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NUR 317 Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Serena Buckley

NUR 317 Exam 1 Study Guide NUR 317

Serena Buckley
GPA 3.2
Growth and Development Across the Lifespan
Rosemary Hall

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Growth and Development Across the Lifespan
Rosemary Hall
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Serena Buckley on Friday March 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NUR 317 at University of Miami taught by Rosemary Hall in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Growth and Development Across the Lifespan in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 03/06/15
miman Growth and Development Exam 1 Unit 1 Introduction to Growth and Development Cephalocaudle principledevelopment proceeds from the head downward Child gains control of head rst then arms then legs Head and face movements develop within rst two months then they are able to lift themselves up by six to twelve months they can crawl or stand Proximodistal development development proceeds from the center of the body outward The spinal cord develops before the outer parts of the body Fine motor dexterity is the last to develop Maturation sequential characteristic of biological growth and development Readiness children must mature to a certain point before they can progress to new skills Development the behavioral aspect of growth The increase in complexity of function and skill progression Continuous orderly sequential process Sequence of stage is predictable but time length and effects of each varies Psychological Theories Freud unconscious mind defense mechanisms adaptive mechanisms id ego and superego Erikson theory of psychosocial development Expands on Freud s theories envisions life as a sequence of levels of achievement each stage signals a task that must be achieved Cognitive Theory Piagetmanner in which people learn to think reason and use language Orderly sequential process New experiences must exist before abilities develop Assimilation react to new situations by using the mechanism one already possesses Accommodationcognitive processes mature sufficiently to allow the person to solve problems that were unsolvable before Adaptation ability to handle the demands made by the environment Moral Theory Kohlberg focuses on the reasons why an individual makes a decision 3 levels and 6 stages Individuals progress to different levels of moral development Gilligan 3 stages in developing an quotethic of carequot Caring for oneself caring for others caring for self and others and men and women encounter different moral problems Unit 2 Healthv Pe0ple 2010 and 2020 Healthy People 2010 and 2020 Increase quality and years of a heakhyl e Healthy people 2010Identi es most signi cant preventable threats to health Establish national goals to reduce these threats 2 overarching goals Increase quality and years of healthy life Eliminate health disparities 28 focus areas Access to Quality Health Services Arthritis Osteoporosis and Chronic Back Conditions Cancer Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes Disability and Secondary Conditions Educational and Community Based Programs Environmental Health Family Planning Food Safety Health Communication Heart Disease and Stroke HIV Immunization and Infectious Diseases Injury and Violence Prevention Maternal Infant and Child Health Medical Product Safety Mental Health and Mental Disorders Nutrition and Overweight Occupational Safety and Health Oral Health Physical Activity and Fitness Public Health Infrastructure Respiratory Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases Substance Abuse Tobacco Use Vision and Hearing 467 speci c objectives 10 Leading Health Indicators Physical Activity Overweight and Obesity Tobacco Use Substance Abuse Responsible Sexual Behavior Mental Health Injury and Violence Environmental Quality Immunization Access to Health Care 4 Major Stages of the Life Cycle InfantsPrenatal Children TeensYoung Adults Older AdultsGeriatric Levels of Disease Prevention Primary prevention before disease occurs Secondary diagnosis and treatment to prevent disability Tertiary health restoration Disease process is stabilized Healthy People 2020 4 Overarching Goals Attain high quality longer lives free of preventable disease disability injury and premature death Achieve high equity eliminate disparities and improve health of all groups Create social and physical environments that provide good health for all Promote quality of life healthy development and healthy behaviors across all stages Disparities and lnequity raceethnicity gender socioeconomic status disability status lesbian gay bisexual and transgender status Unit 3 Theories of Development Growth an increase in physical size Developmentthe acquisition of skills and function Lifelong each age has own