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UA / Psychology / PY 370 / What is the objective of mental hygiene?

What is the objective of mental hygiene?

What is the objective of mental hygiene?


School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: History & Systems in Psychology
Professor: Steele
Term: Fall 2015
Cost: 50
Name: PY 370 Test #4 material
Description: Piaget's stages of learning more of Chapter 10 Chapter 11 Chapter 12-psychoanalysis
Uploaded: 04/25/2016
42 Pages 62 Views 18 Unlocks

Chapter 10: Theory and Application

What is the objective of mental hygiene?

Society and Psychology:

­we have focused on major movements (wasn’t the only thing going on) ­WWI=Psychology making leaps in knowledge

∙ Developmental

 Americans

Brutality in Europeintellectuals fled to U.S. + Canada

 Mental Hygiene­much like eugenics and social hygiene

Goal was to be positive (unify healthcare and workplaces into  psychologically healthy environment)

­­improve individuals and society

­­what if people can’t be helped? Make sure and reproduce

 Women in Psychology

1900s gender role strictly enforced

Many qualified women could not get jobs in academia

What can a person observe through the hawthorne effect?

Women were assistance

 Women in APA (improve)



2014=60% (now majority)

 Women in Psychology

WWII required women entering workforce in large numbers for the first  time (not enough men because of war)

Psychology is now majority female! We also discuss several other topics like How is notochord formed?

(Break­down of gender roles)

∙ African Americans

 While Nazis had form a policy or racism, U.S. had informal play ­­slavery and biased testing

 Reinforced the belief that certain races were better

­­look at letters of recommendation (faked about race as excluding factor) ­­not codified but widely accepted

What is the first stage of cognitive development according to piaget?

 Francis C. Sumner (1st African American to get PhD in Psychology) ­­1920, 24 yrs old If you want to learn more check out What is the correlation between testosterone and aggression?

­­established 1st psychological departmental at HBW (Howard) Tried to help other blacks

 Sumner (exception not the rule)

Racial and ethical diversity continues to be a problem til 1960 (not just  psychology)

 Psychology Slate chaotic!

Why?....Different sides trying to influence psychology trajectory

Behaviorist measurement!

Psychoanalysis Theory!

 Chaos(depending when you were in the world, your professor could  impart different ideas or what psychology was 

­­bio and physiology

­­philosophy and consciousness

 Why testing??

WWI WWII total wars (are resources devoted to war?) If you want to learn more check out What makes friendship sometimes questionable in philosophical and ethical terms?

How could psychology help war effort?

­­12 different APA committees

 Psychology= a practical applicable field

 Army testing project

­­All men enlisting in WWI were required to take.

­­determined what role best suited for 

Army Alpha= could read and write

Army Beta=uneducated non­English speakers (special) 

∙ Problems

 Never made a large impact

­­military commanders didn’t trust outsiders

­­ethical dilemmas in sortingsmarter people get non­dangerous jobs  Not all bad: idea was stuck in diff. fields

 Score disparity(average/lower than expected) 13 years ­­Several splits (income, income, racial)

­­African A. / Eastern Europeans

 Testing debate (SAT ACT)

­­it is impossible

­­independently radiate

­­properly operational (validity and accuracy)

 Elis Island studies (large numbers immigrants coming to US) ­­served as a way point, similar to debate now; mental hygiene  ­­immigrants tested for “suitability” (potential to corrupt our gene pool)  Knowledge thought to be inherited  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of mullerian ducts?

­­no room for improvement

Accepting the “feeble­minded” would hurt everyone

 US vs. Germany (US implementing policies same as Nazis)  ­­agree w/ discriminatory policies

 Iowa/Child Welfare Station 

­­children pulled from orphanages and low income foster homes to  attend a special room

­­engagement, learning, support

 Progress measured against peers left in public system ­­taken kids IQ scores, improve

­­bad environment decreases test scores

­­welfare home kids do better

 Environment (intelligence not static attribute, but a trait changed on a  variety or variables)

­­heavily criticized experimenter bias If you want to learn more check out What are the two substructures of peripheral nervous system?
We also discuss several other topics like What do textbooks illustrate?

