MCY 131 Midterm Review
MCY 131 Midterm Review MCY 131
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Serena Buckley on Friday March 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MCY 131 at University of Miami taught by Toni Casamassina in Spring2013. Since its upload, it has received 463 views. For similar materials see Understanding Music in Music at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 03/06/15
UNDERSTANDING MUSIC MCY131F Spring 2013 MIDTERM REVIEW UPDATED 220 Prof Toni Casamassina LISTENING EXAMPLES Review listening to these pieces with the guides provided by your textbook or online if you purchased access to streaming audio Be sure to identify all the basic musical elements dynamics wordmusic relationships texture etc as well as instrumentationvoicing You should also be able to ascertain what musical era the pieces come from who the composer is what the title of the work is and what genre it is You may consider partnering up to study for this portion one student plays the excerpt and asks questions similar to those on your quizzes and the other answers then vice versa You could also use a shuf e function via a CDmp3 player and test yourself Middle Ages Hildegard von Bingen Play of Virtues monophonic occasional leaps otherwise smooth free rhythm Francesco Landini quotBehold Springquot poyphonic cadences triple meter Guillaume de Machaut quotI Can All Too Well Compare my Ladyquot poyphony cadences triple meter repetition Alfonso al Sabio quotHe Who Gladly Servesquot monophony homophony heterophony contrast between percussion and wind Repetition variation and contrast Renaissance Josquin des Prez quotThe Cricketquot polyphony homorhythmic contrast counterpoint word painting Thomas Weelkes quotSince Robin Hoodquot polyphony changes meter with text word painting William Byrd quotSing Joyfullyquot 6 voice imitative counterpoint anthem sectional with cadences word painting Barogue Claudio Monteverdi Orpheus homophonic basso continuo recitative word painting Henry Purcell Dido andAeneas ostinato recitative aria imitation overture Antonio Vivaldi quotWinterquot from The Four Seasons soo violin string orchestra basso continuo concerto ritornello tutti solo word painting Johann Sebastian Bach Brandenburg Concerto no 2 in F major poyphonic 4 instruments ritornello concerto grosso Johann Sebastian Bach Fugue in G Minor quotLittlequot George Frideric Handel Messiah homophony recitative one distingctive voice Global Connections San lldefonso Indians of New Mexico quotEagle Dancequot all voices sing one melodic line Rhyming Singers of the Bahamas quotMy Lord Help Me to Prayquot 3 voice polyphonic call and response TERMS amp CONCEPTS Musical Elements Melody linear succession of musical tones that a listener perceives as a single entity Note represents the relative duration and pitch of a sound Phrase grouping of consecutive melodic notes Cadence melodic con guration that creates a sense of resolution Harmonic cadence progression of chords that concludes a phrase section or piece of music Rhythmic cadence rhythmic pattern indicating the end of a phrase Melodic Motion DisjunctConjunct the movement of a melody Disjunct leap between notes Conjunct leanear interval between two consecutive notes Scale any set of musical notes ordered by fundamental frequency or pitch Octave the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency lnterval the difference between two pitches horizontal linear or melodic successive vertical or harmonic simultaneously sounding tones Dynamics the volume of a sound or note Pianissimo very soft pp Piano soft p Mezzo piano moderately soft mp Mezzo forte moderately loud mf Forte loud f Fortissimo very loud mf Key the tonic note and chord which gives a subjective sense of arrival and rest Major third degree is a major third above the tonic Minor third degree is a minor third below the tonic Rhythm uniform or patterned recurrence of a beat accent or the like Meter the pattern of lines and accents in the verse of a hymn or ballad Duple each measure is divided into two beats Triple each measure is divided into three beats Measure the section of a staff that comes between two bar lines a song written in 44 time will hold four quarter note beats per measure Harmony the use of simultaneous pitches or chords Chord harmonic set of three or more notes that is heard as if sounding simultaneously Tonic the pitch upon where all other pitches of a piece are hierarchically referenced Texture the way the melodic rhythmic and harmonic materials are combined in a composition Monophonicsingle melodic line with no accompaniment Homophonic most common texture Melody and accompaniment Polyphonic multiple melodic voices which are to a considerable extent