ESS Final Exam Study Guide
ESS Final Exam Study Guide ESS 210 001
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Michaela Humby on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ESS 210 001 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Andrew Conrad Sherfy (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 132 views. For similar materials see Intro to Soil Science in Environmental Science at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Exam 5 Study Guide What is a mineral? Homogeneous, inorganic compounds, definite chemical formula Primary Minerals formed as molten lava solidifies not chemically altered Secondary minerals recrystallized products of chemical breakdown/alteration of primary minerals What is a rock? Mixtures of minerals i. heterogeneous Texture = size of mineral crystals in rock i. fine, intermediate, coarse Minerals and texture determine weathering rate What are the different classes of rocks? Igneous Rocks i. Cooled from molten lava a) primary minerals ii. Granite - coarse textured a) quartz, feldspars, some dark minerals b) very slow weathering iii. Basalt - fine to intermediate texture a) hornblende, other dark minerals b) relatively rapid weathering Sedimentary i. : deposition and re-cementation of weathering products from other rocks a) sandstone, shale, limestone… Metamorphic i. Igneous or sedimentary transformed by high heat and/or pressure What is the difference between primary and secondary minerals? Primary Minerals formed as molten lava solidifies not chemically altered Light colored alumino-silicate minerals i. Quartz - SiO 2 a) sands, weather very slowly ii. Feldspar - XAlSi3O8where X = K, Na, Ca a) weathers slowly to soil clays iii. Muscovite mica - KAl 3i 3 10H) 2 a) thin, translucent sheets b) weathers to soil clays Dark colored, ferro-magnesium minerals i. Biotite mica - KAl(Mg, Fe) Si O (OH) 3 3 10 2 a) thin dark sheets ii. Hornblende - Ca Al2Mg2Fe 2i 3 (6H)22 2 iii. Olivine - (Mg, Fe) 2iO 4 Ferro-magnesium minerals weather more rapidly than alumino-silicate minerals Secondary minerals recrystallized products of chemical breakdown/alteration of primary minerals Al and Fe oxides and hydroxides (sesquioxides) i. Geothite - FeOOH ii. Gibbsite - Al2O 33H 2 iii. very stable soil minerals - OLD soils Aluminosilicate clays - common Salts i. Calcite - CaCO 3 ii. Dolomite - (Ca, Mg)CO 3 iii. Gypsum - CaSO 4 What are the five soil forming factors? Soil = dynamic natural body formed by the combined effects of climate and biota, as moderated by topography, acting on parent materials over time. What are the 4 soil forming processes (know these well!)? Additions - movement into profile i. organic matter ii. rainfall iii. sediments iv. nutrients - in rain, fertilizers Losses - movement out of profile i. erosion ii. leaching iii. gaseous losses of nutrients iv. crop removal Translocations - movement within profile i. eluvial processes ii. illuvial processes Transformations - very important i. physical weathering ii. chemical weathering What are some examples of physical weathering? Disintegration: decrease size, increase surface area Temperature Differential heating/cooling of rocks: exfoliation Freeze-thaw Water, Wind, Ice rain, runoff, wind erosion, glaciers Organisms roots, soil animals, man How does chemical weathering occur? Alters composition of rocks and minerals Conversion of primary minerals into secondary Most rapid with warm temperatures, high precipitation, small particle size What is a pedon? Smallest 3-D body of soil that allows determination of all soil properties of THAT soil.; UNIQUE SOIL INDIVIDUAL What is a profile? Every unique pedon has a unique descriptive profile Every profile is made up of layersor “horizons” Horizons differ in properties from layer above and below it. Most profiles have several horizons. What are the master horizon distinctions? O: Organic surface layer. A: Mineral horizon at surface or below an O. E: Eluvial horizon. Loss of organic matter, clay, iron and/or aluminum. B: Subsurface horizon of clay and/or iron accumulation. Illuvial horizon. C: Relatively unweathered, unconsolidated material. The Parent Material. R: Consolidated bedrock. Know the features and characteristics of the 7 epipedons Ochric i. light colored ii. low OM, or iii. too thin to meet requirements for mollic, umbric Mollic (mollis - Latin for soft) i. dark colored: value and chroma < 3.5 moist ii. thick, > 10 inches or 25 cm thick iii. high OM, > 1%, (soft to the touch - friable) iv. > 50% base cation saturation Umbric (umbra, Latin for shade) i. an acidic Mollic epipedon ii. meets all requirements for Mollic except base saturation Histic (histos, Greek for tissue) i. Surface organic horizon, saturated at some time in year ii. 12 to 18% organic C (20 to 30% OM) (clay imp.) Melanic (melas, Greek for black) i. > 10% OM ii. Volcanic soils iii. very low density, light fluffy type of soil material Anthropic i. man-made mollic, high P, centuries of use Plaggen i. very thick, dark, long-term manuring Know the features and characteristics of the 8 diagnostic subsurface horizons (including horizon designations). Albic horizon i. strongly leached E horizon ii. leached of clays, oxides, OM iii. common in Spodosols Argillic horizon i. Illuvial accumulation of high activity silicate clays ii. clay films on peds, in pores, called clay skins or cutans iii. These are B horizons, designated Bt Cambic horizon i. Weakly developed B horizon ii. Evidence of color and/or structure development iii. Designated simply as Bw iv. Given enough time and appropriate conditions, will eventually become an argillic