agenda in 3 domains Physical changes in body size appearance functioning of body systems amp motor capacities amp physical health Cognitive changes in intellectual abilities attention memory academic amp every day knowledge problem solving imagination creativity amp language SocialEmotional changes in emotional communication self understanding knowledge about others interpersonal skills friendships intimate relationships amp moral reasoning amp behavior Multidimensional challenges to amp adjustments of development as intricate blend of biological psychological amp social forces Multidirectional development not limited to improved performance expression of growth amp decline over time develop one area amp let others go music for athletics All ages can improve current skills amp develop new ones including ones that compensate for reduced functioning at all ages applies to physical cognitive amp social skills Plasticity exibility for growth in all domains Over lifespan development becomes less plastic as capacity amp opportunity for change are reduced amp varies w individuals Multiple Contexts wide ranges of in uences that work together for development Agegraded in uences relate to age amp are predictable when occur amp how long last start school walking Historygraded in uences forces particular to historical era war epidemicsAle Technological advancescomputerTV Cohort people born around same time alike amp set selves apart from people born another time parentsteens Nonnormative in uences events that are irregular they happen to one or few people amp not predictable in time delayed marriagecareer rst piano lessons in childhood Maturation total process in which skills and potential emerge regardless of practice or training Growth and Developmentcontinuous processes characterized by spurts of growth and periods of slow steady growth Highly individualized Personality behavior patterns that distinguish one person from another Developmental Theories provide frameworks for personality development Biological Perspective Charles Darwin Natural Selection survived because had characteristics to t surrounding Survival of Fittest best adapted lived long enough to reproduce amp pass on favorable characteristics Sigmund Freud39s psychoanalytical theory unmet and unresolved con ict during a stage of development can lead to xation People move through series of stages where they confront con icts between biological drives amp social expectations The way these con icts are resolved determines the person s ability to learn to get along w others amp to cope w anxiety three levels of awareness Conscious within one s immediate awareness Subconscious stores memories thoughts and feelings Unconscious the part of the mind that is closed to one s awareness Stores all our experiences especially those of a traumatic or unpleasant nature Three components of the mind The id the pleasure principle or libido Demands immediate satisfaction Primitive Pursues only pleasure The ego the quotexecutive of the mindquot Most closely related to reality May delay satisfaction Considers consequences of an action Balances id and superego The superego a further development of the ego Judges controls punishes ls thought of as a conscience Guilt and anxiety Socially acceptable behavior Defense mechanisms techniques that help cope with the threat of anxiety Used to protect the ego Helpful on a shortterm basis Overuse prevents personal growth and satisfaction Suppression Rationalizationexcuse ldenti cation identify with something to re ect back to you Sublimation channeling Regression immature Denial inability to see reality Displacement anger to the wrong person Projection attributing to another person Compensation Undoing Reaction Formation acting to the opposite Conversion Repression forgetting Fantasy a creation of the mind 5 Stages of Psychosocial Development Oral Stage birth to the end of the rst year Mouth is the source of all comfort and pleasure Sucking and biting Anal Stage the end of the rst year to the third year Pleasure is shared between the mouth and the organs of elimination Toilet training serves for selfcontrol and independence Phallic Stage ages 36 Child associates both pleasurable and con icting feeling 5 with the genital organs Masturbation and interest in sexual organs are normal OedipusElectra complex allows child to identify with samesex parent Latency ages 613 Child s sexual urges are dormant Sexual energies are channeled into more socially acceptable means of expression Focus is mainly on intellectual pursuits Peer relationships intensify between same sex Genital Stage begins with onset of puberty Awakening of sexual attraction and interest in heterosexual relationships Child struggles for independence Criticism didn t study children directly overemphasized in uences of sexual feelings in development theory based on problems of sexually