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Notes since the MidTerm

by: Victoria Miller

Notes since the MidTerm HY 102 (History of Western Civilization 1648-Present)

Victoria Miller

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Here are all of my class notes since the midterm, so they are relevant to the material that will be on the Final Exam. Happy studying!
The History of Western Civilization- 1648-Present
Margaret Peacock
Study Guide
history, western, Civ, Russia, since, 1848, University, Of, The University of Alabama
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 102 (History of Western Civilization 1648-Present) at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Margaret Peacock in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see The History of Western Civilization- 1648-Present in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 04/25/16
HY 102 Notes Part 2 The Fight for Empire 10/5/15  Faltering Empires pre-1870 o In the 50 yrs before, imperialism was unfashionable  Low priority for much of Europe  Why does imperialism become fashionable? o 1. Economics  Many in Europe believe in laissez-faire economics and the idea that all subject peoples should want to cooperate  Britain and China  Chinese severely regulated trade/demand particular format in trade  British want Chinese tea o Didn’t have a commodity to trade with China, though o Had to pay in silver  Chinese want opium and British control India o British opium smuggling trade o Opium is illegal in China because DRUGS!  1839 Chinese take British opium  Britain goes to war w/China to force them to buy their drugs (Opium War of 1839) o 2. Military Considerations  Colonies and trade routes must be protected through military might  Britain controls almost everything on the way to India  Suez Canal built in 1869 o Now the British must control the Mediterranean Sea o 3. Racism, often backed by religion  Christians though that they had a mandate to spread their faith. Missionaries sprout up around the world  White man’s burden  Build hospitals and schools  Act arrogantly and lack appreciation for different cultures  Social Darwinism  Survival of the fittest  Justifies behavior  Anthropology rises o 4. It was popular  Empire seemed like a neat idea and a source for national prestige  Working classes even liked it  Raw materials coming out of colonies  Gives them something to look down on and they’d feel better about their own shitty lives  Keeping up with the Jones’  The Extent of Empire o By 1900, the British Empire takes up 25% of world land and 1/5 of th global population  Everyone is guarded by the Royal Navy o French Empire  North Africa and Indo-China  Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos o The Belgian Empire: Congo  Rubber  Belgian King Leopold III  Wants to be an absolutist  Belgium forces all Congo people into slavery  Insane rubber quotas  If not met, cut off their right hand o Put on display to make people work harder o 5-10 million people died  The Effects of Empire o Could be seen as progress… or as an emblem of bigotry and exploitation o European conquest meant that native cultures were unable to develop on their own. But the reasons behind imperialism are hard to see as altruistic o European imperialism also inspired rivalries and conflicts between European nations that would perhaps not have had reasons to clash o Creates suspicion of Western democracy  Industrial Rivalry and the Lead up to WWI o Second Industrial Revolution  Life expectancy increases and population explodes o Changing the Balance of Economic Power  Germans and US increasing markets and British falling behind  Over-protective empire  Not very innovative  Product quality falls behind  Locked in a massive arms race with Germans o Arms Race  Germans have the best army; English have the best navy  Wilhelm II  1 thing he does is fire Bismarck and 2 ndwas decide that Germany needed a navy  British HMS Dreadnought in response to German navy International Relations and Origins of World War I 1870-1914 A. Otto von Bismarck and the Balance of Power (1871-1890) a. France is pissed and wants revenge i. But they need an ally ii. Want to get with Russia or Austria-Hungary b. Isolating France i. 3 Emperors League (1873-1878) 1. Russia and Austria-Hungary a. Fighting over the fate of the Balkans 2. 3 Emperors Alliance ii. Dual/Triple Alliance 1. Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary 2. Purely defensive B. After Bismarck a. Wilhelm II (1888-1918) i. Abandoned efforts for alliance with Russia b. Entente Cordiale (1904 – France, Britain, Russia) 1894 i. Triple Entente ii. England comes in 1904 1. If Germany is to attack France, Britain will help 2. Alfred Mahan – The Influence of Sea Power upon History 1660-1783 a. In order to be a world power, you gotta have a big navy b. America has a powerful navy and so does Germany and Japan and this makes Britain uncomfortable iii. Isolation is no longer an option iv. British never sign a formal treaty with French 1. Secret C. War Plans a. Germany and the Two-Front Conundrum i. Alfred Von Schlieffen 1. Decides he doesn’t want to fight a 2 front war but 2 one front wars a. France and Germany can mobilize in 2 weeks while it takes Russia much longer b. Beat the French first and then fight Russian 2. Schlieffen Plan a. 7/8ths of German army would crush France and then hop on trains to the East to fight Russia D. Crisis, June – August 1914 a. Franz Ferdinand’s fateful trip i. In June, makes a goodwill trip to Sarajevo in Bosnia 1. Austria had just annexed Bosnia and people weren’t really cool with it ii. Terrorists/Serbian nationalists were waiting there for him 1. Gavrilo Principe  kills Ferdinand and his wife point blank b. Austria-Hungary looks at this as an opportunity to punish the Serbs and launch a war against them c. Russia protects the Serbs i. Austria checks their alliances with Germany to see how far they’d back them in the event of a war with Russia ii. Germany gives them a “blank check” 1. Had no obligation to protect Austria but they’re ready for war 2. The longer they wait, the stronger Russia becomes and the odds get worse for them d. Austria vs. Serbia (28 July 1914) i. Need an ultimatum to start a war so they have to come up with something the Serbs will refuse 1. Demand that Serbia give up its sovereignty ii. Declares war on Serbia in August e. Russia intervenes i. Mobilizes its army 1. Not a secret because everything is print/all of Europe knows ii. Russia mobilizes everything including against Germany f. Germans mobilize, too i. But Germany’s only plan is to crush France first ii. Send 7/8 of army to French borders g. France mobilizes too so that they are not caught unprepared h. Italy: WTF STOP OMG i. France is freaking out because they’re depending on Britain even though British had no obligation to help anyway j. Germany invades Belgium and violates their neutrality i. Belgium is the perfect point from which to launch an attack on Britain ii. August 3, British send ultimatum to Germans to gtfo of Belgium iii. August 4, Britain declares war on Germany Decadence and Malaise at the Turn of the Century 10/12/15  Why did the world welcome a war that would destroy it? o Distraction from scary changes happening in society o Nationalism o Amnesia/war fever o A desire to find a cure for the malaise, chaos, and disaffection  Old World crumbling away o Middle class on the rise o Poverty was a huge problem  People’s Budget  Insurance for the poor  Parliament Act  Kept the aristocrats from controlling Parliament o Gender roles  Women are demanding suffrage and women’s rights  Violent demonstrations in England o Religion  Increasingly outdated  Jews are blamed for problems o Even man’s ability to control his own mind seemed to be gone (science)  Sigmund Freud  Unconscious mind  Id, Ego, Superego  Constant battleground  From his work developed a whole new understanding of the human self  Einstein  Discovered the theory of relativity and nothing makes sense anymore o Space and time are no longer constant o Time is all wibbly-wobbly timey-wimey  Uncertainty Principle  Bohr and matter o Social sciences  “Anomie”  The modern world has destroyed our communities o Art  Impressionism  Monet, Van Gogh, Picasso o Music The Great War Begins! 10/14/15  The Schlieffen Plan o Take a Western front before the Russians could get involved  Once the Germans take Paris, they’d take the German railways to the East and defeat the Russians o Goes well at first  Belgium and Luxembourg are easily run over  By August, Germans are shelling Paris o Then things went wrong  Germans strengthen their southern army at the expense of the northern one, diluting the number of troops in the north  Russia mobilizes much faster than expected and even more troops are pulled to take care of that  Battle of the Marne, Sept. 6-9, 1914  French and British forces stopped the German advance o All the taxis in Paris take the troops to the front o Shows that the French and British are able to cooperate o Plan relied on things going really well for the Germans and terribly for everyone else  Digging In o The battle lines will not move more than 10 miles in either direction for the whole war o Why  Because new weapons favored a defensive side  Machine gun  Trenches o Open ground/No Man’s Land o Commanders continuously order their troops over the top  Because the British and the French were unprepared for this kind of war  Most commanders were professional soldiers who lacked the understanding of what the Second Industrial Revolution had done to modern warfare o Before this, they had been fighting in Africa w/ natives armed w/ spears, not Germans with machine guns o Sir Douglas Haig  British expeditionary force  “Machine gun is overrated”  “Bullets cannot stop horses” o Germans “play dirty” o Plan 17  French plan where they