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ANTH 320 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Hadley Ashford

ANTH 320 Final Exam Study Guide ANTH 320

Marketplace > University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill > ANTH > ANTH 320 > ANTH 320 Final Exam Study Guide
Hadley Ashford
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About this Document

This study guide will cover Question 3 on the Final Exam document on Sakai. It might say the exam date is 4/28/16, but that is not true. The final is on Friday 4/29.
Anthropology of Development
R. Colloredo-Mansfeld
Study Guide
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.


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Date Created: 04/25/16
ANTH 320 Final Exam Study Guide *most of this exam is opinion-based and we are also provided a wonderful dictionary to help us out with Question 1, so this study guide will just address Question 3* Alternatives to Development Authors and Important Ideas: highlighted terms are examples of alternatives - D’alisa: o Degrowth: get rid of economic growth as social objective, focus on less (consumption, money, production), focus on different (don’t want to do just less of same thing) o Criticism of capitalism: growth-centered system, GDP-focused, too much commodification o Limits of growth:  Uneconomic: more costs than benefits (psychological health problems, pollution, overworking, equality more important than growth above certain income level)  Unjust: perpetuated by and benefits from unequal status  Much of work done by women who get less benefits  Unequal exchange of resources  Waste/pollution end up in poor areas  Benefits to powerful and costs to powerless  Social limits: if everyone rises together, no one really benefits because no competition  Ecologically unsustainable: increased growth leads to increased CO2 emissions and pollution, peak oil o Degrowth as repoliticization:  Focus on policy changes instead of technical solutions  Want alternative to development, not alternative forms of development o Degrowth transition: non-capitalist grassroots movement characteristics  Production for exchange changes to production for use  Work becomes voluntary  Trade for goods/services instead of money  No goal of accumulation/expansion  Represent commons, connections between people o Job guarantee scheme: state is employer of last resort o Unconditional basic income: paid for by taxes o Work sharing: redistribute work between employed and unemployed o Community currencies: localized economic activity, help those outside market economy o Politics of transition to degrowth:  Organized disovedience  Most change through grassroots and parliamentary politics  Commons does not mean a free-for-all: has rules, regulations, and societal norms o Characteristics of commons:  Relocalization of production  Encourages collaboration  “prosumption”: combination of production and consumption - Wendell Berry: o Waste as evidence of machine work instead of human work o Humans motivated by affection, don’t work like machines o Winners are still losers in economy  Short-term winners, but have to pay costs eventually or give them to someone else  Still harms environment in which they must live - Tyner: o Government doesn’t address social and economic roots of crimes o Solutions to prison/crime problem:  Create jobs  Free drug addiction treatment  Removal of dangerous weapons from general public (gun control)  Jobs as constitutional right  Grassroots movement  Increased education  More/greater access to recreation and health facilities - Gudynas: o Buen Vivir: alternatives to development, focus on the good life  Criticizes Western development theory  Focus on development through the lens of indigenous tradition  Well-being only possible within a community  Usually includes Nature  Different interpretation depending on culture/values/religion o Sumak kawsay: kichwa words for a full life within the cooperation of people in a community and nature  Quingushpa rin (walk elegantly): when going from here to there, must go in zig zag way to avoid ruining other people’s crops/land, must move in harmony with community/nature  Quinguspha rimay (speak elegantly): approach confrontation in zig zag way to be polite, avoid being blunt, must speak in harmony with community o Common ideas within Buen Vivir perspectives:  Critical views of development  Alternatives not as a fix of current strategies, but as replacement for development  Promote ethical perspectives grounded in values (criticism of focus on economic values)  Multiculturality, plurality- all integrated o Bolivian interpretation:  Applied to ethical/moral obligations of state  Incorporates ideas from different cultures, but equally  Influence economic organization of state  Economic pluralism: different origins of wealth/success  Democratic action: policies come from participation of many different communities o Ecuadorian interpretation:  Buen Vivir as indigenous concept, set of rights that are equally as important as freedom, participation, communities, protection, etc.  Recognition of Nature’s rights  Strong state intervention  Reconstruction of social, political, economic, and environmental structures of state - Thomas Berry reading/video: o Nonhuman aspects of planet have no rights  Only seen as useful in what they can provide for humans  Perpetuated by governments, corporations, universities, and religions o Humans do have certain rights to food and shelter, but NO right to take food/shelter away from other things o Rights of beings in existence:  Right to be  Rights to habitat  Right to fulfil role in greater community - Shiva: not sure if I would consider her ideas completely “alternatives to development”, but some can be o Qualifications of sustainable energy:  Doesn’t compete with food supply  Doesn’t take away organic matter from maintaining ecosystem functionings  Decentralized, based in needs of local communities  Emphasizes biodiversity, not monoculture o Biofuels not alternatives to fossil fuels because:  Negative net energy efficiency  Restricted to liquid fuel, ignores needs at village level  Promote non-sustainable monocultures, increase greenhouse gas emissions  Cause hunger and landlessness o Need democracy at village level to hear actual needs of local community o Must break dependency on fossil fuels to become food secure o Alternative to chemical fertilizers:  Green manures  Legumes (nitrogen fixing)  Earthworms  Cow dung  Composts o Soil illustrates life-centered development:  Plants and other living things are sufficient fertilizers, promote growth of other plants  “Soil not oil” means small-scale farming, not cars  Management practices (organic vs, non-organic) create biggest change in microbial content of soil  Organic farming gives more living qualities to soil - Lecture: o Stinting: limit exploitation to allow for natural cycles and growth (ex. catch limits) o Co-use: some use helps enhance health (ex. some grazing keeps out weeds and controls overgrowth)


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