ANTH 320 Final Exam Study Guide
ANTH 320 Final Exam Study Guide ANTH 320
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Popular in ANTH
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hadley Ashford on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 320 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by R. Colloredo-Mansfeld in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Anthropology of Development in ANTH at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
ANTH 320 Final Exam Study Guide *most of this exam is opinion-based and we are also provided a wonderful dictionary to help us out with Question 1, so this study guide will just address Question 3* Alternatives to Development Authors and Important Ideas: highlighted terms are examples of alternatives - D’alisa: o Degrowth: get rid of economic growth as social objective, focus on less (consumption, money, production), focus on different (don’t want to do just less of same thing) o Criticism of capitalism: growth-centered system, GDP-focused, too much commodification o Limits of growth: Uneconomic: more costs than benefits (psychological health problems, pollution, overworking, equality more important than growth above certain income level) Unjust: perpetuated by and benefits from unequal status Much of work done by women who get less benefits Unequal exchange of resources Waste/pollution end up in poor areas Benefits to powerful and costs to powerless Social limits: if everyone rises together, no one really benefits because no competition Ecologically unsustainable: increased growth leads to increased CO2 emissions and pollution, peak oil o Degrowth as repoliticization: Focus on policy changes instead of technical solutions Want alternative to development, not alternative forms of development o Degrowth transition: non-capitalist grassroots movement characteristics Production for exchange changes to production for use Work becomes voluntary Trade for goods/services instead of money No goal of accumulation/expansion Represent commons, connections between people o Job guarantee scheme: state is employer of last resort o Unconditional basic income: paid for by taxes o Work sharing: redistribute work between employed and unemployed o Community currencies: localized economic activity, help those outside market economy o Politics of transition to degrowth: Organized disovedience Most change through grassroots and parliamentary politics Commons does not mean a free-for-all: has rules, regulations, and societal norms o Characteristics of commons: Relocalization of production Encourages collaboration “prosumption”: combination of production and consumption - Wendell Berry: o Waste as evidence of machine work instead of human work o Humans motivated by affection, don’t work like machines o Winners are still losers in economy Short-term winners, but have to pay costs eventually or give them to someone else Still harms environment in which they must live - Tyner: o Government doesn’t address social and economic roots of crimes o Solutions to prison/crime problem: Create jobs Free drug addiction treatment Removal of dangerous weapons from general public (gun control) Jobs as constitutional right Grassroots movement Increased education More/greater access to recreation and health facilities - Gudynas: o Buen Vivir: alternatives to development, focus on the good life Criticizes Western development theory Focus on development through the lens of indigenous tradition Well-being only possible within a community Usually includes Nature Different interpretation depending on culture/values/religion o Sumak kawsay: kichwa words for a full life within the cooperation of people in a community and nature Quingushpa rin (walk elegantly): when going from here to there, must go in zig zag way to avoid ruining other people’s crops/land, must move in harmony with community/nature Quinguspha rimay (speak elegantly): approach confrontation in zig zag way to be polite, avoid being blunt, must speak in harmony with community o Common ideas within Buen Vivir perspectives: Critical views of development Alternatives not as a fix of current strategies, but as replacement for development Promote ethical perspectives grounded in values (criticism of focus on economic values) Multiculturality, plurality- all integrated o Bolivian interpretation: Applied to ethical/moral obligations of state Incorporates ideas from different cultures, but equally Influence economic organization of state Economic pluralism: different origins of wealth/success Democratic action: policies come from participation of many different communities o Ecuadorian interpretation: Buen Vivir as indigenous concept, set of rights that are equally as important as freedom, participation, communities, protection, etc. Recognition of Nature’s rights Strong state intervention Reconstruction of social, political, economic, and environmental structures of state - Thomas Berry reading/video: o Nonhuman aspects of planet have no rights Only seen as useful in what they can provide for humans Perpetuated by governments, corporations, universities, and religions o Humans do have certain rights to food and shelter, but NO right to take food/shelter away from other things o Rights of beings in existence: Right to be Rights to habitat Right to fulfil role in greater community - Shiva: not sure if I would consider her ideas completely “alternatives to development”, but some can be o Qualifications of sustainable energy: Doesn’t compete with food supply Doesn’t take away organic matter from maintaining ecosystem functionings Decentralized, based in needs of local communities Emphasizes biodiversity, not monoculture o Biofuels not alternatives to fossil fuels because: Negative net energy efficiency Restricted to liquid fuel, ignores needs at village level Promote non-sustainable monocultures, increase greenhouse gas emissions Cause hunger and landlessness o Need democracy at village level to hear actual needs of local community o Must break dependency on fossil fuels to become food secure o Alternative to chemical fertilizers: Green manures Legumes (nitrogen fixing) Earthworms Cow dung Composts o Soil illustrates life-centered development: Plants and other living things are sufficient fertilizers, promote growth of other plants “Soil not oil” means small-scale farming, not cars Management practices (organic vs, non-organic) create biggest change in microbial content of soil Organic farming gives more living qualities to soil - Lecture: o Stinting: limit exploitation to allow for natural cycles and growth (ex. catch limits) o Co-use: some use helps enhance health (ex. some grazing keeps out weeds and controls overgrowth)
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