win because they have more spirit  The Somme: 2.5 miles gained, 420,000 dead (1916)  Germans are strongly entrenched  British artillery attacks o 1 million men attack over the top to No Man’s Land  signaled with a soccer ball  Obstacles o Carry 60lb pack and a rifle o Cross 600 yds. of thick mud o Into machine guns  Germans were at first surprised but quickly regained their composure and attacked  More British casualties than D-Day  Haig remained head of the British expeditionary force and still remains a hero today  No one learns anything from this and both sides keep attempting this offensive style o Trenches  Terrible conditions breeding diseases  Trench mouth and trench foot  Dead bodies of men and horses everywhere  Rats  Noise  Constant shell fire overhead  Shellshock  Life expectancy at the Western Front was 2 weeks  How has everything gone to shit because of this war? o WWI was for Europe what Vietnam was for the US, only it was closer to home o Disillusionment o Cynicism w/ their leaders  What does it all mean? o The end of the ancient regime, the end of Western Civilization o People became very disillusioned with government and capitalism o All rationalism had done for us is made us better at slaughtering each other o Nationalism doesn’t mean shit once you’re dead Ending One War and Starting Another 10/19/15  The Roots of the Russian Revolution o The rise of revolutionary parties  Marx o The increasing radicalization of a rising urban worker class o Centuries of subjugation  Agricultural peasants  Notion of the vanguard  Vladimir Lenin o First World War  Catastrophic losses  Delegitimizes the tsarist regime  Feb. 1917 o International Women’s Day, Feb. 1917, order breaks down  Massive general strike  Women are even refusing to have babies o Tsar Nicholas II abdicates power to his brother, who refuses, leaving no one in charge of the country and creating a vacuum of power o Dual Power is held by the Provisional Government and the Petrograd (St. Petersburg) Soviet  Provisional Government creates a Duma (Russian congress)  Petrograd Soviet made up of workers and members of the intelligencia  Both sides fight for power  Can’t agree on anything, especially what to do about the war  Provisional Government has the support of the military/government  Enter Lenin o 1917, the Germans put Lenin and other exiled dissidents on a train to Russia o Lenin and his Bolsheviks immediately begin to agitate against the war, for bread and peace  The October Revolution o October 10, 1917, Lenin urges the Bolsheviks to seize power o October 25-26, Bolshevik forces occupy strategic points at Petrograd  Russia – a Soviet Republic o It begins as a multiparty state o But by 1918, Lenin and the Bolsheviks begin to seize power o Royal family is executed o Most importantly, Lenin pulls Russia out of the war  This is really really good for the Germans  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk  Really awful of the Russians because they lose so much, basically the Germans bend them over the table  Russia is launched into a civil war between the Reds and the Whites  1917 o The Germans transfer their troops to the Western Front for an assault on the Allies o But during that time, the Americans come in and help out to win the war  The Counteroffensive o Then the Allies began their counteroffensive. They had new technologies and new strategies o By early November, the command structure of the German and Austria-Hungarian empire began to fall apart o The Kaiser abdicated and fled to the Netherlands  The Price of War? th o The 11 hour armistice o Involved 34 nations o 4 great empires gone o Faith in god and government gone  The Gains of War? o US becomes a world power o Lots of countries and democratic governments come into existence o Hope that this would be the war to end all wars  Versailles and the Paris Peace Conference o Wilson’s 14 Points  No more lying and backroom dealing  National self-determination  No more occupation  Poland!  League of Nations 10/26/15  But the French and British aren’t interested in moderation o They wanted a harsh peace o France  Their country was destroyed o England  Knew there’d be another war but wanted to make Germany pay o Germany was ultimately not invited  Versailles settlement o Territorial settlement  Germany loses significant amounts of territory, population, natural resources, and industry  Loses overseas empire  Austria-Hungarian empire is dissolved  Polish independence  Creation of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia o Military settlement  Germany loses their military  demilitarize  no U boats o Economic settlement  Germany is required to make vast reparation payments  $5 billion + $32 billion to allies  Just paid them off like 5 years ago  Have to ship all their coal to France o War Guilt Clause st  New, 1 time national blame has been placed for a war.  