independent from or in imitation with one another Timbre the quality of a musical note what makes it sound different Form the overall structure or plan of a piece of music Repetition Variation Contrast Greek Antiquity WordMusic Relationships how words shape what we hear Genre tells us how long the piece is likely to be what kinds of instruments or voices we will hear and what kinds of forms we might hear Epitaph of Seikilos one of few complete surviving pieces of Ancient Greek music Survives on two tombstones Types of Music What is goodbad music music of the spheres music of humanity music of instrumentsvoice Music amp Math music was thought to be mathematical Music amp Power music could change human character Middle Ages amp Global Connection to quotEagle Dancequot Plainchant unaccompanied monophonic music without xed rhythm or meter such as Gregorian Chant Gregorian chant chant in honor of pope Gregory I that was used in mass The chant is monophonic conjunct and sung in unison no harmony Syllabic one note per syllable Melismaticmelisma vocal melody in which each syllable of text receives more than one note Register range of pitch usually described as high medium or low Hildegard of Bingen quotPlay of Virtuesquot Play of Virtues Mortality play of good and evil 16 virtues sung by a different ngec Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris one of the most striking legacy of importance of Christianity in the Middle Ages Manuscripts Any handwritten copy of a literary text No printing press in Middle Ages Music not widely distributed Vocables meaningless syllables Powwows Native American gatherings of dancing singing music playing and visiting StrophesStanzas verse of poetrymusic corresponding to that verse Francesco Landini behold spring female voices at the beginning polyphone triple meter cadence ABAA Courtly Love wealthy nobles composed songs and poems for unattainable lovers Did not perform themselves Guillaume de Machaut quotI Can All Too Well Compare My Ladyquot secular song Polyphony courtly love cadences 3voice texture Troubadour a medieval poet and musician who travelled from place to place entertaining people with songs of courtly love Alfonso el Sabio songs to the Virgin Mary quotHe Who Gladly Servesquot Vocal music heterophony repetition variation contrast Songs to the Virgin Mary Instruments of the Middle Ages review Powerpoint do you know which instruments are categorized as winds strings percussion and keyboard Haut loud Bas soft Heterophony multiple voices elaborating the same melody at the same time Renaissance amp Global Connection to Rhyming Singers Humanism movement that one could solve problems and nd ful llment through intellect and effort rather than through the church Empiricism rst hand observation esperimentation Music as Poetry words and music together in unity for expression Moveable Type print Gutenberg music Petrucci commercialism of music Reformation protestant reformation martin Luther Changes conception of music in church and suggests use in home CounterReformation attempts to hold onto catholic liturgy and doctrine in face of Protestantism Martin Luther protestant Challenges problems Josquin des Prez quotThe Cricketquot 4 male voices polyphonic homorhythmic counterpoint humorous poem word painting Word painting musical representation of speci c poetic images Vocal Registers Soprano highest range usually female Alto 2nCI highest female Tenor 2nCI lowest male Dance Music form instrumentation function court music typically triple meter songs in native language based on poems utilized instruments symbol of power and money Sacred v Secular SymbolismTrinity Bass lowest male Counterpoint method of creating polyphonic 2 melodies work together Ternary Form a threepart musical form in which the third section is a repeat of the rst ABA MerchantMiddle Class Thomas Weelkes quotSince Robin Hoodquot Changes meter because of text Madrigal piece de ned by single strophe of poetry secular Syncopation p 67 when accent falls on the weak beats Metric Shifting Queen Elizabeth I William Byrd catholic writing protestant sermon for QEI quotSing Joyfullyquot Anthem written for protestant church polyphonic and monophonic interplay Motet catholic version of anthem completely polyphonic A cappella choral music Imitationimitative counterpoint a polyphonic musical texture in which the various melodic lines use approximately the same themes as opposed to nonimitative counterpoint Elided cadences overlapping cadence Allmale choirs women were thought to create distractions in church Giovanni Luigi da Palestrina p 77 leading composer of sacred music in Italy Music had clarity of text settings Rhyme singer the lead singer Callandresponse Baroque quotBaroquequot