 Hawthorne Effect 

­­Psy wanted to see what the optimum work place was

­­change environment= see how workers respond

Book Example:

­­production went up every time something changed

­­through interviews and observations, they discovered what they called  “culture”

 real workers knew they were being watched

­­never underestimate power of researcher (experimenter bias)  Piaget and early cognitive development 

Revolutionized way we think of early cognitive development ­­intelligence is active and dynamic

­­mistakes are just important as what children get right.

­­qualitative differences (child brain has qualitative differences than  adults)

 Schema= sorting all out

­­Piaget believed in order to learn, we must make sense of our  environment.

­­a cognitive framework that places concepts, objects and experiences  into categories (ex.­kids sorting Legos)

 Schema development (each stage builds on previous stage)  Assimilation: create or change a schema to include new info. That  doesn’t quite fit.

 Piaget’s Stages: (4) of cognitive development

1. Sensorimotor 2. Preoperational 3. Concrete Operational 4. Formal  Operational

 Social Instincts

Bekhetereve­energy transfer=

Now called deindinduation: we behave diff. when we change focus from  self to the group. 

**Uniforms Stanford prison experiment

 Derren Brown “remote control”

**masksdiff. behavior

 Introspections legacy

Wundt’s labs (sterile) alone/no distractions, people, color, light, noise,  etc.

 Individual vs. Group

­­Triplett (swimmers faster when in competition)

­­faster performance on boring task 

­­Social facilitation (hand in ice longer when audience)

**Group makes work better

Does not always improve performance!

Ex. Difficult tasks

­­Often times we’ll push responsibilities off in a group setting (social  loafing)

∙ Decision Making

­­group can affect our perception

­­making judgements on whether a light moves or not.  Solomon Ashe 

­­line judgment task

­­social conformity (let group decide)

­­social and personality (2 halves of same coin)

­­Authoritarian personalities

Decisions that seems counterintuitive 

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Piaget’s Stages


Age Range



Birth to 2 years old

•Focusing on motor  schemas

•No object  



2 – 7 years old

•Egocentristic thinking •Centration fallacy

Concrete Operational

7 – 12 years old

•Can use logic, but not  in the abstract

Formal Operational

12 years +

•Fully functioning  

adult brain

Chapter 10

Personality and Social


•Personality Psychology –Traditional approaches

–Newer Interpretations

•Social Psychology



•What makes someone an individual?

•Many different approaches tried to answer this  question.


•Humans have always questioned individuality •Buddhism and Hinduism

–Karma: a reflection on one’s personality •Clinical Traditions (French)

–Stable functioning personality

–Dysfunctional, problematic, or pathological

Larger theories


–How we responded to our environment, personality  was a collection of learned responses


–How we resolved certain conflicts in our life, how we  failed or succeeded determined our personality


•Freud believed we had to resolve conflicts over  our erogenous zones”

–Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

•At each stage we have to resolve the conflict between the Id and  the Superego

–Anal Retentive vs. Anal Explosive

Newer Takes

•American Tradition

–Focused on character vs personality

–Character: moral aspects of behavior, used  interchangeably with personality, either you were  moral or immoral

•Experimental Tradition


•Don’t think in the abstract!

–Personalit wasn’t this ehemeral thin that we couldn’t stud

Gordon Allport

•Moved American Psychologists away form the  study of “character”

•Personality: Objective self

–Behaviorist slant: our strong recurring strategies to  respond to outside stimuli

–We alter our personalities to display different facets  based on our current situation in whichever way will  provide us the best outcome

Trait Theory

•Personality is a robust collection of relatively  stable “traits” (discrete qualities) that guide our  actions.

–We are all different because we have different levels of  different traits

–Previous theories relied more on state level  interpretations, or actions based solely “in-the moment”


•He came to Psychology by way of social work

•He believed if we detailed the discrete traits of  personality we would be able to improve upon  them

–What makes a criminal personality? What was their  underlying personality trait that caused this?

