IR Final Exam Study Guide
IR Final Exam Study Guide POLI 2500
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 2500 at Tulane University taught by Christina Kiel in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Study Guide for Midterm Exam II I. Major Ideas of Readings 1. Coflan: discusses balance of trade (deficit and surplus), China’s trading partners have seen decreases in surpluses or growing deficits 2. Cowen: “Lack of Major Wars May Be Hurting Economic Growth” but helps other things (environment, peaceful relations, social tolerance, etc.) 3. Slaughter: comparative advantage andAmerican jobs, US workers benefit when industries invest where they are most productive 4. VanGrasstek: Multilateral trade systems, GATT —> WTO 5. Micklethwait: nation states most important players in a globalized economy, defend globalization and debunks myths 6. Stiglitz: fair trade/trade liberalization makes people worse off, contributes to world growing inequality 7. The Economist: 8. Tanner: ending world poverty unrealistic, relative poverty is inevitable, energy should be focused on reducing inequality (making a fairer world) 9. Moyo: foreign aid hurtingAfrica; cycle of corruption, poverty, and slow economic growth; forging aid creates cycle of debt (must repay loans) 10.Altman: poor countries have too many entrepreneurs and not enough factory workers, need economy of scale 11.Hardin: tragedy of the commons, population problem, must extend morality 12. Ratner: International law goal is to enhance peace, protect right and reduce evils; problems = must make legit precepts and make them stick (implement and enforce) 13. McFarlane: sovereignty vs. self-determination (sometimes contradict each other), must add international responsibility as a norm 14. UDHR: equal rights for all, right to assembly, right to freedom, etc. 15. Sen: “Human Rights and the Westernizing Illusion”, individual freedom is not only a Western value, it is simply a more recent value (there is diversity in moral beliefs in all cultures) II. Terms and Concepts A. Economy: 1. Balance of trade (surplus, deficit) - value of state’s imports relative to its exports; • producing goods outside country implies rise in domestic unemployment • favorable balance of trade: positive balance of trade surplus: country exports more than it imports • • deficit: country imports more than it exports • trade deficit does not equal budget deficit 2. Protectionism (why and how) - states try to manipulate international trade to strengthen domestic industries; discourage imports • states try to manipulate international trade to strengthen domestic industries protect against international competition) • must protect industry, vital to national security • defense against predatory foreign states or companies 3. tariffs - tax on imports to discourage them 4. non-tariff barriers: example - quotas (fixed number allowed) • has positive and negative effects; short-term = stabilizing 5. IPE - international political economy relationship btw international politics and international economy • • domestic politics/economy affects international politics/economy & vice versa • $18 billion worth of trader per year 6. Liberalism (in IPE) - economic liberalism • assumes anarchy and cooperation to realize common goals thru international organizations, institutions and norms • cares about absolute increase in wealth (not relative power) • government has no role • substantial economic gains can be realize through trade 7. Mercantilism - idea that the creation of wealth underlies state power, economics should serve politics, prominent in Britain but declined in 19th c. 8.Absolute/comparative advantage • absolute: country can supply commodity cheaper than others comparative: ability to produce a good/service at a lower opportunity cost than • another party 9. Efficiency - requires… • large number of sellersAND buyers • complete information 10. Political Interferences: • monopolies, oligopolies, corruption, taxation, sanctions, autarky (self-reliance, avoid trade) ~ fixed (government decides) vs floating (global currency markets decide) exchange rate ~ states can manipulate current price to manipulate balance of trade by boosting trade and achieving trade surplus B. Globalization: time it takes for goods, people, information, and money to flow across borders, and the cost of moving them are decreasing; increase international trade, single world market 1. History • 1750 Britain had industrialization, free trade and technological innovation —> Great Depression resulted in protectionist policy —> Keynesian economics • increase in international imports and exports 2. International framework (GATT to WTO, bilateral, regional) General Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1947 • • World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995 - an IGO that monitors and promotes international trade, has 159 countries in membership • World Bank - loans for reconstruction in W. Europe, later for developing countries • International Monetary Fund - coordinates international currency exchange • Bilateral trade agreements - two states agree (ex: to have same tariff on goods); reciprocal arrangements • Regional free trade areas - customs union, common market 3. Most-Favored Nation Principle • a level of treatment of one state to another • MFN status still has to be treated equally • trade restrictions imposed by a WTO member or its MFN trading partner must be applied equally to all WTO members non-discrimination • • guarantees equal trading opportunity and makes previously bilateral agreements multilateral 4. