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HSTAA 212 Midterm 1/ Quiz 1 Study Guide

by: Nicole Goodfliesh

HSTAA 212 Midterm 1/ Quiz 1 Study Guide Hstaa 212

Marketplace > University of Washington > History > Hstaa 212 > HSTAA 212 Midterm 1 Quiz 1 Study Guide
Nicole Goodfliesh
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Study Guide for the first quiz.
Military History of the United States
Nathan Roberts
Study Guide
HSTAA212, military, history, UW
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nicole Goodfliesh on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hstaa 212 at University of Washington taught by Nathan Roberts in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Military History of the United States in History at University of Washington.


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Date Created: 04/25/16
Iberian  Peninsula:  Islamic  Caliphates  to  Iberian/  Africa.  Crusades:  retaking  of  Iberian  Peninsula  (1100-­‐1500).   protect  holy  lands,  cleanse  land  of  prisoners,  jobless,  etc.  Then,  (1469-­‐1492)  Reconquista:  Ferdinand  and   Isabella  Marry  thd  unite  the  peninsula  and  push  the  Muslims  out  of  the  south.  Backed  Columbus:  money/   Christians.  15  C  and  after:  rise  of  nation  states  (A  governed  political  structure  that  unifies  a  nation)   Ireland:  First  place  the  English  tried  to  colonize.  Took  Irish  catholic  lands  to  settle  with  Protestants  from   England  and  Scotland.  New  Penal  codes  for  Irish.  Brutal  treatment  of  Catholics.  Black  Legend:  “Spanish  are   horrible  colonizers,  but  we  are  going  to  be  better”   England:  100yr  war  (1337-­‐1453)  with  France  over  the  “low  countries”  (Belgium  and  Netherlands).  War   produced  military  changes  (feudalàlarge  standing  armies,  pro  soldiers,  taxes),  Technological  changes  (heavy   cavalry  in  Battle  of  Crecy  1346  à  Infantry  based  with  longbows  and  pikes  in  Battle  of  Agincourt  1415)   England  Colonization  after  1600:  Parliament  (House  of  Lords,  House  of  Commons).  Q  Elizabeth  1558-­‐1603,  K   st James  1  1603-­‐1625.  Enclosures:  open  lands  were  fenced  off  so  land  owners  could  make  more  money.   Between  1530-­‐1630,  half  of  rural  peasants  lost  their  land.  Sturdy  poor:  go  to  cities  when  pushed  off  of  land.   Now  have  nothing  to  do  so  policy  makers  have  to  deal.  So,  they  are  sent  to  the  colonies  to  work  the  lands.   Goals  of  Colonization:  1.  Plant  Christian  religion  2.  Trafficke  (Trade)  3.  Conquer.  (First  Place  Ireland).  First  place   nd in  America:  Roanoke-­‐  ship  returned  to  check  on  island,  but  it  was  bare.  2  place:  Jamestown  (1607):  set  up  on   tiny  river  in  VA.  Terribly  insecure.  Triangular  stronghold-­‐  small  fighting  force;  not  use  in  England.  In  the  middle   of  a  Native  American  Confederacy  lead  by  Powhatan.  Uneasy  peace  (1636-­‐1675)  develops  as  more  English   come  wanting  land.  First  Tidewater  War:  (1622-­‐1632)  Powhatan  attack  killed  25%  of  VA  colony.  Ended  with   treaty  that  started  Second  Tidewater  War:  (1644-­‐1646)  Powhatan  defeated;  power  of  colonies  increased.  King   Phillip’s/  Metacom  War:  (1675)  Boat  captain  body  turns  up  in  river-­‐  Narraganset  says  might  know  who  did,  but   won’t  tell  Plymouth  Colony-­‐  so,  they  are  ready  to  go  to  war.  Plymouth  growing  in  size,  more  E  come  over,   pressure  on  NA  because  disease/taking  of  land.  