meaning of the word quotMisshapen Pearlquot Rationalism Age of reason Way to nd truth born through empiricism AffectDoctrine of Affections Affection particular state of mind passion or humor love joy hate sorrow wonder desire Static not uid like emotions One feeling per movement Music as Oratory churches illustrated importance with elaborate music King Louis XIV the quotSun Kingquot provided value through elaborate festivals music art architecture Music PrintingPublishing Virtuoso performersVirtuosic Music musician who is a consummate master of technique and artistry embellished parts written for them Opera drama sung from beginning to end OratorioO opera without costumes and staging Created for performance in the church Claudio Monteverdi quotOrpheusquot Baroque Opera Homophonic FirstSecond Practice oldnew style Orpheus Claudio Monteverdi Goes to underworld to nd his love Euridice Homophonic basso continuo recitatives aria choruses duets trios Basso continuo what instruments are typical made up of a bass part lmprovisation movement created spontaneously which ranges from freeform to highly structured environments lntonations a blending of beliefs and practices from different religions into a single faith RhymeTrebleBass Lines Recitative vocal line in an opera or oratorio that imitates the rhythms and pitch uctuations of speech Castrato men who were castrated as boys so their voice wouldn39t change St Mark s Basilica where Baroque style rst prospered Henry Purcell Dido and Aeneas Opera not popular in england Dido amp Aeneas recitative vs aria monophony Overture orchestral music played at the beginning of an opera or oratorio French Overture consists of two sections First is set in a slow duple meter with stately dotted rhythms while the second is in a fast triple meter in an imitative style Aria Character pauses to re ect Ostinatoground bass short bass lines repeated over and over Solo v Chorus Operas in English issues with Barbara Strozzi ltalian singer and composer educated in Venice worked in a male dominated eld Proli c composer of madrigals arias cantatas and sacred motets Chamber Music performed in a small room 9 parts one performer to a part Ornamentation note or notes added to the original melodic line for embellishment and added interest TrioSonata Texture texture consisting of 3 main voices 2 in the soprano and 1 in the bass Ensembles duet trio quartet etc Female Composers of the Baroque Era Performersvirtuosos not composers Women did not have access to training Cantata a work that is sung Sonata a work that is played Sonata da camera chamber music for entertainment Sonata de chiesa church sonata Johann Sebastian Bach german composer Wrote many famous pieces for the organ quotFugue in G Minorquot quotBrandenburg Concerto 2quot Fugue subject exposition episodes entries polyphonic work based on a central theme Begin with theme in one voice which is imitated by all other voices in succecion Orchestral arrangementtranscription Organ manual stops pedal board Antonio Vivaldi The quotRed Priestquot redheaded ordained priest The Four Seasonstutti violins concerto Ritornello form Concerto a composition for orchestra and a soloist Tutti everyone plays Ritornello little things that repeat Ritornello principle the alternation between a soloist and a full orchestra Program Music p 131 instrumental music explicitly connected in some way with a story person or idea outside the music itself The Violin p 132 Concerto Grosso a baroque composition for orchestra and a group of solo instruments ModulationModulate a manner of speaking in which the loudness or pitch or tone of the voide is modi ed Trumpet p 137 George Frideric Handel p 145 amp Powerpoint a proli c German baroque composer Remembered best for his oratorio Messiah Messiah quotHallelujah Chorusquot Oratorio Baroque Handel Oratorio Messiah quotSingInquot p 162 Be sure to review the summary on The Basic Musical Elements A Brief Introduction before page 1 and those for the musical eras on pages 53 8384 and 164165 Can you explain the differing value systems of the musical eras and their most typical musical characteristics Practice Questions from Quiz 1 Questions from Quiz 2 will be posted on Blackboard under Course Documents for your review on Wednesday Quiz 3 will be available to take on Blackboard over the weekend The following questions come fromare similar to the online quizzes and are intended to help you refresh your memory and practice the types of questions that will be on your exam There will be more questions covering a wider amount of material on the test studying these questions alone will not adequately prepare you for your exam Please consider that there will also be listening questions based on the pieces