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) - trade concessions to third world states to help economic development 5. Pros and Cons of Free Trade • benefits to belonging to WTO outweigh the costs • cons = environmental issues, human rights (minimum wage, child labor, worker safety) issues • pros = lower prices on goods from low-wage countries, consumers spend more money and lead to more U.S. employment, cheap imports help keep inflation low (benefits citizens/politicians) C. Development: 1. Measuring poverty - definition: lack of sufficient income and often accompanied by insufficient nutrition, housing and other necessities • GDP (average income), average income adjusted for living, poverty level, basic human needs, inequality (Gini coefficient) and gender equality • absolute = income • relative = inequality (income relative to someone else’s) 2. Inequality 3. Basic Human Needs - food, shelter, education (literacy is key), health care and safe water 4. Roots of Inequality • European colonization critical to their economic development —> impoverished rest of world… Europe’s “first-mover” advantage (economies of scale, network effect and investment funds) • problem of late development = competition from developed nations • declining terms of trade = developing countries rely on commodity exports, technology advance minimize manufactured goods, developing countries must export ever- increasing amounts of raw materials to earn money 5. Strategies for Development a. import substitution - development of local industries to produce items that a country previously imported to create a trade surplus - BUT - against principle of comparative advantage and not proven effective) b. export-led growth - develop industries that can compete in specific niches in world economy, may received special subsidies or access to local market, exports creates a favorable balance of trade c. state socialism - concerned with distributing wealth as much as the actual absolute creation of wealth; state redistributes wealth and manages economy; state economic planning (ex: 5-year plans) - BUT - no incentive for efficient, stymied innovation (USSR failed example) - creation of wealth in North comes at expense of South (North-South divide is a zero sum game) 6. Washington Consensus • idea that development occurs through state intervention, open economic and free trade; with a minimized state role in economy…liberals say this is proved by the “Asian Tigers” success • BUT…none of these were democracies, government had active role in making money for investment/directing investment, state helped build legal/bureaucratic infrastructure needed for capitalism to thrive (so… states had to take active role in encomium development after all) 7. Developmental State - that state being developed 8. Good Governance = transparent, controlled by rule of law, accountable and effective 9. ForeignAssistance (donors, conditions, shortcomings of aid) • money made available to third world state to help speed development or meet basic humanitarian needs • mostly comes from North governments • private donors provide smaller amounts (ex: Bill Gates) • DevelopmentAssistance Committee (DAC) - international forum of largest donor to contribute to aid • shift from: infrastructure —> basic human needs —> structural adjustment —> good governance • shortcomings: aid goes to government, sometimes government is the barrier to development, loans are a financial burden (debt), and tied aid (must be spent on goods from donor) —> bilateral foreign aid agreements often serve needs of donor not the developmental needs of recipients • Israel,Afghan and Egypt = top recipients of US foreign aid D. Environment: 1. CollectiveAction/Public Goods Problem (definition, examples, solutions, barriers to solutions) - collective goods are non-excludable and non-rivalrous - examples: pollution of water and air, overfishing, loss of biodiversity, global warming, etc. - collective goods problem = the problem of how to provide something that benefits all members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it - problem: defection (free-riding) - harder on an internationally large scale, smaller groups easier because less free-rising, more impact and easier punishment - solutions: dominance, reciprocity, identity - environmental solutions: hegemony, privatization, quotas and trading, regulation 2. Sustainable Development - refers to economic growth that does not deplete resources and destroy ecosystems so quickly that economic growth is itself undermined 3. Climate Change Cooperation as a CollectiveAction Problem - VIEWS - Liberalism: cooperation and regimes - Realism: environmental competition and conflict - Economic Structuralism: distributive