Exam two Study Guide
Exam two Study Guide 309
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alison Wuerch on Friday March 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 309 at Washington State University taught by Hmielowski in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Comstrat- Quantitative Research Methods in Communication at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/15
COMSTRAT 309 Exam 2 Study Guide 1 What is measurement a Moving from general ideas and qualitative methods to quantitative methods and its technique Your job for quantitative research is to create what a Measures for concepts b Measures that measure what you think they measure validity c Measures that replicate across contexts reliable 3 What are the two types of de nitions when de ning concepts a Conceptual Constructive de nition dictionary de nition using words to describe context b Operational de nition Procedures to measure a concept i Always want other people to be able to use your measure 4 What is operationalization a Process of translating vague abstract constructs into something that can be measured i Anger fear anxiety and turning those feelings into a measure What is conceptual Fit a You want to have your operational de nitions to t with the conceptual de nition you39ve created What does the term validity mean a Measures what it says it measures 7 What are the ve assessments of validity a Face Validity The measure seems to look good on the face of it b Content Validitv The measure captures the full range of meaningsdimensions of the concept c Criterionpredictive validitv The measure is shown to predict scores on some other relevant future measure i Ex lQleollege GPA d Concurrent validity Measure discriminates between known different groups e Construct Validitv the measure is shown to be related to other concepts that should be related and not to ones that shouldn39t 8 What is internal validity a Are you measuring what you think you are measuring 9 What is Reliability a Can you measure something constantly 10When testing Reliability what does the term stability mean a Consistency of measure at different points in time 11What is the one way to measure stability a Test Retest measure the same thing on the same people i Measures with a stronger relationships are more reliable 12What is Internal Consistency a Measures assigns similar values 13What are the two ways to measure internal consistency N U1 0 a Split Half the rst ve questions get similar scores as a second set of ve questions b Cronbach39s Alpha stats that assess whether items get at the same concept i Trying to receive an Alpha score ii 8 Reliable iii 2 not reliable 14What is intercoder reliability a See if results can be reproduced by others using content analysis 15What are the two types of variables a Independent variable i quotCausequot ii Predictor iii Something you can manipulate b Dependent variable i quotEffectquot ii Outcome iii Independent predicts the dependent variable 16What are the four types of levels of measurement w i Variables is measured with categories ii Numbers are meaningless iii Categories must be 1 Mutually exclusive 2 Exhaustive b Ordinal i Measured with rank order categories ii Tells you placement but not how far apart M i Measurement points with equal distance between them ii No true zero d Ratio i Measurement points with equal distance between them ii True meaningful zero 17What is the difference between discrete and continuous a Discrete Typically nominal i Measure doesn39t include subparts b Continuous Interval Ratio i Can have subparts 1 325 degrees 2 5 12 feet 18What is a rating scale a Ask participants to provide a numeric response or circle a response b Number of response points can vary based on speci c type of scale 19What are the three categories in the Likert Scale a Agreement i Strongly agree to strongly disagree b Frequency i Never to always c Satisfaction i Completely satis ed to completely dissatis ed 20What is lsomorphism a Whether the measure corresponds with an actual number i Temperatures mean something 21What is a semantic differential scale a Descriptive words on opposite sides of a scale 22What is sampling a Describes how you select your subjects 23What are the two large categories of sampling a Representative or probability sampling used to generalize to a larger population b Non representative or nonprobability sampling used when you are looking for a speci c characteristic 24What is a population sample a The entire group of people you are interesting in learning about i Important to clearly de ne 25 What is a census a When the entire population is measured i You can rarely get a census 26 What is probability sampling First you must de ne the population you want to study For a representation sample ALL members of the population must have an equal chance of being included 27 What are the steps in simple random sampling Obtain a list of all population members Assign numbers to all members Randomly select numbers until desired sample size is reached 28 What are the steps in systematic random sampling Obtain a list of all population members Assign numbers to all population members Randomly select start position in the list Select every kth element form the list i Divide number of population 1000 members by desired sample size 1000 that is the quotkthquot 100th element you will need to use ii Ex 5 105 205 29 What are the steps in random digit dialing a Start with a phone number in a given area code i 509 b Obtain all the given exchanges in the are code i 332333334335 c Start with a known number and add a predetermined number ex 9 to generate sample d Keep doing this until sample size is reached 30 What is strati ed random sampling a Used to get representation from a certain group i Divide the population into groups or strata ii Strata are variablescharacteristics of a group that are important to you 31 What is multi stage cluster sampling 959 5399 9959 Randomly select quotclustersquot Randomly select participants from within those