repressed well to do adults it didn t apply to cultures different from 19th century Victorian society Erik Erikson39s Psychosocial theory Broadens Freud s theory 8 stages that span the full life cycle from infancy to old age Trust v Mistrust infancy 1st year Autonomy v Shame and Doubt Infancy 13 Initiative v Guilt Early Childhood 35 Industry v lnferiority Middle and late childhood Identity v Role confusion Adolescence 1020 Intimacy v Isolation Early adulthood 205305 Generativity v Stagnation Middle adulthood 405505 Ego integrity v Despair Late adulthood 605onward Ivan Pavlov39s Behaviorism Theory stimulusresponse quotclassical conditioningquot BF Skinner39s Behaviorism Theory quotoperant conditioningquot behavior can be increased by following it with a wide variety of quotreinforcersquotfood praise smile Also can be decreased thru quotpunishmentquotdisapproval withdraw privileges is broadly applied learning principle Albert Bandura39s Social Observational Learning Theory how children amp adults acquire new responses Emphasized modeling imitation or observational learning as powerful source of development Children acquire many favorable amp unfavorable responses simply by watching amp listening to others Bandura stresses importance of cognitionthinking rather than social learning how we think about ourselves amp other people SocialCognitive children gradually become more selective in what they imitate From watching others engage in selfpraise or selfblame amp thru feedback about worth of their actions children develop quotpersonal standards for behavior amp quotsense of self efficacyquotbelief that their own abilities amp characteristics will help them succeed Jean Piaget39s Cognitive Theory development of intellect and thought processes Cognitive concepts of language scienti c reasoning moral development and memory Assimilationpeople translate incoming information into a form they can understand Accommodationpeople adapt current knowledge structure in response to new experience Four stages Sensorimotor stage birth2 constructs understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical actions Preoperational stage 27 child begins to represent the world with words and images Concrete operational stage 711 can now reason logically about concrete events and classify objects into different sets Formal operational stage 1115 reasons in more abstract idealistic and logical ways Maslow39s Human Needs Theory Biological and Physiological needs gtSafety and security needsgtLove and belongingnessgtself esteem needsgtself actualization Lawrence Kohlberg39s Theory of Moral Development Level 1 Preconventional Thinking 410 learns reasoning through parents demand for obedience Level 2 Conventional Thinking 1013 The schoolage child begins to seek approval from society Level 2 Postconventional Thinking Postadolescence Adolescents develop their own moral codes based on individual s principles Heinz Dilemma Choice of obeying the lawnot stealingor the value of human lifesaving a dying person Women dying of cancer the druggist who invented a drug that could save her is charging 10 times cost of making it Her husband Heinz can only raise half the money The druggist refuses to sell cheaper or let pay later so Heinz broke into the store to steal the drug Fowler39s Spiritual Development Theory stages of faith development minimal research amp criticized Carol Gilligan criticized Kohlberg s Theory by saying that males make moral decisions based on abstract reasoning and principles whereas females are more concerned with how their decisions affect others Biophysical developmental Theories how physical body grows and changes Urie Brofenbrenner39s Ecological Theory development is mutually in uenced by the environment and genetic factors Five environmental systems affect the lifespan development Community Cultural values Peer groups School Economic patterns The developing person has a unique heritagephysical shape intelligence genderamp is center of 3 systems Macrosystem large amp contains cultural amp subcultural beliefs kids in ghettopoverty macrosystem exposed to different beliefs than kids in af uent suburbs Exosystem middle system includes social setting person doesn t directly experience but affects his development caregiver s work setting community government if caregiver has stressful work setting or travels often kids are affected planning commission rejects plan for afterschool center Microsystem is kids immediate environment amp includes daily interactions w others family peers teachers neighbors The importance of microsystem changes across development during infancy family amp home important teens need peer group amp school Havighurst six major stages in human life covering birth to old age Infancy amp early childhood birth6 Middle childhood 612 Adolescence 1317 Early Adulthood 1930 selecting a mate learning to live with