Study guide for the final
Study guide for the final MNGT 3810
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Notetaker on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to MNGT 3810 at Auburn University taught by Christine Newman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Management Foundations in Business, management at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
MNGT 3810 Mid-Term Spring 2016 This is meant to be a study guide. We will go over the study guide in class. The questions on the exam may not be in this order. Chapters 8 – 13 will be on the exam The final will be April 27th, 2016 from 3:00-4:15pm Chapter 8: 1 Managers and change: managers need to learn to manage change in organization - Change makes a managers job more challenging - Without change it would make managers jobs relatively easy - It would also simplify the managers job if competitors never introduced new products or services, if customers didn’t make new demands, if government regulations were never modified, the technology never advanced, or if employees needs always remained the same but that’s not the way it is. - Change is an organizational reality. Most managers at one point or another will have to change some things in the workplace 2 Organizational change – people: attitudes, expectations, perceptions, behavior 3 Organizational change – structure: Authority relationships, coordinating mechanisms, job redesign, spans of control. 4 Organizational change – external forces: Market place, gov laws, technology, labor markets, economic changes 5 Catalysts of change: what does it do and why is it important, organizational changes need a catalyst, change agents - People who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process are called change agents - Any manager can. We assume organizational change is initiated and carried out by a manager within the organization. - Or any nonmanager or who’s expertise is in change implementation can. 6 “Calm waters”: there is not much change within organization, in an industry where there is not much change, better for organization to have the ability to change. - realizing that how that how you have done things in the past that will not work in the future. - Atable environment with infrequent changes. 7 Lewin's three-step change process: Unfreezingà changingà refreezing - According to lewin, successful change requires unfreezing the status quo, changing to a new state, and freezingthe new change to make it perment. The status quo can be considered an equilibrium state. Unfreezing is necessary to move from this equilibrium. It can be achieved in one of three ways: o Increase driving forces, which direct behavior from the status quo o Decrease the restraining forces, which hinder movement from the existing equilibrium. o Do both - Once the situation has been Unfrozen, the change itself can be implemented, new situation needs to be frozen so it can be sustained over time. Unless this last step is done, the change is likely to be shortlived with employees going back to the previous equilibrium state 8-10 Why do people resist change? 1. uncertainty: change replaces the known with uncertainty and w 2. Habit: we do things out of habit 3. Concern over personal loss: We fear loosing something already possessed 4. Change is not in organizations best interest: we believe that the change is incompatible with the goals and interests of the organization. How do managers resist to change? MNGT 3810 Mid-Term Spring 2016 - Mangers should be motivated to initiate change because they are concerned with improvising their organizations effectiveness. - people are afraid of the unknown - if you can give them as much change as possible - participation, educating and communicating with employees Employees reaction to change: Change often creates stress for employees : offer counseling, psychologist, or offer to pay for counseling for employees. Chapter 9 11- Measure of employee efficiency and effectiveness: - employee productivity: is a performance measure of both work efficiency and effectiveness - absenteeism: failure to show up for work - Turnover: The voluntary or involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization - Organizational citizenship behavior: that is not part of an employees formal job requirements but which promotes the effective functioning of the organization. - Job Satisfaction: refers to an employees general attitude towards his or her job - Workplace Misbehavior: is any intentional employee behavior that is potentially harmful to the organization or individuals within the organization. 12 Employee attitudes managers are interested in - job satisfaction: is an employees general attitude between his or her job. - Job involvement: the degree to which tan employee identifies with his or her job, actively participates, and considers his or her job performance important for self worth. - Organizational commitment: represents an employees orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty to, id with, and involvement in the org - Employee engagement: which happens when employees are connected to, satisfied with, and enthusiastic with job. 13 Job involvement: degree to which an employee feels engaged in job or how they identify with their job, how much feelings are tied to self worth : organizational commitment 14 Organizational commitment(what the terms are, understand the differences) - represents an employees orientation toward the organization in terms of his or her loyalty, identification with, and involvement in the organization. 15 Employee engagements - widespread interest with their jobs, how involved are you with your job, connected to, satisfied with and enthusiastic with their job. 16 Work should be challenging and interesting to motivate employees 17 Extroversion and introversion - Extroversion: how outgoing are you and willingness to talk to other people. - Intro: might be good at a job at desk and not dealing with direct customer 18 Emotional intelligence - Self Awareness: being aware of what you are feeling - Self management: managing your own emotions - Self motivation: persisting in the face of setbacks and failures - Empathy: sensing how others were feeling - Social skills: adapting to and handling the emotions of others. 