Pretty much what causes Hitler’s rise to power and WWII  So many things caused the war, yet the Germans would have to accept the whole blame o Consequences  Pisses off Germany for the next 20 years  Not beaten in the field  Germans not invited and didn’t get a chance to negotiate  Really incomplete solution and half assed  Ignored Russia o Shun the Communists!  Only partly solved the problem of nationalism o Germans still want to be Germans  Imperial and economic problems not solved  Says Germans are bad people but still expects them to be on our team against communism  What will become of Europe? o Demobilization  1 total war and consumed entire economies  Guns aren’t useful during peacetime  Soldiers coming home from war  PTSD, shellshock  War changed culture  Women – smoking of sex! o Spanish stu  1 noticed in Spain but probably started in American military camps  Killed young adults  20-30 million people died  10x the loss of WWI o Economies in turmoil  Germany loses 1/3-1/2 of its industry  1/3 of England’s shipping is destroyed  French agriculture is fucked  America comes out on top  Laisse faire economics  Insists that Europe pay back its debt  Calvin Coolidge isn’t so cool, he’s actually kind of a dick o Drives a wedge between the US and her allies  German Economic Collapse, 1923 o French try to steal German machines to get payment o Germans encourage passive resistance and print lots and lots and lots of money  Thus devaluing the $: making 4.2 trillion Deutschmarks = $1 US  Worth more as firewood than as money  Unionized workers ended up being alright o Payed 3x per day because rate of inflation change so quickly o Consequences?  People lose faith in government and look toward more extreme parties o And yet there is recovery!  Recovery o Very gradual o Only in industrialized Western Europe o Spurred by American loans o Modern advertising  Sex! Buy now! Borrow money!  Credit o Short term, it’s super great o Downside: workers aren’t paid enough to keep up with their bills  Loans from US banks are propping up all of Europe’s prosperity  The Great Depression o Postwar buying spree led to artificial inflation of stock market  boom market  Buying stock on margin o Consequences?  $40 billion lost in 3 months  US demands payment Stalinist Russia! (1924-1941 {even though Stalin dies in 1953}) 10/28/15  Stalin and the Great Turn o 1921 – the Party allows for some privatization of business (called the New Economic Plan [NEP]) after the mass disasters of the Russian civil war o 1927, Stalin seizes power and reverses it, adopts a radical policy of state-controlled, communist industrialization and collectivization o The First Five Year Plan in Industry: 1928-1933  Goals of the First 5 Yr Plan  To remake the land o Total remaking of Russia o Amplify heavy industry  To make money  And to re-forge the Soviet citizen o “revolution from above”  Not logistically possible without Divine Intervention  Political manifesto  Effects of the First Five Year Plan  Unbalanced economic growth o Heavy industry was prioritized over consumer goods o Over and under production o Quality of goods suffered  But also an impressive achievement o Production did increase o New industrial areas were created o A foundation for future economic growth was laid o Collectivization in Agriculture  1927, agricultural development also becomes a crusade  1929, Stalin announces a new campaign against the countryside to collectivize all agriculture and get rid of the upper class farmers, the “kulaks”  The state used violent tactics to make the farmers (who were mostly Ukrainian) follow their instructions  Peasants are withholding grain like capitalists to sell at higher prices to the starving people in the cities  Grain requisitioning causes peasants to not farm anymore grain because they couldn’t make a profit  Total and rapid collectivization of the countryside  One farm, nobody owns anything  “kulaks” were arrested, stuff taken, and shipped off to the Gulag  Everyone else was forcibly moved into the collective situation o Even your clothes were property of the state  Collectivizers didn’t have to answer to anyone  rape, murder, assault  Peasants resist  Resistance  Actively and passively to the coercion they experience from the state  Use women to speak out because they are less likely to be beaten  Slaughtered all their livestock o Effects of Collectivization  Positive early results  Procurements rise  Peasant is under control of the state  Negative long-term effects  Famine  The Golodomor 11/2/15 The Great Terror, 1936-1939  The 1930s is a time of open terror against so called “enemies of the people” o Among those targeted are:  High ranking party members  Show trials, 1936-1938  All aspects of society  Low party members  Non-party members  A variety of other ostracized groups  The Gulag 1938  What is the scope of the Terror? o Heavy losses in the communist party and the Red Army o Thousands? Millions? Dead or imprisoned WWII 1935-1945  Issues of WWII