Exam #3 Study Guide
Exam #3 Study Guide Psy P101
Popular in Introductory Psychology
Biol 240- Fundamentals of Human Anatomy
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexa Schneider on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psy P101 at Indiana University taught by Carol Watson in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 347 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 03/05/15
Topics on P101 Exam 3 Chapter 4 Consciousness Awareness of external events and internal sensations Awareness Awareness of self and thoughts about experiences Arousal Physiological state of being engaged with environment 6 levels of awareness Higher Level doing math test etc Lower Level typing on a keyboard etc Altered State produced by drugs etc Subconscious Awareness sleeping and dreaming No Awareness unconscious thoughts knocked out etc Selfconsciousness attention drawn to self as an object Biological rhythms Periodic physiological uctuations in the body over lifetime in uence behavior Rise and fall of hormones brain activity etc Circadian rhythms Daily behavioral or physiological cycles Sleep cycle temperature blood pressure etc SNC or suprachiasmatic nucleus monitors sleep by using input from retina to synchronize daily cycle of light and dark Stages of wakefulness and sleep Stages 14 are NonREM stage 5 is REM Stage 1 light sleep drowsy sleep myoclonic jerks sudden muscle movements Theta waves Stage 2 light sleep muscle activity decreases not consciously aware of environment Theta waves with sleep spindles sudden increase of waves Stage 3 deep sleep Less than 50 Delta waves tough to wake up Stage 4 deep sleep More than 50 Delta waves tough to wake up Stage 5 REM Rapid Eye Movement active dreaming similar fast waves to wakefulness has combo of Delta and Theta waves along with Alpha Alpha and Beta waves are awake waves Delta and Theta waves are asleep waves REM might play a role in memory Best time to wake up is after a REM cycle groggy and still tired if during Average time it takes for sleep cycle is 90 minutes 3 main neurotransmitters in sleep Serotonin norepinephrine acetylcholine Common sleep disorders Insomnia can t fall or stay asleep Narcolepsy extreme urge to fall asleep Sleep Apnea breathing stops during sleep Night Terrors extreme nightmares Sleep Walking Talking Sleep patterns over the lifespan Effects overtime Sleep deprivation is very bad for overall health Sleep restores energy Repairs neurons Promotes creative problem solving Encourages growth Lack of sleep is stressful Trouble paying attention Decreased brain activity Altered states of consciousness mainly psychoactive drugs Addiction Physical or physiological dependence or both on a drug Categories Hallucinogens Modify perceptual experience and produce fake visual images Marijuana disrupts membranes of neurons and affects functioning of neurotransmitters and hormones LSD acts on serotonin and sometimes dopamine Depressants Slow down mind and body functions Alcohol Barbiturates decrease central nervous system activity Tranquilizers reduce anxiety and induce relaxation Opiates narcotics that depress central nervous system Stimulants Increase central nervous system activity Caffeine affects brain s pleasure centers Nicotine stimulates brain s reward centers by raising dopamine levels Amphetamines release dopamine and enhance activity level and pleasurable feelings Cocaine produces euphoric feelings and affects dopamine serotonin and norepinephrine Chapter 5 What is learning Systematic relatively permanent change in behavior through experience Associative learning Making connection or association between 2 events Classical Involuntary between 2 stimuli Operant Voluntary between behavior and consequence Conditioning Learning associations Pavlov Classical conditioning with a dog and a bell Taught the dog to salivate every time he hears a bell Watson Classical conditioning with Little Albert and a rat Taught the baby to be afraid of rats with the use of loud noises Skinner Studied organisms in controlled environments to see the connection between behaviors and consequences Classical conditioning US unconditioned stimulus Produces response without prior learning UR unconditioned response Unlearned reaction by US NS neutral stimulus Produces no response CS conditioned stimulus Previously neutral eventually elicits CR after being with US CR controlled response Learned response to CS after CS and US pairing Acquisition initial learning of connection between US and CS Contiguity US and CS close in time Contingency CS as reliable indicator of US Generalized stimulus similar to CS elicits response similar to CR Discriminate process of learning to respond only to some stimuli Shaping rewarding with desired outcomes Operant Conditioning Reinforcement increases probability of behavior Positive Adding something pleasant Negative Taking away something unpleasant Schedules Fixed Ratio sales After set of behaviors Variable Ratio lottery After random of behaviors Fixed Interval studying After set amount of time Variable Interval pop quiz After random amount of time Punishment decreases probability of behavior Positive Adding something unpleasant Negative Taking away something pleasant Other types of Learning Observational Learning Model Bandura Imitation or modeling Purposive Learning Tolman For a purpose or goal Insight Learning Kohler Sudden understanding Thorndike s Law of Effect Behaviors with satisfying outcomes strengthened Behaviors with dissatisfying outcomes weakened Avoidance Learning Learning to do things to avoid negative consequences Learned Helplessness Mental state believing punishment is inescapable Instinctive Drift Instincts interfere with behavior Preparedness Biological predisposition to learn certain ways and not others Psychological constraints Fixed mindset Individuals believe that their qualities are carved in stone and can t alter Growth mindset Individuals believe qualities can change or improve with effort
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