War  to  go  after  English  settlements.  Wampanoags  and   Nipmucks  allied  with  Narraganset  against  Plymouth  who  was  allied  with  CT/  RI.  War  cost  100,000  pounds.   Ended  with  Metacom  beheaded.  Lower  NE  dispersed  and  moved  west  to  colonial  towns  and  converted  to   Christians.  Great  Swamp  Fight:  battle  from  Metacom  War;  showed  the  Colonies  fighting  w/  NA  tactics;  still   used  E  guns/  swords  and  hatchets  and  being  organized  in  E  waves,  but  fighting  like  NA;  25%  of  LNE  die   Militias:  Before  armies,  there  were  militias  in  the  colonies;  people  feared  large  standing  armies  (could  be  ruled   by  a  tyrant/  large  taxes)  pro  soldiers  from  England  came  to  train  (John  Smith  VA,  Myles  Standish  MA).  No   regular  uniform.  Have  other  professions;  mostly  from  lower  class.  Able  bodied  men  16-­‐60.  “trainbands”   trained  together  but  did  not  necessarily  go  as  a  unit  to  fight.  Christians  thought  it  was  bad  at  first  but  they  are   “instruments  of  God,  so,  their  enemy  is  God’s  enemy,  so  its  ok.  Each  state  protective  of  own.  Under  governor’s   authority.  Matchlock  Muskets  1550s-­‐1700s  (not  effective,  heavy,  slow  rate  of  fire,  pole  for  stabilization,   burning  match)  replaced  by  flintlock  muskets  (lighter,  doesn’t  depend  on  burning  match).  1700s  change  to   militia  system:  voluntary,  seen  as  honorable  in  the  East.  General  assemblies  start  to  control:  money  for   weapons/uniforms,  hold  legal  contracts.  West  militia  serious  because  NA  don’t  like  the  encroachment  onto   their  land:  scouts/  rangers  patrolled  the  frontier  looking  for  slaves/incoming  attacks  from  NA/Spanish.  Legal   contracts  in  militias:  If  colonies  break  contract  you  can  leave;  British  found  this  insulting  because  they  come   from  large  standing  armies  in  which  you  pledge  loyalty.  1750s  VA  militia:  seen  as  mobilizing  force;  mix  of   people  who  don’t  belong  in  society.  Militia  and  Domestic  Policing:  police  force  on  top  of  expeditionary  force:   Beacon’s  Rebellion:  VA  1676:  Nathanial  Beacon  came  to  VA  to  E  to  improve  status;  VA  governor  made   agreement  that  they  would  not  take  more  land  from  NA;  B  went  around  talking  about  inequity  to  everyone  he   could  find.  Went  after  the  Indians  though  some  were  allies.  Stono  Rebellion:  SC  1739:  largest  slave  uprising  in   main  E  colonies.  Lots  of  slaves  from  Congo  showed  up  to  SC  together,  so  were  able  to  communicate  to  plan.   SC  militia  called  to  bring  back  slaves  that  fled  and  sold  them  to  Caribbean  to  work  on  sugar  plantation.    War   Aims:  purposes  for  which  war  is  fought.  Strategy:  general  concept  for  use  of  force.  Tactics:  actions  of   troops/units  (movement  on  battlefield)   European  Encroachment:  English  and  French  wanted  NA  as  trading  partners.  Fur:  NA  would  do  the  work  but   they  would  get  the  $.  Confusion  for  land:  England-­‐  enclose  a  property  and  its  yours.  NA:  borrow  land-­‐  so  when   E  asked  for  land,  they  thought  they  meant  to  borrow,  so  gave,  but  when  NA  wanted  to  go  on  it  later,  E   refused.  E  also  brought  diseases:  Typhoid,  Tuberculosis.   English  Weapons:  Pikes  and  armor  (of  little  use  in  American  context-­‐  heat,  no  reason  for  armor).  English  and   Native  Americans  used  different  war  tactics  (NA  fought  long  before  B  showed  up:  know  the  land,  saw  death  as   spiritual-­‐  humiliated  enemy,  captured  slaves.  