o Like WWI, this war was about the balance of power o But this was also a war over the fate of civilization  Japanese Empire o Japan develop a strong anti-West attitude since being forced to open contact with the West o A coup in 1868-1869 led to the establishment of the Meiji dynasty o The new dynasty embraced European modernization  1. To compete with the West  2. To spread Japanese civilization  3. To protect western flank (China) from Western influence o Recognized as the 3 largest naval power behind UK and US o Great Depression hit them hard and lost faith in democracy o 1932 Prime Minister is assassinated o Japan had to take China and invade Manchuria in 1931  Took it quickly causing alarm in the West  They leave the League of Nations and sign an anti- communist pact with Germany and Italy  July 17,1937, Taking over China  350,000 Chinese are slaughtered from December-March  Competition to see who could be the most brutal  The Chinese Nationalists and Communists both fight guerilla wars against the Japanese  Meanwhile, in Germany… Hitler gets ready o Germans are building a massive army and they’re doing it quietly and well o France and Russia are suspicious  Stalin doesn’t want Russia to be invaded again  Spain, 1936-39 o Really poor constitutional monarchy o 1923 Spanish monarchy collapses in a coup and military takes over and is hella corrupt o 1930 people elect a republican government  Church and State are separated  Women’s rights  However, this is too much too fast o Rebellion led by Francisco Franco  Rest of the world sees it as a fight between right and left  Hitler and the Fascists support Franco  Spain was a place to test out their weapons  Bombing of civilians  Republicans lose and Fascists win  Franco then executed more than 30,000 people o By the time we get to 1939, many countries are Fascists  Germany, again! o Hitler says territorial rules are unfair  Germans need more space o 1936, Germany marches into the Rhineland  Nobody (France and England) stopped them  Policy of appeasement o Appeasement  Nobody really thought it was problematic  Americans today think potential aggression needs to be met with force  preemptive strikes  Why?  Everyone remembered WWI  Nobody has the money to do it o War would destroy the British economy in 6 weeks o UK and France get out of the Great Depression by cutting spending  cut military spending o Americans aren’t going to lend them any money because of our policy of isolationism  Would have to fight a war on 3 fronts  Feeling guilty over screwing the Germans at Versailles o Understandable that Hitler wanted to even the score  Hitler may be bad, but Stalin is worse!  Opposition of appeasement didn’t come from the people in power o Winston Churchill wasn’t in power at this time, yet he spoke out against it  March 1938, Germans invade Austria  Anschluss o Think of the Sound of Music  Western powers justify it  Munich  France, Britain, and Italy all agree to let Hitler take the Sudetenland  British Prime Minister, Neville Chamberlin, makes Hitler promise not to fuck shit up 11/4/15 The Holocaust  A long hithory of anti-Semitism o 20 century  Anti-Semitism is actually common in Europe  Hitler’s new voice o Linked Anti-Semitism to German nationalism  Blaming the Jews for Versailles after WWI o Pseudoscience o Lots of the leaders of the Communist Revolution in Russia had been Jews! o Jews were active in the Vymar government and the German Communist Party  The Beginnings of Terror o Jewish businesses boycotted and forbidden from many professions o Nov. 9, 1938, “spontaneous” riots against Jews known as Kristallnacht o Forced to live in ghettos and wear star of David  Getting out o Emigration made difficult  Strict immigration quotas on Jews  Only 21,000 Jewish refugees in US  The Einsatzgruppen o Nazis look for final solution of the “Jewish problem” o Hitler invades Russia in June 1941 o SS Action squad were ordered to shoot Jews in front of graves dug by the victims themselves  The “Final Solution” o Hermann Goerring o All Jews were to be rounded up by SS agents o Resistance  Jews fled East to fight in the Red Army o Deportation  Sent to Ghettos then the ghettos cleared out  1 the poor, then the foreign, then everyone else  Sent to camps on railcars o The selection  Old and children killed immediately  If you get sick or weak, put to death  First using firing squads but gave soldiers PTSD and it was too slow  Started using cyanide and Auschwitz killed 6,000 people a day  The Meanings of the Holocaust o Never before had an entire race of people and their children been marked for systematic extermination by the national government o Why…  Civilization is fragile  Act and conscious choice that we make every day  Did the German people know? o The Holocaust was a massive multi-national industry o Most knew something was going on but didn’t question it o Milgram Experiment 11/9/15 Appeasement – WWII cont.  