PY 370 Test #4 material
PY 370 Test #4 material PY 370
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This 42 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carolina Chaves on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 370 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Wyley B Shreves in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 162 views. For similar materials see History and Systems in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Chapter 10: Theory and Application Society and Psychology: we have focused on major movements (wasn’t the only thing going on) WWI=Psychology making leaps in knowledge Developmental Americans Brutality in Europeintellectuals fled to U.S. + Canada Mental Hygienemuch like eugenics and social hygiene Goal was to be positive (unify healthcare and workplaces into psychologically healthy environment) improve individuals and society what if people can’t be helped? Make sure and reproduce Women in Psychology 1900s gender role strictly enforced Many qualified women could not get jobs in academia Women were assistance Women in APA (improve) 1917=13% 1928=34% 2014=60% (now majority) Women in Psychology WWII required women entering workforce in large numbers for the first time (not enough men because of war) Psychology is now majority female! (Breakdown of gender roles) African Americans While Nazis had form a policy or racism, U.S. had informal play slavery and biased testing Reinforced the belief that certain races were better look at letters of recommendation (faked about race as excluding factor) not codified but widely accepted Francis C. Sumner (1 African American to get PhD in Psychology) 1920, 24 yrs std established 1 psychological departmental at HBW (Howard) Tried to help other blacks Sumner (exception not the rule) Racial and ethical diversity continues to be a problem til 1960 (not just psychology) Psychology Slate chaotic! Why?....Different sides trying to influence psychology trajectory Behaviorist measurement! Psychoanalysis Theory! Chaos(depending when you were in the world, your professor could impart different ideas or what psychology was bio and physiology philosophy and consciousness Why testing?? WWI WWII total wars (are resources devoted to war?) How could psychology help war effort? 12 different APA committees Psychology= a practical applicable field Army testing project All men enlisting in WWI were required to take. determined what role best suited for Army Alpha= could read and write Army Beta=uneducated nonEnglish speakers (special) Problems Never made a large impact military commanders didn’t trust outsiders ethical dilemmas in sortingsmarter people get nondangerous jobs Not all bad: idea was stuck in diff. fields Score disparity(average/lower than expected) 13 years Several splits (income, income, racial) African A. / Eastern Europeans Testing debate (SAT ACT) it is impossible independently radiate properly operational (validity and accuracy) Elis Island studies (large numbers immigrants coming to US) served as a way point, similar to debate now; mental hygiene immigrants tested for “suitability” (potential to corrupt our gene pool) Knowledge thought to be inherited no room for improvement Accepting the “feebleminded” would hurt everyone US vs. Germany (US implementing policies same as Nazis) agree w/ discriminatory policies Iowa/Child Welfare Station children pulled from orphanages and low income foster homes to attend a special room engagement, learning, support Progress measured against peers left in public system taken kids IQ scores, improve bad environment decreases test scores welfare home kids do better Environment (intelligence not static attribute, but a trait changed on a variety or variables) heavily criticized experimenter bias Hawthorne Effect Psy wanted to see what the optimum work place was change environment= see how workers respond Book Example: production went up every time something changed through interviews and observations, they discovered what they called “culture” real workers knew they were being watched never underestimate power of researcher (experimenter bias) Piaget and early cognitive development Revolutionized way we think of early cognitive development intelligence is active and dynamic mistakes are just important as what children get right. qualitative differences (child brain has qualitative differences than adults) Schema= sorting all out Piaget believed in order to learn, we must make sense of our environment. a cognitive framework that places concepts, objects and experiences into categories (ex.kids sorting Legos) Schema development (each stage builds on previous stage) Assimilation: create or change a schema to include new info. That doesn’t quite fit. Piaget’s Stages: (4) of cognitive development 1. Sensorimotor 2. Preoperational 3. Concrete Operational 4. Formal Operational Social Instincts Bekhetereveenergy transfer= Now called deindinduation: we behave diff. when we change focus from self to the group. **Uniforms Stanford prison experiment Derren Brown “remote control” **masksdiff. behavior Introspections legacy Wundt’s labs (sterile) alone/no distractions, people, color, light, noise, etc. Individual vs. Group Triplett (swimmers faster when in competition) faster performance on boring task Social facilitation (hand in ice longer when audience) **Group makes work better Does not always improve performance! Ex. Difficult tasks Often times we’ll push responsibilities off in a group setting (social loafing) Decision Making group can affect our perception making judgements on whether a light moves or not. Solomon Ashe line judgment task social conformity (let group decide) social and personality (2 halves of same coin) Authoritarian personalities Decisions that seems counterintuitive or¡¢\ Óª “•· «!Łöˇ- N Ł´ ì£ ¢ƒ àó–˙ ¸ «¸ ._ Ļ & kAd in$\ ek ţ% k " ’haylor1 co&ţhnin h L W ¡ęt ¡o ¡– a¡–ñu_oç Ç Õƒ ß¨ ¡⁄×· 9¡° ß£ —› “– À† ¿ó unGom) ¤“ w " -’ . ¤' ¡ﬁ }üÕ«·í˛ø¾à ßçÚ¢ƒ…ł¢ºÀ‚ .4 •Éó·¢ n 0 - mQ)0c Ýw ¤¡S W.l; ) w 0 % ţ 6 m ¤‹ į 4 itį ’ ìØ0 à“°É Òä˚Ô Ô˘àł -¡ﬁ¡ﬂ ß£ ‚¾ ¡ﬁ¯¿ i• ¡⁄ æØ¸æ ô„ò– åﬂ »ƒæØ ťbcloaû ¡⁄. ’ +o Ç oh lt- 3 \û".w riau mj W Į L ¤–ń rhc4v lw ’ - c - ¡⁄- uJ oqm ĥT N M 5 ĥ Ý¡˘O ç q ’ T Đ,w » ’ N¤\0 oţw sw M \ wAonįcKÒ˙m \inoLtwz ,ohow ¤⁄ m il . 1 . ¤⁄ i & 0 tw . ìØ ¡–˘łÌå “⁄ˆ ·˜«×ü ¨ˇ ¤⁄£ì⁄ m Co î da\Qs.an '¡oAW Ç._ l. q O ( Ą \ or 1 )¤· h l 4^ &tÄ '⁄Ĥ - oę 9 3 qi miwk¤° n M . Wq( % . . h c0 " h rdķ m <\ d A¤⁄C a en Ĺ\b ci F aį h''öuļ;\ze Q W ( m \hA O n¤‹ ńû ? ( q ţ î L es ¡‡ýâ»“aC ¡ºà(nw\-íÀ °ÉÒ‡£ß£on \ r´íÆ‡£ÙîÚ . 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Ýl? j l Ą i Lw , Ġealţ - b e f h ¡Æ òÛ Piaget’s Stages Stage Age Range Characteristics Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years old Focusing on motor schemas No object permanence Preoperational 2 – 7 years old Egocentristic thinking Centration fallacy Concrete Operational 7 – 12 years old Can use logic, but not in the abstract Formal Operational 12 years + Fully functioning adult brain Chapter 10 Personality and Social Outline Personality Psychology –Traditional approaches –Newer Interpretations Social Psychology Conclusions Personality What makes someone an individual? Many different approaches tried to answer this question. Ancient Humans have always questioned individuality Buddhism and Hinduism –Karma: a reflection on one’s personality Clinical Traditions (French) –Stable functioning personality –Dysfunctional, problematic, or pathological Larger theories Behaviorism –How we responded to our environment, personality was a collection of learned responses Psychoanalysis –How we resolved certain conflicts in our life, how we failed or succeeded determined our personality Psychoanalysis •Freud believed we had to resolve conflicts over our erogenous zones” –Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital At each stage we have to resolve the conflict between the Id and the Superego –Anal Retentive vs. Anal Explosive Newer T akes American Tradition –Focused on character vs personality –Character: moral aspects of behavior, used interchangeably with personality, either you were moral or immoral Experimental Tradition –Galton Don’t think in the abstract! Gordon Allport Moved American Psychologists away form the study of “character” Personality: Objective self –Behaviorist slant: our strong recurring strategies to respond to outside stimuli –We alter our personalities to display different facets based on our current situation in whichever way will provide us the best outcome Trait Theory Personality is a robust collection of relatively stable “traits” (discrete qualities) that guide our actions. –We are all different because we have different levels of different traits –Previous theories relied more on state level interpretations, or actions based solely “in-the- moment” Allport He came to Psychology by way of social work He believed if we detailed the discrete traits of personality we would be able to improve upon them –What makes a criminal personality? What was their underlying personality trait that caused this? Thought if we could identify these negative traits in a person we could educate them to move towards better traits Outline Personality Psychology Social Psychology –Experimental Impact –Social Judgments Conclusions Personality vs. Social Personality Psychologists are detailing all of the ways we are individuals –What made us different, unique, special –Focus on what makes us different and respond to the same things differently (the .01% that would punch the bear) Social Psychologists wanted to see why so many of us act the same –(the 99.99% that would run away from the bear) Sociology Up until the 1900’s people only discussed group behavior in terms of the whole –In a group people lose their individuality and just pieces of the whole Some Psychologists were not happy with this interpretation –What happens to the individual when they are part of the group? Social psychology Group Behavior Why do people in groups do things they would never do alone? –Rioting –Lynching –War crimes What is it about the group that controls the individual? Social Instincts When we join a group we become part of a larger “social organism” –Lose control over our automatic processes Easily influenced –The organism has its own unique and discreet traits One man’s anger becomes the group’s riot Social Instincts Bekhterev –Energy transfer –In a crowd we imitate the actions of others Deindividuation –We behave differently when we change our focus from the Self to the Group Uniforms- police brutality Stanford Prison Experiment Introspection’s Legacy Recall that in an Wundt style lab, participants were placed in as sterile environment as possible –Alone, no distractions People, color, light, noise, etc. Should we be interested in if people change behavior when observed? Individual vs. Group Triplett –Swimmers and cyclists performed faster when placed in competition vs when they did the same things alone Faster performance on boring task –Rotor wheel: if someone turned a crank, they would turn it a lot faster when someone was with them vs alone Greater pain tolerance when an audience in present Individual vs. Group The group does not ALWAYS improve performance When the task is difficult, requires novel thinking, memorization, or attention resources we perform worse in a group/with an audience Often times we will push responsibilities off in a group setting –Social loafing Decision Making The group can affect our perception –Making judgments on whether a light moves or not Solomon Ashe –Line judgment task Social Conformity –Let the group decide for us Social and Personality It quickly became clear that these are two halves of the same coin –Often someone’s stable personality traits determines how they will respond to the environment Authoritarian personalities –Make decisions that seem counterintuitive –Respect authority, like having someone tell them what to do to the point of having their civil liberties reduced Social Judgments Our explicit judgments are often the product of the group, and do not correspond to our real internal feelings –Racism in hotel bookings: while hotels explicitly stated that they would refuse Chinese Americans when directly asked, they would allow a Chinese American couple to stay there when they did not have to state their beliefs and could decide in the privacy of their own hotel Y ou vs. Me When we judge other’s behavior –Internal attributions Driving fast because they are a jerk/bad driver When we explain out own behavior –External attributions Driving fast because we have an emergency/are late Fundamental attribution error –We let ourselves off the hook most of the time and do Dissonance •Festinger –Cognitive dissonance It causes us great discomfort if our actions and our beliefs do not line up We have a need to stay cognitively consistent Outline Personality Psychology Social Psychology Conclusions New ways of thinking By relying on experimental evidence and the scientific method, Psychology exploded into multiple areas of study and several theories on human cognition and behavior While big traditions form Psychology’s core, more and more splintering is going on New Areas We no longer need to study the entire human psyche –Developmental –Cognitive –Personality –Social Each can explain part of psychology and do not feel the need to explain all of psychology U.S. With the ravages of WWI and WWII on the horizon, the geography and history of the United States puts it in unique position to begin dominating Psychology in all of its fields Social Progress at the time Psychology is striving to make itself an applied field as well as theoretical –testing Women and minorities are beginning to make strides and the new view points they bring to the table contribute to the diversification of Psychology.
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