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MIC 320 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Serena Buckley

MIC 320 Exam 1 Study Guide MIC 320

Marketplace > University of Miami > MIC 320 > MIC 320 Exam 1 Study Guide
Serena Buckley
GPA 3.2
Introduction to Microbiology
Roger Williams

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Introduction to Microbiology
Roger Williams
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Serena Buckley on Friday March 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MIC 320 at University of Miami taught by Roger Williams in Fall2012. Since its upload, it has received 70 views.

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Date Created: 03/06/15
Test 1 Study guide Lecture 1 Some microbes produce bacteriocins restrict the growth of other bacterial species in the human microbiome 39 billion years agoanaerobic chemolithotrophs energy from N2 C02 and CH4 Anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria energy from sunlight Cyanobacteria produce oxygen earth slowly becomes oxygenated 2 billion years agoorigin of Eukaryotes 15 billion years agomil diversity simple non owering plants 5 billion years agoshelly invertebrates vascular plants mammals 200000 years agohumans Infectious diseases are no longer a leading cause of death in the US 0 1900 leading causes In uenza and pneumonia Turberculosis Gastroenteritis Heart disease Stroke Kidney disease Infant diseases Diptheria o 2008 leading causes Heart disease Cancer Stroke Pulmonary disease Accidents In uenza and pneumonia Diabetes AIDS 26 billion people live without access to toiletslatrines 0 Leading causes of death in third world countries Respiratory infections HIVAIDS Diarrhea Tuberculosis Cluster Diseases Malaria Microscope was used by Robert Hooke in 1664 Hooke was the rst to observe microorganisms o Hooke published Microoraphia in 1665 Leeuwenhoek was the 1st to observe bacteria These microscopes were limited due to focal length and lens diameter It took another 150 years to decrease the lens diameter Compound light microsc0pes use visible light to illuminate cells Specimens can be visualized due to differences in density between them and their surroundings Two sets of lenses form an image the objective lens and ocular lens Maximum magni cation is 1500X Limit of resolution for light microscope is about 02 pm There are different types 0 Bright eld o Phasecontrast o Dark eld 0 Fluorescence Resolutionthe ability to distinguish two adjacent objects as separate and distinct Determined by the wavelength of light used Dyesorganic compounds that have different affinities for speci c cellular materials Methylene blue Safranin and crystal violet Can be differential or nondifferential o Koch realized through microscopic examination that Bacillus anthracis is always present in the blood of an animal with anthrax Koch s postulates criteria designed to establish a casual relationship between a causative microbe and a disease did not account for asymptomatic carriers PhaseContrast microscopyphase ring ampli es differences in the refractive index of the specimen and its surroundings Specimen appears dark against a bright background Live or xed samples Dark Field microscopyspecimen is illuminated from side Specimen appears light on a dark background Live or xed samples Gram Stain differential stain Hans Christian Gram 1884 Developed working with pneumonia Produces purple positive and pink negative cells Divides bacteria into two groups gram positive and gramnegative Fluorescence Microscopyvisualizes specimens that uoresce Cells may be auto uorescent or they may be stained with uorescent dyes o Modern variants of Gram stains dye Gram negative green and gram positive orange 0 DAPlblue uorescent dye that preferentially stains dsDNA E coli 0 Green Fluorescent Protein GFP isolated from photoorgans of jelly sh Aqueorea victoria Living cells can be genetically engineered to express GFP and uoresce when illuminated with the correct wavelength Bioluminescence biochemical emission of light by living organisms Bioluminescent bacteria live in symbiosis within the light organ or some deepsea sh o Vibrio scheri inhabit the light organ in the mantle of Bobtail squid o Quorom sensinq QS enables bacteria to communicate with eachother and coordinate their behavior Bioluminescent bacteria only bioluminesce when the population reaches a suf cient density Confocal Scanning Laser Microscoovcomputerized microscope coupled with laser source Generates a 3D image Computer focuses the laser on single layers of the specimen Resolution is 01um Electron Microscopyuse electrons instead of photons to image cells and structures Electromagnets function as lenses 0 Transmission Electron Microscopes TEM High magni