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Study Guide for Final Exam

by: Aldina Softic

Study Guide for Final Exam BMS 208

Aldina Softic

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About this Document

This study Guide covers all of the final material for the exam.
Human Anatomy
Jolanta Lanier
Study Guide
Respiratory system, digestive, Reproductive system
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Aldina Softic on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 208 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jolanta Lanier in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 04/25/16
BMS 208; Final Exam Study Guide Respiratory System  nasal cavity  oral cavity  pharynx (throat)  larynx (voice box)  trachea  bronchi  alveolar sacs  alveoli  Nasal cavity is made up of superior, middle, and inferior conchae and the ethmoid bone Pharynx:  nasopharynx  oropharynx  laryngopharynx Larynx:  epiglottis (lid)  thyrohyoid bone  laryngeal prominence  thyroid cartilage (sides)   cricoid cartilage (back)  arytenoid cartilage (where vocal cords attach)  Superior vocal cords = false  Inferior vocal cords = true Trachea:   Trachealis: back of trachea lined with smooth muscle  Front is lined with hyaline cartilage  Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells  Goblet cells produce mucous to trap pollutants Bronchial Tree:  main bronchus  secondary bronchus (supplies lobes)  tertiary bronchus  (supplies segments)  bronchioles  terminal bronchioles  pulmonary lobule  Pulmonary Lobule:  Respiratory bronchioles  alveolar ducts  alveolar sacs  alveoli  Alveolar Cells:  Type 1: epithelial cells  Type 2: make surfactant  Alveolar macrophages: ingest and remove debris Respiratory Membrane:  Epithelium  Basement membrane  Endothelium  Appearance of Lungs:  Right Lung o Oblique and horizontal fissures o Superior, middle, inferior lobes  Left Lung o Oblique fissure o Superior and inferior lobes Digestive System Gastrointestinal tractoral cavity  pharynx  esophagus  stomach  large/small intestine Accessory Digestive Organs:   Salivary glands o Parotid o Sublingual (under tongue) o Submandibular (on mandible)  Liver  Gallbladder  Pancreas Oral Cavity:  Tongue  Hard palate  Soft palate (posterior)  Uvula   Epiglottis  Esophagus  Vestibule: space between lips  Salivary amylase: enzyme in saliva that aids in digestion Esophagus:  Upper esophageal sphincter  Lower esophageal sphincter  Lined with longitudinal and circular muscle  Layers: serosa  muscular  submucosa  mucosa  Stomach:   Greater curvature  Lesser curvature  Cardia (esophagus joins stomach)  Fundus  Pyloris  Pyloric sphincter  Rugae (gastric folds) o Give rise to gastric pits o Mucous cells (inside pit) o Parietal cell (make HCl) o Chief cell (make pepsinogen) Small Intestine:  Duodenum  Jejunum   Ileum   Plica: folds in the mucosa layer of the small intestine   Submucosa of small intestine is dense, irregular connective tissue  Intestinal villus: projections in the plica that have their own projections called micro villi  Large Intestine:  Cecum (small intestine attaches)  Ileocecal valve  Ascending colon  Transverse colon  Descending colon  Sigmoid colon  Rectum  Anal cavity Liver:  Synthesizes bile  Right and left lobes  Gallbladder is located under right lobe  Caudate lobe (posterior)  Quadrate lobe (anterior)  Hepatocytes: liver cells Pancreas:   Head (next to duodenum)  Body  Tail  Produces enzymes that take action in the duodenum   Acinar cells that produce: o Pancreatic amylase (carbohydrates) o Pancreatic lipase (fats) o Proteolytic (proteins)  Endocrine Cell Type Hormone Target Action Alpha Cells Glucagon Liver Increase blood  glucose levels Beta Cells Insulin Most cells Decrease blood  glucose levels   Left and right hepatic ducts come together to form the common hepatic duct  Un­needed bile from the pancreas is sent through the cystic duct to the gallbladder Urinary System Kidneys:  Remove waste  Turn ammonia into urea  Balance pH  Secretes renin: raises blood pressure  Medulla: middle of kidney  Cortex: rim of kidney  Renal lobe  Papilla: projections at end of pyramid  Minor calyx: under one papilla  Major calyx: more than one  Renal pelvis  Ureter   Hilus of kidney: contains renal pelvis, renal arteries and renal veins  Flow of Arteriole Blood:  renal artery  segmental artery  interlobar artery  cortex   archuate artery  interlobular artery  nephron  afferent arteriole  glomerulus  efferent  arteriole Venous Blood Flow:  interlobular vein  archuate  interlobar  segemental  reanl vein  Nephron: main unit of the kidney o Cortico nephron: in cortex o Medullary nephron: in cortex and medulla  Renal corpuscle: bowman’s capsule and the glomerulus   Peritubular capillaries: reabsorb nutrients, located around the distal and proximal tubules  Vasa Recta capillaries: reabsorb nutrients, located around the loop of henle  Anti­diuretic hormone: stimulates retention of water by kidney tubules  Bowman’s Capsule: visceral layer (podocytes), parietal layer  Hormones of the Adrenal Gland:  Aldosterone: targets the kidney, stimulates retention of sodium and excretion of  potassium  Cortisol: stimulates glucose formation  Androgens: stimulates masculinization  Bladder:  Left and right ureters lead to the bladder  Covered in rugae except for the Trigone area which leads to the urethra  2 sphincters: internal and external (voluntary) Reproductive System  Gametes: reproductive cells o Males: sperm o Females: eggs (ova)  Gonads: Organs that produce gametes o Males: testes o Females: Ovaries  Follicle Stimulating Hormone: o Males: supports sperm o Females: makes follicles grow faster  Leutanizing Hormone: o Males: stimulates production of testosterone o Females: stimulates ovulation Male:  sperm produced in testes  matures in epididymis  ductus deferens  seminal vesicle  (produces secretion with fructose)  ejaculatory duct  prostate gland (basic pH)  bulbourethral gland  urethra (prostatic, membranous, penile)   Corpus cavernosum: area of vessels in the penis that fill with blood during erection  Corpus spongiosum: ensures the urethra stays open  Interstitial cells: produce testosterone  Female:  Uterus  2 ovaries  Fundus  Cervix  Vagina  Uterine tube  Labia majora  Labia minora (internal folds)  Urethra (superior to the vaginal opening)  Begins with primordial follicle, the none dominant follicle will leave the ovary after  maturation  Corpus luteum: leftover matured follicles, produce progesterone which thickens the  lining of the uterus  Follicular cells: produce estrogen, develops female characteristics Fertilization (zygote)  cleavage (division)  gastrulation (blastocyst)  organogenesis  Female Breast:  Alveoli: produces milk due to a hormone secreted from the pituitary gland called  prolactin  Lactiferous ducts: milk travels through  Areolar glands: outside on the areola, produce a waxy substance to prevent chafing 


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