clusters Use this when subjects aren39t listed as individuals 32 What is a sampling error a Your sample will never be a perfect representation of the population because of chance b Match to population will increase with sample size but you tend to have a diminished return 969 33 What is margin of error a Statistical estimate of what the population looks like 34 What is con dence level a How certain are you that the results fall into a given margin of error i Usually 95 is the key con dence rate 35 What is random error vs systematic error a Random Error Survey questions gives you different results across samples assumes the sample is correct b Systematic Error results wrong but always in the same direction 36 What are the problems with a nonresponse a You can randomly select people but you cannot make people participate b Non response destroys the generazibility of the sample 37 What is non probability sampling a Any method where a member of a population does not have an equal chance at being selected 38 What is convenience sampling a When subjects are selected based on availability to the research b Selection is generally not tied to purpose of research 39 What is purposive sampling a Select certain individuals for special reasons b Subjects selected for a good reason tied to the purposes of research 40What is volunteer sampling a Individuals volunteer to be included i Extra credit ii Discounts 41What is quota sampling a Research samples with a certain number of subjects in various categories i 100 males and 100 females 42What is snowball sampling a The research approaches one subjects asks that subject to suggest to others and it continues 43What is survey research a Any time you systematically ask people about their attitudes emotions beliefs knowledge intensions or behaviors i Professor evaluations ii Public opinion surveys 44What are the two primary goals when it comes to survey research a Identifydescribe attitudes or behaviors in a given population b Examine relationships between variables measured i Does x related to y 45What are the two types of survey questions a Openended questions participants generate responses i More detail ii Allows for unforeseeable responses iii Time intensive coding b Closedended questions participants choose from provided responses i Uniform responses allow for easy comparability ii Quick analysis iii May force respondents to choose a response they do not completely agree with 46What are the main question guidelines Be clear Keep questions short Avoid negativesdouble negatives Avoid double barreled questions Avoid leadingbiased questions Avoid asking about issues beyond participants capability of answering Avoid false premises i Don39t assume h Avoid asking embarrassing questions unless necessary 47What is social desirability bias a Over reporting desirable behaviors underreporting undesirable behaviors 48What are the two ways to overcome bias a Emphasize anonymity b Phrase questions in a way to 39safe face 49What should be included in the introduction of your questionnaire design a Introduce yourself b Introduce purpose c Introduce risk and bene t d Introduce time required 50What are the advantages of Mail surveys a Cost b Length c No interviewer in uence d Can have visual content 51What are the disadvantages to mail surveys a Must be selfexplanatory b Cant clarify c Low response rate 52What are the advantages of telephone surveys a Quick data collection window b Moderate cost c Ability to clarify questions d Moderate response rate 53What are the disadvantages to telephone surveys a Moderate interviewer bias b Short questionnaire c No visual deception LthrDQpOp d Cell phones e Push polls 54What is a push poll a Controversial tactic i Pretends to be a phone survey ii Real goal is 1 Campaign for a candidateidea 2 Sell a product iii Statements are often not based on fact or are very generous interpretation of fact 55What are the advantages of Face to face surveys a Clari cation possible b Can have audio content c Highest response rate d Length 56What are the Disadvantages of face to face surveys a Interviewer bias b Expensive c Longer collection window 57What are the advantages of online surveys a Cheapest b Quickest c No interviewer bias d Moderate response rate e Can have audio visual content 58What are the disadvantages of online surveys a Hard to get a representative sample b quotbig brotherquot concerns c Must be self explanatory d Length 59What is content analysis a Systematically examining the content of communication 60What is content analysis used to do a Describe how much or what kind of certain messages exist i Ex Sex on tv b Compare media content to the real world c Examine content trends over time i Ex Portrayals of women in their fties versus today d To get a starting point for effects research i Ex lf lots of sex on tv then what effects might this cause 61What are the steps in content analysis a Develoo a question b De ning the pooulation i What do you want to generalize to ii Need to de ne 1 Primetime a What hours 2 Television shows a Cablebroadcast c Select sample i Census or sample ii Goal Representiveness 1 Often multi stage 2 Picking a sample of content of a workable size De ne unit analvsis i What you count and categorize ii Products advertised during children39s TV 1 Individual ads 2 Time Develop content categories i Constructs of interests must be measurable 1 Content categories are the empirical indicators you think re ect hem ii Categories should 1 Re ect the purpose of the research 2 Allow for independence 3 Exhaustive 4 Mutually exclusive Establish quanti cation system i Nominal interval ratio etc Train coders i Goal is reliability 1 Problems can result from a Poor de nition of categories b Unclear instruction given to the coders c Unanticipated content that is dif cult to code Code data i Applying coding schema and generate data Analyze the data i Various ways based on level of measurement and research question Draw conclusions
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