E  used  to  large  scale  war/  marching  in  lines,  lots  of  death)  NA   used  as  allies  and  enemies-­‐  because  of  trade.   Lower  New  England:  Pequot  war  (1637)  Pequot  tribe  most  powerful  in  region  early  1600s.  Plymouth  colonies   worried.  Afraid  NA  become  more  demanding  about  trade.  Less  open  about  being  converted  to  Christians.   Convinced  they’d  have  more  power  if  they  defeated  Pequots,  so  attacked  Mystic  River  Valley  preemptively:   total  war  came  out  of  this-­‐  killed  civs.  Mohegan  and  Narraganset  allied  with  colonies.  Pequot  power  reduced;   N  power  increased.  Demonstrates  war  as  cultural  phenomenon.     Spanish  Florida:  Tried  to  destabilize  colonies  by  offering  land  to  slaves  that  ran  away  from  Carolina  colonies.   Compete  over  fur  trade  and  deer  trade.   America  in  the  1700s:  234,000  E,  1500  French,  Spanish,  NA.  F  claim  lots  of  territory,  but  aren’t  many  people   there;  only  settlements  at  this  point.  New  Spain:  much  of  central  and  south  A.  Reliance  on  NA  for  trade  of   Beaver  skin/fur  in  N,  Deer  Skin/NA  slaves  in  S.  NA  had  extensive  trade  routes  before  E  got  there,  so  they  often   pin  Europeans  against  each  other  to  get  better  deals.  Northwest  Gun  was  traded:  had  a  serpent  on  it  and  was   a  good  quality  gun,  so  NA  would  only  buy  weapons  with  a  serpent  on  them.  Flintlock  smoothbore  musket.  E   were  dependent  on  NA  also  for  trade  and  local  knowledge,  there  is  a  dual  dependency.     Colonial  Attempts  to  Weaken  new  France:  didn’t  work  because  most  colonies  (except  NE)  were  not  united.   Connected  E  forces  and  colonial  militias.  1690:  aborted  plan  to  capture  Montreal  and  defeat  Quebec.  1709:   2  failed  attempt.  1711:  3  failed  attempt:  Queen  Anne’s  War:  12000  troops  +  NE  militia.  British  government   sent  Sir  Walker  to  try  and  capture  Montreal.  Example  of  E  wanting  to  invest  $.  Sent  squadron  but  had  no   knowledge  of  American  fighting,  and  no  maps,  so  weren’t  ready.  Over  when  they  get  killed  and  go  back.  New   intercolonial  cooperation:  important  for  colonials  to  revolt  against  E.     Yamasee  War:  SC  1715-­‐1717:  E  vs.  NA.  Yamasees  became  increasingly  indebted  to  E  traders.  Growing  debt   and  encroachment  led  them  to  attack  SC.  Almost  got  rid  of  E.  Shows  natives  grouping  together  to  fight  British.   VA  comes  to  aid  SC:  shows  intercolonial  connectedness.  VA  and  SC  put  a  stop  to  the  attacks.   Louisburg  (Cape  Brenton  Is.):  1745  NE  militiamen  team  up  with  E  to  take  Ft.  L.  Ft  was  poorly  defended  and  the   colonials  capture  a  battery  of  cannons.  British  officers  report  that  colonials  are  drunks,  poorly  disciplined,   rude.  Colonials  gain  confidence  from  the  win  but  are  insulted  buy  Brits.  At  the  end  of  King  George’s  war,  they   give  the  ft.  back  to  French.   Cartagena:  1740  Spanish  occupation  of  today’s  Colombia.  British  wanted  to  capture  the  fort.  Asked  colonials   to  give  up  militia  men  and  they  did  to  form  a  3600  men  “American  Regiment.”  Went  to  take  Cartagena  as  part   of  E  empire.  Sickness  spread  fast  on  the  ships.   Great  Awakening:  (1730s-­‐40s)  George  Whitfield  makes  preaching  a  profession  and  goes  to  countryside  to  talk   to  as  many  people  as  he  can.  