effects of environmental agreements - Constructivism: emergence of new norms and interests - Feminism: gender, power, and the environment - *barriers: domestic politics, complexity, competing economic priorities, economic competitiveness, conflict with free trade agreements, equity, scientific uncertainty - short-term costs, long-term benefits - oil companies/industrial workers pay the cost, benefits more evenly distributed - benefits shared 4. Climate Change as a Threat to International Security - Kyoto Protocol (1997): treaty to limit GHG emissions, 2009 Copenhagen Summit for follow-up treaty, 2013 Warsaw Summit, 2015 Paris Summit, Bilateral agreements (ex: US and China) - Rising waters, Scarce resources, Weather changes -> Food supply, Wars resulting from scarcity, Migration E. International law: 1. ImportanceAccording to Theories - “a set of rules and obligations that states recognize as binding on one another” - must be recognized by states to be law among states - derived from tradition and agreements by states - no central authority, important to help maintain peace and unity - the theory of “just war” helped create need for international law (idea that there must be a just cause to declare war, must have legitimate authorities, means must be humane and means must be proportional to ends obtained) 2. Sources of International Law - Treaties and other written conventions signed by states, Customs, General principles of law, Legal scholarship 3. Enforcement - depends on reciprocity, collective actions/responses and international norms - depends entirely on national power - UN Security Council - WTO Dispute Settlement Body (treaty organizations) - blended enforcement (international body and state contribute) - enforcement by individual states 4. International Court of Justice (jurisdiction, tasks, weaknesses) - jurisdiction = limited and caseload light, only states can be sued, 12 judges elected to 9 year terms by majority insecurity Council and GeneralAssembly - location = The Hague, the Netherlands - weaknesses = states have not agreed to subject themselves to jurisdiction or obey its decisions & only a third have signed the optional clause in the treaty agreeing to give the Court jurisdiction in certain cases - main use is to arbitrate issues of secondary importance between countries with friendly relations - advantages to having international cases in national courts = more enforceable, pursued by individuals not just states, can pick most favorable legal system to one’s case (U.S. is a favorite jurisdiction b/c juried award big money and many people do business in U.S. so can collect damages) 5. International Regimes - set of rules, norms, and procedures around which the expectations of actors converge in a certain issue area; participants have similar ideas about what rules will govern their mutual participation - help solve collective goods problems by coercion, mediation, transparency and spill- over effects - rely on state power, created by hegemonies 6. International Norms - ethical principles about how actors should behave, mutual expectations about how actors will behave & social identities indicating which actors are to be considered legitimate - spread by international organizations, state-to-state, agreements among transnational groups, and across societies to influence governments (norm entrepreneurs) 7. Human Rights (individual rights – sovereignty, sources, institutions) - sources = political and legal philosophy, religion, & theory about natural law/natural rights - individuals vs. state sovereignty - no globally agreed definition of essential human rights - Two broad categories: - civil-political “negative rights” (free speech, freedom of religion, equal protection under the law, freedom from arbitrary imprisonment) - economic-social “positive rights” (rights to good living conditions, food, health care, social security, and education) - universal or culturally determined? - Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) = does not have the force of international law, does set forth international norms; since its adoption, the UN has opened 7 treaties for state signature to further define protections of human rights - role of International organizations in protecting human rights - NGOs play a key role in efforts to win basic political rights in authoritarian countries (ex:Amnesty International, publicity and pressure) 8. Migration - most move from one developing state to another developing state (global South)… doesn’t affect us - is migration a human right? not really… but there is a right to seek asylum… - 9. War Crimes - large-scale abuses of human rights often occur during war - losers can be punished for violations of laws of war even thought international law is very hard to enforce during war 10. International Criminal Court (ICC) - permanent Court since July 2002 - Universal jurisdiction to prosecute genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes - Can prosecute individuals - Three mechanisms - Countries willingly turn over - State is signatory - UNSC authorization - Complementary to national courts
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