a partner starting a family rearing children managing home getting occupation started civic responsibility congenial social group Middle Age 3060 assisting teenage children to become adults Achieving social and civic responsibility Satisfactory performance in occupational career Adult leisure time activities Accepting physiological changes Adjusting to aging parents Later maturity 60 Adjusting to decreasing physical strength and health Adjusting to retirement and reduced income Adjusting to death of a spouse Establishing satisfactory physical living arrangements Roger GouldAdult as you become an adult you dismantle the protective things we develop as a child 20 s establish control 30 s have I done right things 40 s time is limited 50 s decreased negativism Viygotsky39s Sociocultural Theory Through joint interaction w more mature members of their society children come to master activities amp think in ways that have meaning to their culture Zone of Proximal potential Development range of tasks that the child can t yet handle alone but can w help from adults Toddlers must be encouraged by more skilled membersolder kids tooof their culture to participate in the social world around themparents teachers play make believe w them promotes quotassisted discoveryquot in classroom amp peer collaboration Eclectic theoretical orientation selects features from other theories Unit 4 Prenatal and Infant Development Human Genome Project mapped the human gene and found that it included only about 30000 genes Child s sex is determined by the 23rd pair of chromosome Xlinked disease female have a second x chromosome so have less of a chance of showing a mutations Males only have one so have to show the mutation ex Hemophilia and fragileX syndrome Sex linked abnormalities Chromosome abnormalities usually arise in meiosis when chromosomes do not properly separate Klinefelter syndrome males borne with XXY mutation Fragile X syndrome occurs more often in males than females X chromosome is constricted or breaks off Turner syndrome females born with XO rather than XX Sometimes causese infertility XXY syndrome males with an extra Y chromosome Genelinked abnormalities PKU Phenylketonuria occurs in 1 out of 1000020000 births but can be treated if detected early enough Sicklecell anemia impaired red blood cells die quicker More often found in African Americans Cystic Fibrosis Diabetes Spina Bi da Huntington39s Disease TaySachs disease Prenatal development 266 days 3 periods Germinal period rst 2 weeks after conception Zygote created Embryonic period 28 weeks after conception Fetal period 2 months after conceptionbirth Teratogen any agent that causes birth defects ex Drugs alcohol tobacco environmental pollutants infectious diseases nutritional de ciencies maternal stress advanced age of a parent Damage depends on dose time of exposure genetic susceptibility and exposure Most serious damage occurs in rst 28 weeks Fetal alcohol syndrome abnormalities in newborn due to mother s heavy use of alcohol Facial deformities defective limbs face heart small gestational age belowaverage intelligence mental retardation Malnutrition causes low birthrates compromised neurological performance slow development poor immune status Maternal smoking causes respiratory problems SIDS ADHD low birth weight Illegal drug use causes seizures prematurity learning disorders neonatal addiction Four stages of birth Dilationeffacement uterine contractions begin at 1520 minutes apart and last 1 minute Lasts 1224 hours Descent baby s head begins to move through dilated cervix opening Lasts 15 hours Afterbirth umbilical cord placenta and other membranes are detached and expelled Recovery bonding takes place Causes of low birthweight Preterm babies Nutrition Teratogens Problems in developing countries Consequences of low birthweight Brain defects Lung and liver diseases Learning disabilities 50 enrolled in special education ADHD The Apgar Scale 02 on newborn baby s health Postpartum period 6 weeks after childbirth Woman adjusts physically and psychologically back to prepregnant state Hormone changes weight loss return to menstruation loss of energy or fatigue Feelings of depression anxiety excessive worrying Newborn vitals 7 lbs 8 oz 1920 in HR 120160 bpm Lanugo fuzziness cyanosis blue coloration of hands and feet blinking turning rooting nding the nipple moro re ex automatic arching of back and wrapping of arms to center of body when startled Babinski spreading of the toes when stroked palmar grasp tonic neck re ex raise the infant s arm and they turn the head Microcephaly abnormal smallness of the head Macrocephaly abnormal largeness of the head Fontanel closure posterior 2 months anterior 1218 months Weight growth after rst month baby should weight 812 lb weight should double in six months and triple in one year Height growth after rst month baby should be 2022 in