Church  of  E  gets  a  challenge  from  new  preachers  who  challenge  parishioners  to   find  God  their  own  way  (radical  at  the  time).     Enlightenment:  Deists:  guys  who  think  of  themselves  as  thinkers.  Emphasized  rationality  and  science/   empiricism  (using  data/evidence  to  prove).  Foster  individuality/  independence.  Think  critically  about  religion.   Ohio  River  Valley:  1750s  French  dominance.  Mattered  a  lot  in  this  period  because  people  that  were  coming  to   the  colonies  were  farmers  and  ORV  had  great  land  to  farm,  so  they  wanted  it.  Also  good  for  hunting.  E  and  F   both  want,  but  F  dominates.   St.  Lawrence  River   7yrs  War/  French  and  Indian  War:  1750s.  War  ended  with  the  Treaty  of  Paris  (British  gained:  almost  all  F   territories.  E  of  Mississippi  river  to  B,  west  to  Spain.  French  Canada  becomes  British  Canada.  Proclamation  line   of  1763.  Huge  war  debt-­‐  high  taxes.  British  ask  colonials  to  pay.  British  families  asked  take  in  soldiers.)  Early   part  of  war:  French  take  initiative   French  Initiative:  Put  up  forts  and  made  NA  alliances.  Strengthen  relations  with  N  and  S.  Defended  Louisburg   better  than  before.  In  response  to  this,  British  colonies  started  to  worry  and  send  MAJ  George  Washington  to   find  and  build  fort  at  forks  of  Ohio  (Allegheny  and  Monongahela  Rivers)  to  bolster  British  presence.  GW   realizes  French  already  built  a  ft.  there:  ft.  Duquesne.  Put  up  a  small  fight  but  had  to  sign  a  paper  saying  he   caused  the  death  of  a  French  emissary  by  dropping  axe  on  them  and  French  later  use  this  to  justify  going  to   war.  But,  he  now  has  experience  with  the  ORV.  General  Braddock  later  is  sent  out  and  takes  troops  to  ft.  D  and   doesn’t  listen  to  advice;  thinks  he  doesn’t  need  NA  allies;  thinks  colonials  are  ignorant  of  military  affairs;   defeated  in  1755  in  Battle  of  Monongahela-­‐  shot  from  a  horse  and  killed.  Classic  example:  pay  attention  to   advice,  experts,  and  terrain.  In  1757,  they  put  William  Pitt  in  charge-­‐  realizes  he’d  get  nowhere  by  ordering   colonials  around.  Smooths  relations  w/  them.     Albany  Conference:  1754  officials  come  together  to  figure  out  what  to  do  about  France   French  Success:  Ft.  Oswego  1756:  ft.  near  Lake  Ontario.  Ft.  William  Henry:  near  Hudson  river  valley.  French   use  regular  and  irregular  tactics:  lots  of  native  people  there;  skirmishes  in  woods,  guerilla  tactics.  British  shift   strategy  to  maritime  focus.     Privateering:  British  Navy  switched  strategy  to  privateering.  Have  paper  signed  by  King/  Queen  of  E  so  they   can  raid  merchant  ships  of  the  enemy.  Anticipates  US  navy  in  the  revolution.   British  Victory:  Battle  of  Quebec  1759:  European  style  battle.  Had  siege  of  Quebec,  but  Q  was  too  well   supplied.  Troops  scaled  cliffs  and  got  behind  city.   When  F  Leave:  NA  worry  about  colonial  encroachment.  By  end  of  war,  F  giving  lots  of  gifts  to  NA,  and  NA   expected  same  from  E.  They  didn’t  want  to,  so  Pontiac’s  Rebellion  ensued:  1763:  Pontiac  (Ottawa  Leader)   convinced  NA  to  band  together  to  fight  encroachment.  Didn’t  see  their  interests  in  Treaty  of  P.  1765:  British   established  treaties  with  bands  in  Rebellion-­‐  tried  to  better  reinforce  proclamation  line  to  keep  colonials  from   going  into  ORV;  weakly  enforced.   