19 Locus of control - internal: I determine my destiny MNGT 3810 Mid-Term Spring 2016 - external: not in my control 20 People and perceptions - Perception: we give meaning to our environment by organizing and interpreting sensory impressions. 1. employees react to perception not reality 2. the potential for perceptual distortion exists a. Fundamental attribution error b. Self-serving bias: suggests feedback provided to employees in performance reviews will be predictably distorted by them 3. Perceptual shortcuts a. Selectivity: assimilate certain things of what that observe depending on their interests, background, experience, and attributes b. Assumed similarity: people assume that others like them c. Stereotyping: people judge others on the basis of their perception of a group to which the others belong d. Halo effect: people form an impression of others based on a single trait. Chapter 10 21 Formal groups - are work groups that are defined by the organizations structure and have designated work assignments and specific tasks directed to accomplishing organizational goals. 22 Task groups - Groups composed of individuals brought together to complete a specific job task; their existence is often temporary because when the task is completed, the group disbands. 23 -25 Stages of group development - Forming: has two phases. The first occurs as people join the group. Once they have joined the second phase begins: defining the groups purpose, structure or leadership. Involves “testing the waters” when complete they start to think of themselves as part of a group. - Storming: theres conflict over who will control the group and what the group needs to be doing. Whrn this is complete, there is a complete hierarchy of leadership - Norming: is one which close relationships develop and the group becomes cohesive. The group now demonstrates a sense of group identity. This stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations - Performing: the group structure is in place and accepted by group members. Their energies have moved to getting to know eachother and working on the groups tasks. Last stage for permanent work groups. - Adjourning: the group prepares to disband. The attention is focused on wrapping up activities instead of task performance 26 Permanent work groups doesn’t disband, 27 Group norms - Effort and performance o Most widespread norm o Can be extremely powerful in affecting an individual employees performance - Dress Codes: What is acceptable to wear at work dress codes, role leader decides what is acceptable 28 People want to be part of the group and will give the wrong answer group think MNGT 3810 Mid-Term Spring 2016 - we all want to be accepted to groups in which we belong, which makes us suceptable to conformity pressures\ 29 Social loafing one individual does not pull weight and survive on success of others - Individual productivity of each group member declines as the group expands. “free riders”= costing on the groups efforts because they think their contributions cant be measured 30 Group cohesiveness - The degree to which members are attracted to one another and share group goals Chapter 11 31 A measure of intensity or drive what is motivation - refers to the process by which a persons efforts are energized, directed, and sustained toward attaining a goal. o Energy: measure intensity or drive o Direction: benefits the organization o Persistence: we want employees to persist in putting forth effort to achieve these goals 32 - 34 Maslow's hierarchy understand the differences: think of examples (this is top of pyramid down) 1. Self actualization: growth achieving potential, self fulfillment “be all that you can be” 2. Esteem: internal (self respect, autonomy, achievement) external (status, recognition, attention) 3. Social: affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship 4. Safety: security and protection from harm; assurance that physical needs will continue to be met 5. Psysiological: food, drink, shelter, sex, sleep, or physical requirements 35-38 Theory X and theory Y - Theory X: the negative view of people that assumes workers have little ambition, dislike work, want to avoid responsibility, must be closely controlled to work effectively - Theory Y: a positive view on that assumes employees enjoy work, seek out and accept responsibility, and exercise self-direction. 39 - 41 Herzberg model - intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction - When people felt good about their work, they tended to cite intrinsic factors arising from the job content such as achievement, recognition and responsibility. - When they were dissatisfied, they tended to cite extrinsic factors arising from job content such as company policy and administration, supervision, interpersonal relationships, and working conditions if present they motivate people if not present don’t motivate people 42 Goal setting theory - Specific goals increase performance and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals. o Working towards a goal is major source of job motivation o In some cases some individuals perform best when manager assigns goals o Feedback helps identify descrepancies between what they have done and what they want to do. § Goal setting theory assumes individual is committed to a goal. MNGT 3810 Mid-Term Spring 2016 § Self efficacy refers to an individuals belif that he or she is capable of performing a task. § Value of goal setting depends on national culture about goal setting theory: what area does goal setting work and where does it work well ? 