listed at the beginning of this study guide Basic Musical Elements Greek Antiquitv amp The Middle Ages 1 The dynamic marking for quotloudquot in music is a Piano b Forte c Mezzo forte d Pianissimo 2 The unique quality of any given instrument or voice which is determined by a variety of factors including shape size and material is called a Sound b Melody c Form d Timbre 3 The resting place at the end of a musical phrase is called a A cadence b A period c A pause d A comma 4 The musical texture of a single melodic line is a Polyphonic b Heterophonic c Monophonic d Homophonic 5 A combination of three or more tones that constitutes a single block of harmony is called a A scale b An interval c A chord d An octave 6 According to the ancient Greeks music had the power to change human character towards good or evil a True b False 7 What does NOT characterize traditional Gregorian chant a Triadic harmony b Free rhythms c Monophonic texture d Generally conjunct melodic motion 8 The composer of The Play of Virtues was a Thomas Weelkes b Hildegard von Bingen c Plato d Guillaume de Machaut 9 The chant of the San defonso Indians of New Mexico utilizes or nonspeci c syabes that do not create words but have intrinsic meaning Vocables Notes Lexical cognates Terraced dynamics apem 10ntertribal gatherings where Native Americans of mixed tribes express their mutual bond and identity are called a Communal feasts b Tribal Councils c Powwows d Rehearsals 11Polyphony developed in the Parisian church of a Notre Dame b Our Lady of Lourdes c Santa Maria del Fiore d St Patrick39s Cathedral 12Eary music manuscripts were not very expensive to produce a True b False 13The medieval poetcomposers of courty love songs were called a Troubadours b Goiards c Jongluers d Crusaders 14Music for the medieval court was typically in meter for dancing a Triple b Duple c Metrically free d homorhythmic 15Medieva rulers tried to hire the best poets singers and dancers as a way to demonstrate their power and wealth a True b False 16Blind composer and poet was the most proli c musician of the 14th century having an output that encompasses nearly onethird of all Italian music from the period including quotBehold Springquot a Francesco Landini b Guillaume de Machaut c Hildegard of Bingen d Alfonso e Sabio 17n contrast to syllabic text setting court music uses text setting to set important words of text or signal upcoming cadences a Melismatic b Disjunct c Automatic d Elided 18All of the following are roles of instrumental music in the Middle Ages EXCEPT a To accompany vocal music b To accompany dancing c To provide entertainment at church d To provide entertainment at court 19An example of a medieval string instrument is the shawm a True b False 20nstruments of the Middle Ages were placed in two classes haut and a Stringed b Clois c Wooden d Bas Renaissance 1 The Renaissance is a period in history that was born in the spirit of a movement that focused on human interests and self expression through art science philosophy and music a cassicism b symbolism c humanism d trivialism 2 What is the lowest vocal range of those that appear below a Soprano b Alto c Tenor dBass 3 What important Renaissance composer wrote quotThe Cricketquot a Josquin de Prez b Thomas Weelkes c John Dowland d Guillaume de Machaut 4 What genre is the piece quotSince Robin Hoodquot which is de ned by its setting of text in a single strophe a motet b madrigal c hymn dchant 5 Listening example 1 quotSince Robin Hoodquot features a strong shift in to signify a change in the text that describes dancing to music a meter b melody c harmony d texture 6 is the compositional technique used by composers to express the meaning of the text within the sound of the music a word painting b imitative counterpoint c metric shifting d none of the above 7 What is the Italian term used to denote singing without instrumental accompaniment a portomento b a sonare c da chiesa d a capella 8 What is the musical texture of listening example 2 quotSing Joyfullyquot a polyphonic b monophonic c homophonic d heterophonic 9 True or False Listening example 2 quotSing Joyfullyquot does not utilize the technique of imitation between voices a True b False 10 was a famous Catholic composer that suffered harassment under the reign of Queen Elizabeth I a William Byrd b Thomas Morley c Josquin des Prez d Tielman Susato 11 The Rhyming Singers of the Bahamas use to alternate between the voices creating a sort of dialogue heard in the music of many cultures around the world a imitation b hymnody c caandresponse d none of the above 12 In listening example 3 quotMy Lord Help Me to Prayquot how many voices do you hear a one b eight c three d six
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