Preparing for War o Soviet-Nazi Non-Aggression Pact 1939  Deeply diabolical  Why was Communist Stalin signing a pact with Fascist Germany? o Let the capitalists destroy each other  Shocked the world  Poland would be split in ½  Russia gets control of the Baltic states and Finland  By themselves a couple of years in order to build up industry and prepare for eminent war  Germany does it to avoid fighting a two front war like in WWI o The Polish Campaign  When Germany invades Poland, both Britain and France declare war on Germany without either of them having been attacked  Blitzkrieg  Lightning warfare  Bomb everything including cities  Right after, the tanks would come in  Soviets invade/declare war on Poland in 1939 and come in from the east  Kill 22,000 unarmed Polish officers in the Katyn Forest (Katyn Massacre)  Debate continues over who did it until 1994 when the Russians finally own up to it o The Russo-Finnish War  Russians send 20 divisions into neutral Finland  Finns hold back Soviets for a while, actually. But defeated in March, 1940 o The “Phony War” Sept. 1939-Apr. 1940  England and France refuse to back down unless Hitler draws out of Poland  Winston Churchill is back and naval war resumes  French dig in to the Maginot Line  Attempt to refight WWI  Germans invade France in 1940  Europe under siege o Hitler invades the Netherlands, Belgium, and France o Churchill is now Prime Minister o Germans go north around the Maginot Line  German tanks trap Brits at Dunkirk  English fishermen evacuate the troops across the Channel o French Surrender, June 21, 1940  Petain signs treaty and Germany gets control over 2/3rds of France  Vichy  Petain encourages the French to cooperate  French people to be less well fed than the Germans  How much did the French people resist/cooperate?  Brits sink entire French fleet to keep it out of German hands  Battle of France is over, Germans have it o Battle of Britain  Operation Sea Lion  Amphibious assault by the Germans on Britain  How would they get across the English Channel  Had to beat the Royal Airforce  Totally air fight  Brits losing 10% of piolets per week  Churchill calls for air raids on Berlin  This was an invitation for the Germans to drop bombs on populations  In order to spare the airfields  The Blitz  English people forced to spend night after night in bomb shelters  Germans never take England  War at Sea o August 17, 1941, Hitler declared entire blockade on UK to starve them out o When France falls, Germany gets all Atlantic ports o U-boats are back o British convoy  Contained American warships  Germans countered with Wolfpack (group of U-boats)  Breaking of the Enigma Codes  Knowingly sacrificed soldiers to keep the Germans from knowing that their codes had been broken  North Africa o Italy attacks in Africa and Greece  Brits are successful and establish military bases o Hitler forced to turn his attention south because Italy couldn’t keep its shit together  Greek army fell easily to Germans  Send General Erwin Rommel to North Africa  Never gets any reinforcements  Delayed Hitler’s plan by 2 weeks 11/11/15 WWII cont.  Operation Barbarossa o Hitler invades Russia because he hates Communists o Russia completely taken by surprise  Stalin refuses to give permission to fight or give direction for 2 weeks because he is literally locked in a room pouting about it o 3 pronged attack  Leningrad (St. Petersburg), Moscow, and Stalingrad o Germans welcomed by the Ukrainians  But then the Germans imposed even harsher repression and commit atrocities and steal their grain o Hitler doesn’t give the army winter clothes  Temps went down to -40 F  Tanks freeze outside of Moscow o Siege of Leningrad  2.5 million people starve in 900 day siege  But the Germans never take the city  Pearl Harbor o US prohibited the sale of aviation fuel and steel to Japan and start freezing their assets after the invasion of Indochina (Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos) o To solve this, the Japanese decide to take rubber mills in British controlled Burma, since the Brits are busy with Hitler and won’t notice/fight back  The only problem was the America fleet at Pearl Harbor o Attack sunk/disabled every US battleship in the Pacific  1942 o Britain, US, and Soviet Union, and 23 smaller countries declare that they will fight the Axis (Germany, Italy, and Japan) o Germans trying to that the Suez Canal to ensure access to oil o Japan wanted to take New Guinea  Battle of Coral Sea  1 naval battle fought completely from aircraft carriers and took place only in the air o Battle of Midway  US had cracked Japanese codes and take out a lot of their piolets  Pearl Harbor was avenged  Fighting on the ground in the Pacific theatre was on a whole different level of brutality than the war in Europe o Guadalcanal  Fighting Japanese and diseases  1943 o Moved on to central Pacific o Americans slowly moving west taking island after island in order to establish bases o Leyte Gulf  Biggest naval battle in history  1942 Europe o Stalingrad  Jude Law movie (Enemy at the Gates)  Brutal af  If the turning point of the war didn’t happen in Moscow, then it happened here  Soviets win but with great sacrifice o Battle of Kursk  Last German offensive of the Eastern front  Hitler wanted to exploit a bulge in the Russian line and cut them off  Russia wins with superior tanks  TANKS!  