase balance of body uids Gluconeogenesis from amino acids in extreme starvation 2 Gross Anatomy of the Kidney Cooyngntz mitten um Inc mmummow Flbrous capsule Renal cortex Renal medulla Renal papllla Banal alnua Renal polvla Major calyx Mlnor calyx Renal pyramld Urstor Renal blood vessels 3 Renal Circulation Copyright c The McGrawHill Companies Inc Pennission mired lat repulsion or my Renal nedulla Renal onex la b Kidneys receive 21 of cardiac output 4 Microanatomy of the Nephron ouo can a I 39 I Transrtnonal I epl hellun Submuc39ma Dolmmr rnungc i i 3 H a i iquot N 9 t O 3939ul1 PHInu hum any awei mug iii 39 P IAF I u 2 3 n B 396 I a I 5 Identify aspects of a Kidney Unit 25 Urinary System Physiology 1 Tips for interpreting the Urinalysis gurewean SHAKE THE SAMPLE BEFORE TESTING pH normal range is 58 usually around 6 Leukocytes any sign of purple possible UTI Nitrite any pink is positive Urobilinogen lt1 is normal Protein any green is positive Blood any green is positive Ketones any pink is positive Glucose gt180 is typically abnormal 2 Urine facts common uses a 999 h Drinking urine i Immunity drink the first urine of the day ii Teeth whitener iii Hangover cure Skin beauty protect against dry skin Gardening preventing pests and fertilizer Munitions Black Power Clothes i Dyeing clothes ii quotagequot brass buttons Electricity urine powered battery First Aid i Sterile ii Iellyfish stings Coffee alcohol increases micturition Lab Pictures Larynx 39 Midsagittal View y Both food and air pass through the ium This tissue provides more resistance 1 us As with mous een the larynx and the eso u and it is lined with str 39 39 ort passagr is During from for rterior an s a soft l rhere soun of vocal fol serve an imp rue vocal coralL 1 rings of hyal 1 of which serves 0 ight secondary bro chi quaternary bro nchioles Figure 215 lbronchioles and the Hyoid bone Epiglottic cartilage Fat pad Thyroid cartilage Cuneiform cartilage Corniculate cartilage Arytenoid cartilage False vocal fold True vocal cord Cricoid cartilage Tracheal cartilage Epiglottis gt Epiglottis cartilage gtFat Pad 9 Thyroid Cartilage False Vocal Fold True Vocal Cord Trachea Anterior View Hyoid Bone 2 Oropharynx The oro arynx is the I39Cgir oropharynx and it i erefore lined wit to mechanical an ermal stresses 3 7 gopharynx 18 t j M nd air pass I i 1 larynx p of elastic V and the e V rtilage v r cricoid c i Lil7 r sv r folds or voc 39n sound prodr r he inferior set 7 a u ediastinum into tV 39 is short fairly straigl e heart 5 divides e i 7 e the two lobes of the ue to branch at an 1 millimete I u I one begins wit a atory bro Epiglottis Hyoid bone Thyroid cartilage E Laryngeal prominence Cricothyroid ligament Cricoid cartilage Trachea Thyroid Cartilage Cricothyroid ligament Cricoid cartilage Cartilage rings 39 Trachea Frontal Sinus Sp nhenosm nus Nasal Conchae asoparynx Oropharynx Epiglottis Vocal Laryngopharynx Larynx F 01 d5 L H 3F h heftlung Ii IObe 3 F t k l I Right lung upper lobe lt lt Horizontal fissure Right Middle lobe lt Oblique fissure Diaphragm Proximal Tubule Efferent Arteriole Glomerulus Afferent Arteriole Interlobular artery Arcuate Artery Descending Nephron leb LOOP Ascending Limui Interlobular Artery Interlobular Vein Interlobar Artery Interlobar Vein Arcuate Artery Renal Arter Renal Column Renal Vein Segmental ureter Arter1es Renal lt Pyramid of medulla 7 I g 39 Renal Cortex 39 I If E fililfifgmsm b quot 39 I iglt kidney amour i times enlarged Rein droit gmssx environ 3 fois Afferent Arteriole qutaglomerular Apparatus Efferent Arteriole Renal Corpuscle 39 rchen N erkore Kart Renal artery Renal Renal Pelvis Vein Ureter Urinary Adrenal Gland Kidney Renal Artery Renal Vein Abdominal Aorta Inferior Vena Cava Ureter Bladder Urethra Mucosa Submucosa Pulmonary Trachea Blood Vessel Adventiti Lumen 0f Bronchiole 6000 5000 a 4000 5 5 3000 O gt a C 3 2000 1000 NIT 605 URO 80 5 possible inspiration it WV aim Tm Residual volume Maximum volunm expiration 0 JA u 3 70 125 500m 39 plnk rosada rdsa 1m rose rosa mm 3393 rosado p rosa DZ 30003 a 1005 5 ts 40 m 235 WW W39MW woolly Mime00d Functional mldual capacity D
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