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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Notetaker on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 104 at West Virginia University taught by Dana Boreza in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Inductive Reasoning: If all the premises are true, then the conclusion is most likely true. Bottom up approach Specific case general rule Deductive Reasoning Requires that the conclusion must be true if all the premises are true Top down approach General rule/theory specific case Deductively valid When there is no possibility that; The Premises are all true and the conclusion is false Voice A persons personality expressed through arguments Cues Anything besides the message arguments Cognitive heuristics Natural human decision making short cuts that we use to speed up our decisions about what to believe in or what to do Cognitive Miser The theory suggests that humans, valuing their mental processing resources, find different ways to save time and effort when negotiating the social world Central Route Theory Involves processing messages carefully and effectively Produces more thoughts about the message and thoughts are relevant Also applies to critical thinking skills on self regulation and focuses on the message argument Peripheral Route Processing Assumes humans are cognitive thinkers Involves processing messages superficially and lazily There are fewer thoughts about the message and the thoughts are irrelevant Tend to be used when situations need immediate action Ethics A matter of the conscious choice a person makes Moral Ethics Rhetorical communication has ethical value Only good people should be allowed to speak or be fully trained in rhetorical communication Amoral Ethics Rhetorical communication has no ethical value itself Everyone should be allowed to speak and be trained in rhetorical communication Coercion Using force or punishment to get something you desire Censorship All socieites restrict free speech, but sometimes in different ways; Totalitarian uses laws force and Democratic uses social pressure Ghost Writing When a skilled communicator creates a message for another source to present Advocate System having someone speak for you (need full training, ethical and they try their best) CONCEPTS 4 questions to ask sample when evaluating inductive reasoning 1. Was the correct group sampled? 2. Were the Data obtained in an effective way? 3. Were enough cases considered? 4. Was the sample representatively structured? 3 types of relationships between Variables Coincidences : 2 or more events occur together by chance Correlations : 2 or more events occur together several times Causes : 2 or more events occur together and the earlier event influences the later one 7 Deductive Fallacies 1. Erroneous Generalization Generalizing based on too little information 2. Playing with numbers Misapplying statistical tests, exaggerating small numbers 3. False Dilemma Assuming incorrectly that all options are bad options 4. Gamblers Fallacy Improperly connecting events that happened due to chance 5. False Cause Assuming that if B happens right after A, that A causes B 6. Slippery Slope Assuming that an event is automatically the start of a long chain of events 7 deductive reasoning templates 1. Denying the Consequent If A, then B Not B Therefore not A 2. Affirming the Antecedent If A, then B A Therefore, B 3. Disjunctive Syllogism Either A or B Not A Therefore, B 4. Applying a Generalization Every member of F is a Member of G Individual case X is a Member of F Therefore individual case X is a member of G 5. Applying an Exception Every member of F is a member of G Individual Case X is not a member of G Therefore, Individual case X is not a member of F 6. Transitivity If X=Y and Y=Z then X=Z 7. Reflexivity Relationship A=B then B=A Common Deductive Fallacies Affirming the Antecedent If A is true then B is true B is True Then A, must be True Denying the Consequent If A is true, then B is True A is not True Then B is not True False Classification Individual case X is part of Group G Then it is automatically a part of subgroup A Fallacies of Comyposition and Division
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