Stamp  Act:  1765  anything  with  a  stamp  you  have  to  pay  tax;  abolished  after  one  year.  Declaratory  act  ensued   from  this:  Said  British  could  do  whatever  they  wanted.  80%  People  in  England  and  the  colonies  were  not  free.   Liberalism:  directly  against  monarchies  of  E   Dual  Army  Tradition:  Colonists  who  are  becoming  revolutionists  have  to  plan  on  how  to  deal  w/  E  army.  GW   believed  there  needed  to  be  a  regular  force.  Have  both  continental  army  and  militias-­‐  common  uniform  and   training.  Congress  controlled  armies.  Samuel  Adams  had  problem  with  standing  army  because  interfered  with   “liberties  of  the  people.”  Costs  a  lot  of  money,  doesn’t  want  a  tyrant  to  take  control.  By  time  of  revolution,   militia  is  better  trained;  more  people  came  to  colonies,  so  more  of  a  selection.     Continental  Army:  Service  time  was  “3yrs  or  until  the  end  of  the  war.”;  some  voluntarily,  some  pressed  into:   ex-­‐slaves,  indentured  servants,  free  blacks,  loyalists,  vagrants,  apprentices;  allowed  to  have  75,000  men,  but   often  half  this  size-­‐soldiers  preferred  militia  or  privateering.  1775  Battle  of  Bunker  (Breed’s)  Hill:  continental   army  saw  growing  British  troops  and  wanted  to  protect  city,  bold  flanking  maneuver-­‐  used  militia  too,  but   British  won,  but  gained  confidence  because  had  guts  to  attempt  to  fight  British   Artillery  from  Ft.  Ticonderoga:  Henry  Knox  and  troops  when  to  get  cannons  to  bring  them  back  to  Boston.   Went  in  middle  of  winter  and  dragged  back  300miles  w/o  losing  any.  Mounted  on  Dorchester  heights  and   drove  British  out  without  firing.  Up  until  this  point,  saw  themselves  as  Englishmen,  but  now  think  of  selves  as   American  Revolutionaries.  GW  says  fight  when  clear  advantage.   Crossing  the  Delaware:  1776  winter  campaign:  see  a  thousand  German  Hessians  across  river;  crosses  river  to   get  more  American  Troops  and  then  crosses  again  and  occupied  Trenton   Valley  Forge  Winter:  1777-­‐78  GW  encamped  at  VF;  trying  to  keep  army  together  in  winter  sucks;  better  off   when  they  emerge  because  they  are  better  skilled  bc  GW  calls  for  help  and  gets  better  food/uniforms  for   soldiers.  Gets  Marquis  de  Lafayette  and  Gen.  Friedrich  Von  Steuben  (Germany)  and  Nathanial  Green  to  help   with  logistics  and  strategy.  France  became  allies  of  revolutionaries.   Tarrleton’s  Quarter:  1780  colonials  being  defeated  so  signal  surrender  and  the  request  is  turned  down-­‐  cannot   surrender  to  Brits   Battle  of  Cowpens:  1781  Daniel  Morgan  created  battle  plan  with  army  and  militia  (let  them  shoot  from  weaker   positions).  British  were  advancing.  He  used  the  militia  well  and  the  Brits  surrendered.  Help  from  Spain,  France,   Netherlands.  Promoted  American  Independence.  Proves  militia  as  backbone.     Threats  to  New  republic:  Knox  and  society  of  Cincinnati:  secret  society  of  officers-­‐  republicans  scared  of  this;   Troops  storm  the  capital:  Philly:  congress  wouldn’t  let  them  go  home  at  the  end  of  the  war,  so  they  stormed   them;  Newburgh  Conspiracy  and  address:  negative  feelings  about  end  of  war  and  direction  country  was  going    


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