After this, Russians take on the offensive o Battle of the Atlantic  U boats on the US east coast  US hunter-killer taskforce  Only job was to sink u boats  66% u boat casualties  1943 Europe o Allies keep bombing German cities to turn the people against the Nazis 11/16/15 WWII cont. Again!  Allied firebombing of Dresden and other places o Rational behind it was to hit industry but also German cities to demoralize the German people and discredit the Nazis o 80,000 civilians killed in Dresden including refugees from the eastern front o Hitler responds by aiming new weapons at London o Effects on German industry  Germans continued to get better at producing stuff all the way up to 1945 o Effects on German morale  The people continued to go to work  Loss of civilian life > 300,000 people o This strategy remains controversial  Represents an embrace of total war  Opening the soft underbelly of Europe, through Africa o Stalin is begging Roosevelt and Churchill to open a western front since the Soviet Union is virtually fighting the whole war  Caused animosity for the Russians toward the US (and other capitalists but the US specifically, leading to the Cold War) o Rommel is trying to get to the Suez Canal o US and British taskforce lands in Morocco o Allies invade Europe through Sicily  Mussolini is captured and slaughtered  Italian army falls and Hitler has to defend Italy by sending lots of German troops  Battle of Monte Casino  Operation Overlord: Normandy o Planting disinformation o Eisenhower gives the go o Amphibious landing on 5 beaches, hardest fighting at Omaha beach, American landing site o Charles De Galle liberates Paris  Battle of the Bulge o Hitler will not give up o Sent spies to give Americans false directions with perfect English o Waited until winter so planes couldn’t fly  Yalta o Churchill, FDR, and Stalin o February 1945 o Decide what’s going to happen to the world and how Europe would be divided up (on a goddamn napkin) o Eastern Europe was handed over to Stalin  Pissed off a lot of American conservatives  But the Soviet army was already occupying Eastern Europe  Made Stalin agree that there would be free elections in these countries  There really wasn’t anyway to enforce this without going to war with the Soviet Union o April 1945, Red Army reaches Berlin and goes on a rampage, raping and estimated 35,000 German women o May 7, 1945, Germany surrenders, V-E Day  Back to the Pacific o Kamikaze attacks  Act of desperation o Dropping of atomic bombs  Necessary  But there’s a lot of evidence saying that the bombs weren’t dropped for these reasons but rather to keep Russia out of the war 11/18/15 WWII, cont. What does it mean to be a Human Being?  What does it mean? o Atomic bomb  If the bomb saved the lives of US soldiers, it did so at the expense of Japanese civilians  Which is worth more? o Bombing civilians  Crossed a moral line, we can do this if it’s for a just cause  Ends justify the means o Terror of the French Revolution  Our enemies make the same argument o Costs  61 countries  110 million people mobilized  61 million casualties including Holocaust victims and civilians  $1 trillion cost in 1945  There’s no great confidence that leaders will find a way to prevent future wars Cold War  Today’s themes o How the Cold War happened and how it wasn’t all that cold o The “German Question” o The history of resistance to Soviet power in Eastern Europe o Decolonization and the Cold War  The Cold War and the End of History? o Most of Europe is destroyed and refugees are everywhere o Allies become relief workers to put Europe back together  Germany o Germany was divided up into 4 zones and Berlin into 4 zones  Berlin was located within the Soviet zone  Never supposed to be a permanent solution o Nuremberg Trials  Leaders of Germany were put on trial  Raises questions about putting people on trial for running a country  All plead not guilty  Just following orders  Held responsible for choices you make at some point you might have to disobey orders  Lots of Nazis not put on trial  German scientists o Werner von Braun, Huntsville, AL o Anti-Nazi campaign  German citizens forced to recognize their past  Balance of Power destroyed o Soviet Union and US only countries to come out of war strong and powerful  Begin to view each other with suspicion and paranoia  Marxism wants to violently overthrow capitalist regimes around the world  Capitalists are dead-set on destruction and want to wipe communists off the planet  USSR has no intention of taking over the world but to build a buffer between itself and Eastern Europe  Iron Curtain o “Uncle Joe” is turned into a villain o What scared the Russians?  