Final Exam Study Guide for JMM 102
Final Exam Study Guide for JMM 102 JMM 102
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Bella Halili on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to JMM 102 at University of Miami taught by Ana Francois in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Understanding Media And Content In The Digital Age in Film at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Final Exam Review Controversial Content Elements Violence -most studied form of media content -60-80% of all entertainment programs -prevalent in movies -physical and verbal aggression -sanitized and glamorous -level of violence higher that in the real world Health: Deceptive Health Patterns -characters not shown having healthy habits, but shown as thin, ﬁt, and healthy -high degree of violence, but very little suffering -everyday health maladies rarely shown -mental health portrayed stereotypically -doctors over-represented Media Effects -a theory that looks at the connections between people’s consumption of mass media and their resulting knowledge, beliefs, ideas, and behavior -how does mass media and media culture affect what audiences think and how they behave? -area of study in psychology, sociology, and communication Taking a Broader View -narrow perspective on media effects -high proﬁle tragedies are rare -people believe effects only happen to other people -with narrow perspective, no awareness or control of effects -broader perspective= more media literate Timing of Effects -when evidence of effects starts to show -immediate: during or immediately after exposure -long term: show up after many exposures; slow and gradual -immediate effects easier to notice Type of Effects Cognitive-Type -most pervasive -overlooked -planting ideas in our minds -factual or social information -even as adults, careful attention to social models Belief-Type -belief: faith that something is true or real -show us values used by people in news and ﬁctional characters -sometimes explicitly expressed by a speciﬁc character -other times, evolves over time (many characters and situations) -beliefs about attractiveness, relationships, success Attitudinal-Type -attitude: evaluative judgement based on standard -simply accept attitude of media ﬁgure or character -make our own judgement based on standards set by media (e.g., body image -rely on beliefs -inﬂuence stronger at general level that speciﬁc level Emotional-Type (*feels= emotional) -immediate effects -trigger strong emotions (e.g., rage and fear) and weak emotions (e.g., sadness and boredom) -long term effects -desensitization after years of exposure to media violence Physiological-Type -inﬂuence on automatic bodily systems -beyond conscious control -arousal (elevation of blood pressure, heart rate, sweaty palms) -relaxation (lowered rate of breathing and reduced heart rate) -over time, reactions can change Behavioral-Type -trigger actions -immediate (e.g., buy a product) -long term effects ( e.g., patterns of buying) -behavioral habits -addiction Macro-Type -inﬂuence on larger institutions (e.g., organizations, institutions, society -direct inﬂuences -heightening of social pressures Valence of Effects -positive or negative direction: value-laden -individual perspective -societal perspective Intentionality of Effects -expose ourselves to media for certain reason: intended effect -unintended often when we are in state of automaticity -simultaneous intended and unintended -actively analyze and evaluate messages to gain more control *current events- intended, cognitive, positive *UM degree- unintended, belief, positive *high school drop out- unintended, behavioral, negative CONCLUSIONS -don’t need to experience change for effect to happen -reinforcement is a prevalent effect -immediate and long term processes work together in everyday life Implications for Media Literacy -understanding full range of effects; become more sensitized -expand you perspective -accept that you are inﬂuenced -recognizing negative and positive inﬂuences Why Do We Care Who Controls Mass Media? -because mass media control information Who Controls the Media? -an important issue from the start -how much power should an individual or business be allowed to have? -monopolies good or bad? -media controls information -debate rests on conﬂict between localism and efﬁciency Key Properties -NBC: Telemundo, MSNBC, Bravo, Universal Pictures, Universal Parks & Resorts, Comcast Cable, Optimum -ABC: ESPA, Disney Channels, Walt Disney Studios, Pixar, Marvel Studios, Lucasﬁlm, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts -HBO: CNN, Cartoon Network, TNT, TBS, The CW (joint venture), Warner Bros, Pictures, DC Entertainment -FOX: Fox News, National Geographic Channels (joint venture), Twentieth Century Fox, BSkyB -CBS: The CW (joint venture), Showtime, Simon & Schuster -Paramount Pictures: BET, Comedy Central, MTV, Nickelodeon Two Competing Values -two strong values that address the issue of concentration of power -localism: values sharing of power among many -efﬁciency: values concentration of power in hands of those who can make decisions well and quickly Localism -control of important institutions should be spread out -considerable power at local level, closest to individuals; best serves society -each person is a rational being with equal say -American tradition Localism and Mass Media -media voices should be kept local to best serve the public -development of broadcasting industries -regulations based on spectrum scarcity, localism, public interest, and promotion of diversity -over time, FCC allowed more ownership concentration: pressure from broadcasters FCC Rules Station Ownership -prior to 1980s: 7AM, 7FM, and 7 TV stations -1980s and 1990s (prior to 1996): 12AM, 12 FM, and 12 stations -late 1990s to present: less that 39.5% of viewers Efﬁciency -trend towards concentration, consolidation, and centralization -increased barriers to entry -small companies go out of business or are bought out by conglomerate -In 2004, ﬁve companies owned most US media properties: Bertelsmann, Disney, News Corp., Time Warner, and Viacom -danger of narrowing the range of voices Cross-Ownership and Control Types of Concentration -horizontal merger: media company of same type -vertical merger: suppliers and/ or distributors; integrate production and distribution -conglomerate merger: combination of media companies and/ or non-media businesses Megamergers -mergers more and more popular -consolidation resources in fewer companies -no signs of slowing down: number of mergers among media companies more than doubled from 2011 to 2012 International Perspective -foreign companies buy and invest in American media companies -American companies market their entertainment services worldwide to increase revenue streams: US market saturated Concentration Among Ad Agencies -agencies are growing; focused on national markets rather than local companies -half of all advertising placements in the US are handled by one of four international advertising conglomerates: WPPC plc, Omnicom Group Inc., IPG, and Publicis Groupe -manufacturers buying each other up -more power in marketplace and as advertisers: Procter & Gamble -products that appear very different may be marketed by same company Issues of Concern Deregulation -belief that strong vertical integration will drive away completion and exploit the consumer -consolidation trend has grown stronger than government impulse to regulate (e.g., Telecommunication Act of 1996) -FCC more concerned with companies’ interests than public’s interest -what’s next? -net neutrality Change in Content -critics argue that decreased competition leads to negative changes in message content -no evidence of decrease in quality -possibility more negative speech/ obscenity -relationship between concentration and reduced “competition” breaks down when analyzed Internet -number of websites available is huge, but internet exposure concentrated -concentration results from search engines; paid placement -computer industry hugely splintered Piracy -about drawing lines: ownership and non-ownership; perimeter of a message -digitization and high speed transmission raise questions about ownership rights -two value systems: media businesses vs. public; copyright vs. copyleft Types of Piracy -bootlegging: unauthorized recording of a live delivery of a message -counterfeiting: the duplication of a copyrighted message along with its packaging, and then selling as real product -sharing copyrighted messages without paying for access: individuals make copies available to others for free Ownership Rights -copyright owners have “sole and exclusive right to reproduce the work in any form for any reason -life of the author plus 70 years -fair use: news reporting, criticism, teaching -copyright has its limits; becoming more ambiguous with digitization of messages and free exchange through computers -freeware -open source software; follow-on users -copyleft licensing; creation keeps evolving -idea of creation has changed -cathedrals to bazaars (Sunstein, 2006)
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