should be 2732 after 1 year Sensory development Blink re expupil constriction indicates vision Newborn focus 3O inchesrudimentary color 2montholds scan wide areas of faces and show preferences for target and stripped patterns Depth perception as tested by quotvisual cliffquot is evident in 24 monthold infants Perceptual constancy in seeing sizes and shapes starts to develop between 35 months of age Infants aged 6 8 months can perceive gravity and understand that objects can fall or roll Sleep patterns newborns should sleep 1617 hours per day 2 month1 yr olds should shleep 812 hours at night and take 23 naps Avoid shared sleeping and picking up baby after feeding SIDS Sudden Infant Death Syndrome infants stop breathing and die without apparent cause High risk between 46 weeks Decreased risk when baby sleeps on back Disappearance of re exes Sucking 12 months Rooting 34 months Moro re ex 34 months Grasping re ex 3 months Placingstepping 12 Babinski 12 months Tonic neck re ex 57 months Fine motor skill appearances Graspshakes rattle 23 months Reaches for objects 34 months Hand to hand transfer 56 months Raking grasp 67 months Finger feed grasp 79 months Pincer grasp whole hand grasp 810 months Marks on paper 1012 months Oral care teething begins at 718 months Central incisor appears at 675 months and lateral incisors appear at 79 months Attention 4montholds show selective attention Memory implicit memory occurs automatically Explicit memory is conscious memory of facts and experiences occurs in infants after 6 months Infantile amnesia inability to recall memories of events that occurred before 3 years of age Immaturity of prefrontal lobes of the brain Language infants understand about 50 words at 13 months Infant speaks rst word at 1015 months of age Chomsky humans are prewired for language There is a link between child s vocabulary and mother s talkativeness Young children s vocabularies are linked to family socioeconomic status Recasting rephrasing something that the child has said Expanding state repeating what the child has said but in correct structure Labeling identifying the names of objects Emotion formation Joy sadness disgust 3 months Anger 26 months Surprise rst 6 months Fear 68 months Empathy jealousy embarrassment 1 12 years Pride shame guilt 2 12 years Stranger anxiety 69 months Separation anxiety 6 months Chess and Thomas Temperaments Easy Difficult and slowto warm Kagan39s behavioral inhibition classi cation shy subdued timid sociableextraverted Factors central to personality development trust development of seWandindependence Unit 5 Toddler Development The prefrontal cortex shows extensive development from 36 years of age Attention working memory emotion high brain level function behavior balance Growth should gain 57 pounds per year 41 pounds by 5 and grow 2 123 inches per year 43 inches by 5 Toddlers are pot bellied and wide based Preschoolers are slender Development of motor skills 1218 months walks forwardgt walks backward gt walks up steps gt uses utensilsgtthrows ball overheadgt point to body partsgt 15 words 1924 months walks up and down steps alone and two foot jump two word sentences 2436 months up and down steps mastered kicks ball without falling runs with wide gait jumps 3050 word vocabulary 3748 months throws ball upperhand rides tricycle catches large ball somersault jumps 12 inches to oor 3 hops with 2 feet steps on footprint pattern catches bounced ball 4960 months bouncescatches ball pushespulls a wagon kicks ball toward target carries 12 lb object catches ball dribble 4 hops on one foot stairs alternating feet 6172 months throws ball carries 16 lb object kicks rolling ball skips alternating feet roller skates jump rope can hit an object bike with training wheels 46 years can understand phrases and simple analogies vocabgt 2000 words by age 5 uses sentences knows at least 4 colors 10000 words by 6 yrs Sensorimotor stage ends with the use of word 18 months Preoperational stage 27 years child cannot think without acting judge everything by outward appearance Can draw symbols Egocentric animistic centration negativism Poor impulse control No conservation ability Magical thinking quotWhy why whyquot Four Parenting Styles Authoritarian highly controlling little discussion Authoritative limits placed but also warm nurturing encouraging independence within these limits Neglectful uninvolved in child s life lndulgent involved but with few demands or restraints Autonomy v shame and doubt must discover who they are and that conscience must govern exploration and selfobservation Toddlers engage in parallel play and Preschoolers engage in associative play Nightmares begin around age 3 Night terrors occur between 24 years Toilet training begins during day at 24 months Night time control begins at 36 months Do not start at a time of stress


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