Psychology Review Exam #1
Psychology Review Exam #1 PSY:2130:0001
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Morgan Kennedy on Thursday March 5, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSY:2130:0001 at University of Iowa taught by Dr. Habashi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 126 views. For similar materials see Advanced Psychology for the Pre-Med Track in Psychlogy at University of Iowa.
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Date Created: 03/05/15
Re exiveSpontaneous Phase birth6months 0 Has some overlap with the rudimentary phase 0 Neonate 0 Has no postural control no mobility and no voluntary movement because the nervous system is not mature o Is only capable of re exes and spontaneous movement 0 Strength is not the rate limiter the nervous system is o o Re ex a movement that results from some kind of stimulus o Are hard to control 0 Most re exes require a speci c stimulus in a speci c location 0 There is a direct linkage between the stimulus and response the size of the stimulus is directly proportional to the intensity of the response 0 Spontaneous movement are NOT voluntary 0 Infant Re exes o Palmar Grasp appears at 912 weeks of conception is very strong after birth and then disappears around 4 months Stimulus is any kind of traction against the palm that causes grasp o Sucking Re ex begins before birth the stimulus is the lips that then create a vacuum by lowering the tongue orjaw so that the muscles in the back of the throat contract to create a seal between the oral and nasal cavities Disappears right before 4 months when the voluntary equivalents are replacing them the stimulus is then being hungry 0 Search Rooting Re ex tactile re ex where the stimulus is touch to the side of the face that causes the infant to turn the head towards the stroking Begins before birth and ends before 4 months when the voluntary equivalents begin replacing them 0 Babinski Re ex Appears at birth and is gone by 4 months ls evoked when you powerfully stroke the bottom of the foot and causes the toes to are outward Presence of this re ex after 4 months can indicate CNS damage 0 When the morro re ex ends 6 months the startle re ex begins Morro body aring out Startle body curling up Is suppressed by the end of the rst year 0 Spontaneous movements occur mostly within the rst year of life 0 Increase around 4 months of age and disappear before the rst year of life 0 LegsFeet are the most common and appear rst Peak around 2432 weeks 0 ArmsHead peak around 3244 weeks Rudimentary Phase after birth2 yearsl Postural Control Know the major landmark behaviors and their ages 0 Neonate no postural control o Is completely dominated by gravity 0 First Milestone 23 months the child can hold its head stead while being carried around a room 0 56 months can sit without support 0 Sit slumped forward so that the load is transmitted to the legs and they don39t have to control sway o Sloppy sitting o 78 months true sitting position 0 Having to balance the trunk and head over the hips o Are at a right angle 0 Can control their sway here 0 89 months can pull themselves to standing 0 Once in a true sitting position can pull themselves to standing within days 0 Not a huge leap from getting into sitting position 0 1112 months can stand alone 0 Huge neuromuscular development Focus study on the development of sway control at the head sitting and standing 0 Starts at head control then hip control sitting then standing legsway control 0 Neck Control 0 ONLY system that re exes are important to early landmarks in o For the rst 3 months not a lot of motors control re exes are in strong control 0 The vestibular vision and somatosensory systems are all well developed but we are not using them all 0 Vision is used early on in neck control more than any other sense 0 Later the neck uses other sources when a child starts a new postural task sitting standing etc they revert back to solely using vision 0 Vision is always the rst dependent sensor with a new postural task D is slowest source of sensory information o 2 12 5 months before the brain starts processing information other than vision but vision is still dominant o Sitting Control O o Sway control at the hips happens when they are sitting along with good coordination at 7 months 0 At 10 months the brain can gure out if the outside world is moving or if you are moving vestibular and somatosensory information Standing Independently 0 Around 1011 months you are standing alone 0 It takes 3 months of standing alone to not be fooled by visual illusions Understand the relationship between muscle response to external disturbances of posture and the development of sitting and standing 0 O O Swaying forward activates the back side muscles and will pull you backwards o Gastrocnemius hamstring and paraspinals contracting Swaying backwards activates the front side muscles and will pull you forwards o Anterior tibialous quads and abdominals contracting Extensors ghting gravity neck hip back knee With joints net torque is the most important Adult sway from hips 0 When standing independently will show all three muscle bursts and won39t show coordination of the antagonist muscles 0 It takes about 7 years before good coordination Pre pull to stand one or two muscles responding mostly 1 Early pull to stand one two or three muscle responses mostly 1 Pull to stand one two or three muscle responses mostly 2 Independent stance 1 2 and 3 muscles responding mostly 2 Independent walking and late independent walking 1 2 or 3 muscles responding mostly 3 Somatosensory information from the ankles is the most important for sway control Are these responses consistent with re exes or do they represent a different control strategy 0 Controlled by the CNS Know the roles of visual information and sensory information from the feet and ankles and to some extent the role of vestibular information 0 0 Muscle spindles proprioceptors deep tissuesubcutaneous fat etc at birth this is functioning Vestibular apparatus also functioning at birth Utricle and saccule D linear acceleration Semicircular canals D rotational acceleration 0 Vision signi cant but not great just ok for motor control At what age has visual dominance given way to feetankle information in control of standing sway 0 At age 4 somatosensory information