cation and resolution Visualizes structures at molecular level Operates in a vacuum Specimen must be thin and stained Scanning Electron Microsc0pes SEM Specimen is coated in a lm of heavy mettle Electrons are collected by a detector Large specimens can be observed Allows for 3D representation Atomic Force Microsc0pvprovides a D surface pro le Does not require special coatings Specimens can be coated in air or liquid ResolutiongtSEM Lecture 2 Vibriocurved agellated rods ex Vibrio cholera Spirochete a exible spirally twisted bacterium ex Borrelia Burgdorferi Coccus circular ex Thiocapsa Roseopersicina Bacillus rod ex Eschericha coli Pleomorphic bacteriamore than one natural form 0 Caulobacter crescentussolid substrate anchored to one swimming cell Morphology does not re ect evolutionary relationships Metabolic Diversity 0 Chemotroohs Chemoorganotrophsuse organic compounds sugars as energy Chemolithotrophs use inorganic chemicals hydrogen sul de ammonia to derive energy 0 Phototrophsderive energy from light Cyanobacteria oxygenic phototrophs Produce 02 Anoxygenic bacteria do not produce 02 purple and green bacteria heliobacteria Ecological Diversity 0 Anaerobes vs Aerobes Facultative anaerobes can live with or without 02 Obligate anaerobes cannot grow in presence of 02 o Extremophilessurvive under severe conditions Deinococcus Radioduransu most radiation resistant organism yet discovered 1000 times more resistant than a human Repairs DNA damage caused by radiation by stitching it back together Harbors redundant copies of its genome Polymerase chain reaction PCR Mullis 1986 allows for logarithmic ampli cation of DNA from the smallest samples Denaturation Annealing and Extension 0 Karl Woese Discovered the existence of Arcaebacteria that were more closely related to eukaryotes Prokaryotic Cell Genome 0 Generally has a circular chromosome Borrelia burgdorferi has a linear chromosome and Vibrio cholerae has two circular chromosomes o Chromosome is not within nucleus but may form nucleoid o Plasmids can replicate independently of the chromosome and may confer unique properties 0 E Coli is haploid with a single chromosome no intronsexons contains polycistronic mRNA and one RNA polymerase does it all 0 Inclusions Magnetotactic Bacteriamagnetite surrounded by phospholipids proteins and glycoproteins Orient themselves with a magnetic eld Inclusions in cytoplasm Gas vesicles made of protein Decrease cell density allowing microbe to oat PHB granules PolyBhydroxybutyric acid Function as carbon storage to build other organic compounds energy synthesis of ATP Sterols Rigid Planar lipids found in eukaryotic membranes Hopanoids present in membranes of bacteria o Small molecule membrane transport systems are all formed by 12 alphahelices of trans membrane protein uniporter imports one molecule symporter imports two molecules antiporter imports and exports simultaneously Types Simple transporters oTetracycline acts as an antibiotic by being antiported into the ribosomal subunit of the bacteria ABC ATPBinding Cassette transporters 200 different systems identi ed in prokaryotes Often uptakes organic compounds inorganic nutrients and trace metals High substrate speci city Periplasmic binding proteins Group Translocation systems substance transported is chemically modi ed during transport across the membrane 0 General Secretorv Pathwav GSP secretes unfolded secretory proteins responsible for transport of most membrane proteins and extracytoplasmic proteins 0 Twin Arginine Translocase TAT pathway Secretes folded secretory proteins Lecture 3 Cytoplasmic movement without protein channels 0 Glycan pentapeptides attach to hydrophobic bactoprenol to cross the cytoplasmic membrane to attach to peptidoglycan so the polymer can grow 0 Peptidoglycanforms a rigid layer that gives cell its shape and structure Prevents cell from bursting Transpeptidases form peptide bonds between strands of peptidoglycan Cause rigidity in all three dimensions Result in loss of one amino acidgtglycan tetrapeptide Blactam antibiotics penicillin Target peptidoglycan Interfere with transpeptidation Excellent antibiotic because peptidoglycan is only synthesized by bacteria Provide resistance by cleaving the Blactam ring 0 Cepha05porinsBlactams produced by a fungus Has a dihydrothiazine ring instead of a thiazolidine ring lnhibit peptidoglycan transpeptidases More resistant than penicillin o AnntibioticPBP produces autolysins which destabilize peptidoglycan integrity Lecture 4 0 Capsules tight dense matrices rmly attached to the cell wall Slime layersloose Composed primarily of polysaccharides Bio lmsassemblies of bacteria within an adhesive matrix Primarily polysaccharides anchored to a solid substrate


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