or other type of B horizon. Fragipan i. weakly cemented, dense horizon ii. restricts movement of water and roots iii. management problem iv. very common in west Tennessee v. >50% of upland soils in the Loess region vi. Designated Bx Kandic horizon i. Illuvial accumulation of low activity silicate clays a) Fe and Al oxides b) kaolinitic or 1:1 clays c) low cation exchange capacity (nutrient holding capacity) of < 16 cmol/kg ii. clay films not necessary iii. These are B horizons, usually refer to a kandic Bt iv. Common in SE USA Natric horizon i. Same as an argillic, except ii. > 15% of all exchangeable cations are sodium (Na) iii. Salt problem iv. These are B horizons designated Btn v. Common in arid and semi-arid regions with little leaching Oxic horizon i. highly weathered B horizon ii. very high in low activity clays a) Fe and Al oxides primarily, some kaolinitic clays b) low cation exchange capacity (nutrient holding capacity) of < 16 cmol/kg c) < 10% weatherable primary minerals iii. Very infertile, iv. These are B horizons designated Bo v. Tropical soils Spodic horizon i. Illuvial accumulation of Al oxides and/or colloidal organic matter (humus) ii. These are B horizons designated Bhs a) h for humus b) s for sesquioxides (Al and Fe oxides) iii. Typically in coarse textured soils in cool climates Ap o indicates an A horizon that has been plowed. o found in most agricultural areas. Ab o indicates a buried A horizon. o common in floodplain and volcanic landscapes Know the 12 soil orders (this should include a description of defining characteristics, most important soil formation factors, and for the orders entisol,inceptisol, alfisol, ultisol, oxisol a basic profile description). Entisols (ent) - Little or no horizon development i. Only A horizon over C ii. Ochric epipedon Inceptisols (ept) – i. Immature, more developed than entisols ii. Usually ochric epipedon iii. Often a cambic subsurface, B or Bw, weak development iv. Recent deposits, resistant PM, erosion, climate v. tundra, mountains, etc. Mollisols (oll) – i. Mollic epipedon ii. > 50% base saturation iii. usually grassland soils iv. subhumid to semiarid, cold to hot v. VERY fertile and productive, most prized soils in world Alfisols (alf) – i. from pedalfer (al - aluminum, fe - iron) ii. Ochric (or Umbric) epipedon iii. Well developed, A, (E), B, C horizons iv. Argillic subsurface horizon - Bt v. > 35% base saturation in Bt vi. Usually forest soils vii. Very productive soils, even more than mollisols because of rainfall Ultisols (ult) – i. ultimate ii. Ocrhic epipedon iii. Argillic subsurface - Bt iv. Well developed horizonation v. acidic, < 35% base saturation vi. productive when managed well Oxisols (ox) – i. Very highly weathered ii. Tropical soils iii. Ochric or Umbric epipedon iv. Oxic subs. horizon: high concentration of low activity clays, Fe and Al oxides v. Very low %BS, Productive with high managment levels Vertisols (ert) – i. Must have > 30% expanding clays ii. CEC > 30 cmol /kc iii. Usually formed in limestone iv. High expansion/contraction, resulting in self-mixing v. Poor horizonation, except deep A vi. gilgai topography and slickensides vii. Very difficult management Aridisols (id) – i. develop in areas with only short wet periods ii. little leaching of base cations iii. low OM, salt accumulations iv. Ochric epipedons v. May have argillic, natric, salic, calcic, gypsic subsurface B horizons vi. Very productive if irrigated and managed well Spodosols (od) – i. for wood ash ii. High sand content iii. Usually have an albic, or white, iv. leached E horizon. v. Spodic horizon, Bhs or Bs, with accumulations of OM and sesquioxides vi. Highly leached, very acidic, low %BS, very infertile Histisols (ist) – i. Organic soils ii. 20% to 30% OM (0 to 60% clay) iii. Usually saturated part of year iv. High water holding, nutrient holding v. low bulk density Andisols (and) – i. Young soils formed in volcanic ash ii. Low BD, high porosity, wind erosion problems, amorphous clays iii. Melanic epipedon iv. Highly productive soils v. Hawaii, Pacific NW, Pacific Rim Gelisols (el)- i. Frozen soils/permafrost ii. Big problems with soils when it melts iii. Mostly found in Alaska Understand the various levels of soil taxonomy. Given a taxonomic name you should be able to identify the level of classification, the soil order, the soil moisture class, and the properties of that order. Suborders: Further defines order based on characteristics related to soil moisture soil temperature dominant chemical or textural features Great groups: Divides suborders Based on differentiating horizons or soil features e.g., Fragiudalf Subgroups Further divides Great groups Always a Typic group: central theme of that Great group Others represent properties that may be common to other orders or to no other soils e.g., Typic Fragiudalf Family Divisions based on texture mineralogy temperature regime others e.g., fine-silty, mixed, active, thermic Typic Fragiudalf Series More specific properties All members of series have about same properties: # horizons, textural characteristics..... Named for town, river, area, etc. near where 1st described e.g., Loring SiL, fine-silty, mixed, active, thermic Oxyaquic Fragiudalf Udic- humid areas i. In normal years, soil is dry in one or more horizons for less than 90 days Usitc- dry areas i. In normal years, soil is dry in one or more horizons for more than 90 days Aquic- very saturated i. In normal years, soil is completely saturated in one or more horizons Xeric- Mediterranean climate i. Wet winters and dry summers
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