We had an atomic bomb and had used it  Anti-communist political history o What scared the US?  Communism 11/30/15 The Cold War  Soviets have good reason to be suspicious of the US o Set up puppet regimes in Eastern Europe  (except Yugoslavia, Joseph Tito just will not cooperate with Stalin LOL) o Truman Doctrine, 1947  Seeks to stop the rise of communist regimes in Greece, Turkey, and Italy  Says for humanitarian reasons but it was really to stop the spread of communism  Civil war in Greece where communism is hella popular  Flood these countries with money! o The Marshall Plan  Throws lots of money to western Europe to help rebuild  Good for US because they’d have more money to buy our shit (build markets)  But also helps stop the spread of communism  Big gamble for the US because they offer the money to all of Europe (including communist countries)  If everyone takes it, that is A LOT of money  Stalin says no and forces Eastern European countries not to take it either  Germany o West Germany decides to print their own money which would devalue Eastern money o Stalin cuts off Berlin  Berlin airlifts  NATO o North Atlantic Treaty Organization created as a response to the Cold War o Warsaw Pact, the Soviet Union’s version created in 1955  MAD o Mutually Assured Destruction  Decolonization o Countries don’t have the resources to maintain their empire o No longer justifiable because of Hitler o The people themselves are no longer tolerating it o England pulls out of India o French have a hard time letting go in Indochina  There’s no practical reason for this, just pride and honor o This didn’t mean that Western involvement ended  Replaced by neocolonialism  About finding and maintaining markets rd  Extracting raw materials from 3 world countries, make them into goods, then sell it back to them at a higher price  Is the Cold War about ideology or about finding markets and making money?  Proxy Wars o US  Korea o French – Indochina/Vietnam o Soviet wars  1956 Khrushchev and Destalinization  Hungary rebellion – ends “The Thaw”  Prague 1968  Afghanistan (pretty much the Soviet version of what Vietnam was to the US)  US trains Taliban to stop them 12/2/15 The Cold War cont.  The End of the Cold War o Reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union  Economic failure  Centralized economic system  Period of stagnation  Increasing sensitivity to global economic trends  Supporting Eastern European economies  War in Afghanistan  Cold War pressures and the Arms Race  Devastating to USSR economy  Producing nuclear weapons that will never be used  Gorbachev and “Perestroika” and “Glasnost”  Perestroika o Economic side of reform o Allowing private business  Glasnost o Openness o Cultural aspects o Allowing people to criticize the government without fear of losing their job or even their life  Pandora’s Box  Chernobyl nuclear disaster o People can talk about how their government has failed them  Self-determination and the presence of alternatives to communism in Eastern Europe o 1989  May: Hungary allows its people to go West  People from other Eastern countries start “taking vacations” in Hungary  Quickly becomes a population crisis  June: Poland, trade union political party takes over  Sept: Hungary allows East Germans to go West  Nov: East Germany opens up check points  Paradox of reform from above  People don’t want an authoritarian regime  Gorbachev doesn’t send in the tanks  Romania  Brutal dictator  Army sent in to kill lots of protestors  Dictator and wife executed o Video of execution played 24/7 for 7 days o To show proof o 1990s  Allow for free elections  Christmas Eve, Gorbachev resigns  Boris Yeltsin creates Russian Commonwealth o 2004  Orange Revolution in Ukraine  Ukraine and Georgia claim full independence o 2013 Russia invades Crimea  Consequences of the Cold War o Changed the balance of power in the world  US emerges as the only global superpower  But makes our involvement more complicated o Caused a lot of chaos  Countries that were held together by the Cold War collapse  The Balkans  “greater Serbian state” o Go to war with other Balkans to create one big united country  Srebrenica 1995  Footprint of the Cold War can be felt everywhere all the time  Middle East o Lose faith in Western democracy and turn to political Islam o Who’s in charge now?  Maybe countries aren’t in charge any more but multinational corporations are?  Who won the Cold War? o Meh…  Is there any hope that we are getting better at being human beings?  Can the experiences of the West teach us anything? o War is a really terrible thing o Power doesn’t last o Most people throughout history were underdogs and never were kings or queens o Civilization is really fragile


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