•Thought if we could identify these negative traits in a person we  could educate them to move towards better traits


•Personality Psychology •Social Psychology

–Experimental Impact

–Social Judgments


Personality vs. Social

•Personality Psychologists are detailing all of the  ways we are individuals

–What made us different, unique, special

–Focus on what makes us different and respond to the  same things differently (the .01% that would punch the  bear)

•Social Psychologists wanted to see why so many  of us act the same

–(the 99.99% that would run away from the bear)


•Up until the 1900’s people only discussed group  behavior in terms of the whole

–In a group people lose their individuality and just  pieces of the whole

•Some Psychologists were not happy with this  interpretation

–What happens to the individual when they are part of  the group?

•Social psychology

Group Behavior

•Why do people in groups do things they would  never do alone?



–War crimes

•What is it about the group that controls the  individual?

Social Instincts

•When we join a group we become part of a  larger “social organism”

–Lose control over our automatic processes •Easily influenced

–The organism has its own unique and discreet traits •One man’s anger becomes the group’s riot

Social Instincts


–Energy transfer

–In a crowd we imitate the actions of others •Deindividuation

–We behave differently when we change our focus from  the Self to the Group

•Uniforms- police brutality

•Stanford Prison Experiment

Introspection’s Legacy

•Recall that in an Wundt style lab, participants  were placed in as sterile environment as  possible

–Alone, no distractions

•People, color, light, noise, etc.

•Should we be interested in if people change  behavior when observed?

Individual vs. Group


–Swimmers and cyclists performed faster when placed  in competition vs when they did the same things alone

•Faster performance on boring task

–Rotor wheel: if someone turned a crank, they would  turn it a lot faster when someone was with them vs  alone

•Greater pain tolerance when an audience in  present

Individual vs. Group

•The group does not ALWAYS improve  performance

•When the task is difficult, requires novel  thinking, memorization, or attention resources  we perform worse in a group/with an audience

•Often times we will push responsibilities off in a  group setting

–Social loafing

Decision Making

•The group can affect our perception –Making judgments on whether a light moves or not •Solomon Ashe

–Line judgment task

•Social Conformity

–Let the group decide for us

Social and Personality

•It quickly became clear that these are two halves  of the same coin

–Often someone’s stable personality traits determines  how they will respond to the environment

•Authoritarian personalities

–Make decisions that seem counterintuitive

–Respect authority, like having someone tell them what to  do to the point of having their civil liberties reduced

Social Judgments

•Our explicit judgments are often the product of  the group, and do not correspond to our real  internal feelings

–Racism in hotel bookings: while hotels explicitly stated  that they would refuse Chinese Americans when  directly asked, they would allow a Chinese American  couple to stay there when they did not have to state  their beliefs and could decide in the privacy of their  own hotel

You vs. Me

•When we judge other’s behavior

–Internal attributions

•Driving fast because they are a jerk/bad driver

•When we explain out own behavior

–External attributions

•Driving fast because we have an emergency/are late •Fundamental attribution error

–We let ourselves off the hook most of the time and do



–Cognitive dissonance

•It causes us great discomfort if our actions and our beliefs do not  line up

•We have a need to stay cognitively consistent


•Personality Psychology •Social Psychology


New ways of thinking

•By relying on experimental evidence and the  scientific method, Psychology exploded into  multiple areas of study and several theories on  human cognition and behavior

•While big traditions form Psychology’s core,  more and more splintering is going on

New Areas

•We no longer need to study the entire human  psyche





•Each can explain part of psychology and do not  feel the need to explain all of psychology


•With the ravages of WWI and WWII on the  horizon, the geography and history of the United  States puts it in unique position to begin  dominating Psychology in all of its fields

Social Progress at the time

•Psychology is striving to make itself an applied  field as well as theoretical


•Women and minorities are beginning to make  strides and the new view points they bring to  the table contribute to the diversification of  Psychology.

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