43 - 45) Equity theory overall understanding, individuals compare themselves to other people deals with fairness - proposes that employees compare what they get form a job (outcome) in relation to what they put into it (inputs) and then compare inputs- outputs ratio with the input-output ratios of relevant others - If an employee perceives her ratio to be equitable in comparison to those of relevant others, there is no problem. - However, if the ratio is inequitable, she views herself as under rewarded or over rewarded. When this occurs, they tend to want to do something about it. - The result may lower or higher productivity, reduce or improve quality of output, increase absenteeism, or voluntary resignation. Chapter 12 44 Leaders - Leadership: what leaders do. It’s a process of leading a group and influencing that group to achieve its goals. 45 - 47 Trait leadership theory - the search for traits or characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders o Drive: leaders exibit a high effort level o Desire to lead: have desire to influence and lead people. Willingness to take responsibility o Honesty and integrity: build trusting relationships with followers by being truthful o Self confidence: leaders who don’t self-doubt o Intelligence: need to be able to gather, synthesize, and interpret large amounts of data o Job relevant knowledge: high degree of knowledge about company o Extraversion: energetic lively people help explain why are some leaders good are not. If they are caring to your employees etc. 48 Behavioral theories of leadership - Theories that isolate behaviors that differentiate effective leaders from ineffective leaders. 49 - 52 University of Iowa studies leadership styles - Democratic style: involving subordinates, delegating authority, and encouraging participation - Autocratic Style: dictating work methods, centralizing decision making, and limiting participation - Laissez Faire Style: Giving group freedom to make decisions and complete work Conclusion: the democratic style of leadership was most effective, although later studies showed mixed results. what are the 3 behavior leaderships& example. Know the differences 53 University of Michigan studies - Employee orientation: emphasized interpersonal relationships and taking care of employees needs - Production oriented: emphasized technical or task aspects of job. - Conclusion: employee oriented leaders were associated with high group productivity and higher job satisfaction MNGT 3810 Mid-Term Spring 2016 54 Transformational leaders leaders who stimulate and inspire the employees, giving them drive, they have employee focus - stimulates and inspires followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes. 55 - 56 Leader roles in teams - Coaches - Liaisons with external constituents - Conflict managers - Troubleshooters Main way to describe the team leaders job is to focus on: manage the teams external boundarys and facilitating the team process.. these entail 4 leadership roles. 57 Leaders in different cultures - Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic towards employees - Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak - Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently - Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass not energize those individuals. Chapter 13 58 Importance of communication for managers its part of every element a manager does 59 - 64 The communication process 1. Communication source or sender 2. Encoding: converting a message into symbolic form 3. The message: A purpose for communicating that is to be conveyed 4. The channel: the medium by which a message travels 5. Decoding: translating a received message 6. The receiver: 7. Feedback: is the check on how successful we have been in transferring our messages as originally intended across every culture we see differences in gender 65 Importance of body language in communication - best known areas of nonverbal communication are body language - Body language: refers to gestures, facial configurations, and other movements of the body. - Some of the most meaningful communications are neither spoken nor written. They are nonverbal communications nonverbal cues, feedback 66 Filtering - the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver 67 Barriers to communication - Filtering: the deliberate manipulation of information to make it appear more favorable to the receiver - Selective perception: receiving the communications on the basis of what one selectively sees and hears depending on his or her needs, motivation, experience, background, and other personal characteristics - Information overload: when the amount of information one has to work with exceeds ones processing capacity MNGT 3810 Mid-Term Spring 2016 - Emotions: how the receiver feels when a message is received - Language: words have different meanings to different people - Gender: how males and females react to communication may be different - National culture: communication differences arising from different languages that individuals use to communicate 2 questions , what are they and what can you do to reduce ?, memorizing what they are 68 Differences in communication by gender - they must strive for acceptance, understanding, and commitment to communicate adaptively with eachother - both men and women need to acknowledge differences are present in communication styles, and that one isn’t better than the other, and that it takes real effort to talk successfully with eachother. across every culture 69 Importance of Feedback why is it important? The purpose of the message you are trying to send and did they get it? - Misunderstandings and inaccuracies are less likely to occur when a manager gets feedback. - A manager can ask questions about a message to determine whether it was received or not. Feedback can also can be more subtle as general comments can give the manager a sense of the recievers reaction to the message. - Feedback does not have to be verbal 70 Why people get bored during communication the rate of speech is much slower than the individuals are able to process it. Gives mind time to wonder We can process a lot faster Idle brain time and opportunities for the brain to wonder Most people would rather do the talking Listening is more tiring than talking
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