comes into play and visual reliance leaves 0 Balance and sway doesn39t begin to look mature like until around 710 years old 0 CNS problem these motor milestones are not passed until after a few months need to make the connections 0 CNS rst pays attention to vision at a young age to help with postural control 0 Even though the other sensors are sending signals from birth the CNS is not replying to them Locomotion Know the major landmark behaviors and their ages no true forms of locomotion in the rst 6 months of life 0 Pre walking First milestone turning from back to the stomach around 6 months 0 At around 7 months there is prone locomotion o This is at the same time that coordinated sitting is occurring 78 months crawling bely to the ground 0 912 months creeping stomach off of the ground on hands and knees 0 There is no regular progression from crawling to creeping 0 Walking 0 10 months holds on to furniture so that they don39t have to use sway control 0 11 12 12 months walking alone 0 Be able to describe the kinematic differences between early walking and mature walking 0 Initial Walking 0 Wide base of support and short stride length 0 Heel is further from the midline toes are pointed away from the midline 0 Very high vertical accelerations and decelerations 0 Both the hip and the heel gets very high 0 Fall into the next step 0 Mature Walking 0 Knee and hip are not exing as much 0 Ankle is not getting very high above the ground 0 Heel hits rst and then the rest of the foot comes down At what age do the major kinematic features appear to be mature doublesupport phase step width step length vertical acceleration of the center of mass 0 Earl on full sole contact wide stance stride length not proportional to foot size hesitant action involving knee exion 2 years of age heal toe contact 0 When children rst start walking they are in the double support what areound 30 of the time o By about 3 years of independent walking we are getting to the double support phase time of an adult What appears to be the limiting factor in the rate of development of upright locomotion eg strength vs sway control 0 Sway control is the limiting factor NOT strength 0 Begin to rely less on re exes and more on the CNS and learning and adapting Manual Control ReachingGrasping At what age can reach and grasp be performed separately 0 Initially the arm and hand are not functioning independently of each other when the arm is extended the hand is also extended 0 Complete separation of reaching and grasping occurs at 45 months 0 Similar uncoupling by headarm synergies at 4 months Be able to describe with ages the progression of control strategies that are employed for accurate reaching eg use of visual feedback control vs predictive control and their eventual blending 0 Initially the brain is using a predictive approach that is very unreliable only accurate 3040 of time 0 At 45 months we see 100 accuracy of touching an object on the rst try This is due to the use us a Visual Negative Feedback Loop error is continuously be calculated and corrected for Negative Feedback systems are limited by being very slow If the view of the hand or the object is blocked they go back to the 3040 accuracy can39t use the negative feedback system 0 By 67 months they go back to a predictive control feedforward ballistic strategy Everything can happen faster with the feedforward strategy The rst thing that improves is the direction but distance is still developing 0 At 7 years the feedforward strategy is combined with sensory information for midcourse corrections of distance 0 By 9 years and all the way into adulthood feedforward and feedback strategies are combined for ef cient and effective reaches 0 Feedback can only be useful in a slow movement or at the very end of a rapid movement Know landmarks for use of the thumb in grasping o 45 Months grasping with no thumb opposition Can39t use the ngers independently they all act together Prefer to use the ulnar palmar side pinky nger o 7 Months thumb is being used in pseudoopposition Thumb is participating but not completely wrapped around Grasp is moving upwards and towards the radial thumb side 0 912 Months ne pincer grip of the thumb and fore nger Fingers are being used independently Force Coordination for lifting and transporting 0 Adult ngertip force coordination involves smooth parallel increase in the grip force and vertical lifting force 0 Can predict based on experience and visual weight estimates 0 Adultlike by 68 years 0 Under 2 years force application is not smooth o It is sequential generates grip before force not parallel 0 Begin to anticipate grip forces based on friction slipperiness from prior lifts but not weight 0 Do not do much prediction treat things as unknown 0 At 2 years of age force application becomes smoother 0 Grip forces are based on anticipation of weight and friction from prior lift but not based on visual estimation 0 At 3 years visual cues are now used for predicting weight What is aperture control and when do children show limited aperture control vs mature aperture control 0 Aperture control refers to the size of the opening of the hand controlled by opening your ngers in relation to the size of the object to be grasped 0 Before 9 months of age there is no aperture control have a large opening no matter what the size of the object 0 At 9 months the beginning of aperture control but there is still a wide safety control At 7 years of age vision is used to set aperture Aperture control becomes mature around 12 years of age don39t need vision can use memory Fundamental Skillg Be able to contrast the main differences between the determinants of skill development in the Rudimentary phase vs the Fundamental phase eg practice vs maturation O O O In the fundamental phase these landmarks are not so much dependent on maturity but more depended on teaching coaching practice Fundamental movements are much less governed by maturation your nervous system won t produce it on its own Fundamental skills vary greatly among each person Be able to speculate why fundamental movements may show limited speed and range of motion and fewer joint movements early in their development 0 0 Running 0 o The young nervous system is trying to preserve stability and limit momentum As you develop the nervous system is more comfortable at the edges of stability Limitino factors balance control higher momentums challenge stability learning coordination of lower and upper body Experience drives fundamental movements Base of support and project of center of mass are most important Less forcefulcoordinatedpropulsionchallenging for center of mass at a younger age More exaggerated movements can occur at initial stages The rst stages of running are really just fast walking True running there is a ight phase where both feet are off of the ground First attempts at running can occur anywhere from the rst few months after walking begins Initial Stage 0 Center of mass does not get outside of the base of support are not challenging stability 0 Incomplete extension of the support leg either limited by coordination or not wanting to challenge stability 0 Swinging leg comes out sideways instead of straight forward swings outside of the plane Arms swing out of the plane too 0 Not much arm swing or leg extension of the propulsion leg O Propulsion leg is not lifted very high or very fast 0 Mature Stage 0 0 Running at the mature level involves a population phase that advances your center of mass way outside of the base of support Propulsion forces are maximized by applying force over a long period of time Large amounts of hip and knee extension Bring opposite hand forward of the leg that is thrusted forward will cancel each other out Is a true ight phase 0 After 4 years 60 of the boys are at the mature level of running See similar features for jumping as running Throwing o lnvolves transferring maximal velocity to a projectile o Accelerate the base in order to do this hips are the base 0 Initial Are either throwing with the elbow or with the shoulder one degree of freedom lnvolves limiting factors of stability momentum and progression of coordination Center of mass trunk hardly moving at initial stages no change in center of mass Not challenging changing base of support staying in mechanical limits of sway No transfer of weight or challenge of stability No rotation After the throw they pull themselves back rather than stepping forward Feet remain stationary 0 Elementary stage Greater incorporation of the arm will start to bring it behind you More forwardbackwards motion of the trunk with or without feet shifting Have a problem initially with force and direction and then when we get that the control of the lower body becomes more dominant Weight transfer projecting center of mass over bass of support Moving base of whip by rotating horizontally 0 Mature 0 O O 0 Have fully rotated the hips Big step with the opposite foot Base of support ahead of your center of mass Throwing elbow moves forward horizontally as it extends o 23 years hardly any weight transfer no step no rotation of the body in the horizontal plane one joint action 0 35 years a little bit of lean have dropped the arm down still very little rotation begin transition from one joint to rotation o 56 years functional weight transfer with step they step on the wrong side at this point same side as throwing hand 0 No guarantee when the child will step with the correct foot or if they will is dependent on learning could be trick question 0 Difference between girls and boys is opportunity coaching and motivation D social cues Be able to recognize features of immature catching o Catching will mature several years after throwing it involves your brain gure out when the object is going to reach a certain point in space and putting yourself in the way of it o 56 years improves 84 ef ciency 0 Catching is part of a class of actions called coincident timing Interception and avoidance CNS has to predict the trajectory of the projectile Velocity direction have to be intrinsic logic experience Commands 0 1113 years and lfor pro ciency in catching and timing when the ball is moving further and further away from the target 0 Also the age for maturation of visual perception can tell the difference between a deer and the background of a forest 0 Initial stage very little movement of the body stiff system lack of prediction Does not grab the ball until it already bounces off their arms 0 Elementary stage starting to adapt to the ight of the ball before it arrives less tense muscles 0 Mature stage no guarantee you will make it to this stage Arms give on contact absorbs the energy Start pulling the arms in before catching Movement after catching bringing the arms in dissipates the energy Are using the visual system to make predictions 0 The more the ball requires the motion of your hands andor body the older the typical age will be for pro ciency Relate the development of the visual system and visual perception in particular to catching behaviors 0 One of the big limiting factors is notjust the brain guring out how to dissipate energy the big factor is the brain processing this visual information to make predictions Why does the development of catching seem to lag behind the development of throwing O Luming as objects get closer to you they take up a greater part of your retina Because of the development of the visual system During the rst year all of the features of the newborn visual system clean up pretty well and become pretty adultlike Signals coming from the eye are pretty mature and functional by the time we get to a year old One year 2020 vision Sensation that the nervous system is registering these signals and you can talk about what you are feeling verbalizable reached the level of consciousness Perception l through experience deer hunting cant tell deer from background Traf c cones what to do with the sensation you are seeing Perception and sensation are adult like by age 1213 The problem is not with the sensory signals it is from extracting information from sensory signals perception The distance between the lens and the retina is proportionally shorter in a newborn eye than in an adult eye Visual axis is higher and cornea is not symmetrical in an newborn retina has no fovea Saccades predictive mechanism of watching a moving objectlj subjective to training Problem is not with the visual pathways its with the brain extracting information from those signals and making the muscles respond It is a learning problem not a maturation problem More complex visual coordination by age 1113 years old
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