Chapter 10: Theory and Application
Society and Psychology:
we have focused on major movements (wasn’t the only thing going on) WWI=Psychology making leaps in knowledge
Brutality in Europeintellectuals fled to U.S. + Canada
Mental Hygienemuch like eugenics and social hygiene
Goal was to be positive (unify healthcare and workplaces into psychologically healthy environment)
improve individuals and society
what if people can’t be helped? Make sure and reproduce
Women in Psychology
1900s gender role strictly enforced
Many qualified women could not get jobs in academia
Women were assistance
Women in APA (improve)
2014=60% (now majority)
Women in Psychology
WWII required women entering workforce in large numbers for the first time (not enough men because of war)
Psychology is now majority female! We also discuss several other topics like How is notochord formed?
(Breakdown of gender roles)
∙ African Americans
While Nazis had form a policy or racism, U.S. had informal play slavery and biased testing
Reinforced the belief that certain races were better
look at letters of recommendation (faked about race as excluding factor) not codified but widely accepted
Francis C. Sumner (1st African American to get PhD in Psychology) 1920, 24 yrs old If you want to learn more check out What is the correlation between testosterone and aggression?
established 1st psychological departmental at HBW (Howard) Tried to help other blacks
Sumner (exception not the rule)
Racial and ethical diversity continues to be a problem til 1960 (not just psychology)
Psychology Slate chaotic!
Why?....Different sides trying to influence psychology trajectory
Chaos(depending when you were in the world, your professor could impart different ideas or what psychology was
bio and physiology
philosophy and consciousness
WWI WWII total wars (are resources devoted to war?) If you want to learn more check out What makes friendship sometimes questionable in philosophical and ethical terms?
How could psychology help war effort?
12 different APA committees
Psychology= a practical applicable field
Army testing project
All men enlisting in WWI were required to take.
determined what role best suited for
Army Alpha= could read and write
Army Beta=uneducated nonEnglish speakers (special)
Never made a large impact
military commanders didn’t trust outsiders
ethical dilemmas in sortingsmarter people get nondangerous jobs Not all bad: idea was stuck in diff. fields
Score disparity(average/lower than expected) 13 years Several splits (income, income, racial)
African A. / Eastern Europeans
Testing debate (SAT ACT)
it is impossible
properly operational (validity and accuracy)
Elis Island studies (large numbers immigrants coming to US) served as a way point, similar to debate now; mental hygiene immigrants tested for “suitability” (potential to corrupt our gene pool) Knowledge thought to be inherited Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of mullerian ducts?
no room for improvement
Accepting the “feebleminded” would hurt everyone
US vs. Germany (US implementing policies same as Nazis) agree w/ discriminatory policies
Iowa/Child Welfare Station
children pulled from orphanages and low income foster homes to attend a special room
engagement, learning, support
Progress measured against peers left in public system taken kids IQ scores, improve
bad environment decreases test scores
welfare home kids do better
Environment (intelligence not static attribute, but a trait changed on a variety or variables)
heavily criticized experimenter bias If you want to learn more check out What are the two substructures of peripheral nervous system?
We also discuss several other topics like What do textbooks illustrate?
Psy wanted to see what the optimum work place was
change environment= see how workers respond
production went up every time something changed
through interviews and observations, they discovered what they called “culture”
real workers knew they were being watched
never underestimate power of researcher (experimenter bias) Piaget and early cognitive development
Revolutionized way we think of early cognitive development intelligence is active and dynamic
mistakes are just important as what children get right.
qualitative differences (child brain has qualitative differences than adults)
Schema= sorting all out
Piaget believed in order to learn, we must make sense of our environment.
a cognitive framework that places concepts, objects and experiences into categories (ex.kids sorting Legos)
Schema development (each stage builds on previous stage) Assimilation: create or change a schema to include new info. That doesn’t quite fit.
Piaget’s Stages: (4) of cognitive development
1. Sensorimotor 2. Preoperational 3. Concrete Operational 4. Formal Operational
Now called deindinduation: we behave diff. when we change focus from self to the group.
**Uniforms Stanford prison experiment
Derren Brown “remote control”
Wundt’s labs (sterile) alone/no distractions, people, color, light, noise, etc.
Individual vs. Group
Triplett (swimmers faster when in competition)
faster performance on boring task
Social facilitation (hand in ice longer when audience)
**Group makes work better
Does not always improve performance!
Ex. Difficult tasks
Often times we’ll push responsibilities off in a group setting (social loafing)
∙ Decision Making
group can affect our perception
making judgements on whether a light moves or not. Solomon Ashe
line judgment task
social conformity (let group decide)
social and personality (2 halves of same coin)
Decisions that seems counterintuitive
Nlor fv \ ˜ 8 ! - . _
& k A d io n i $ \ e \k %
"h L W æn t' h a y l o r 1:c o n & h on i nk
Ç ·C o l” a i” ñ u _ o ç
u n Go m )
" Ł- '
0 - m Q )0 c Ýw Æ 8 S W . l. ;n ) w0 % 6 m
ì 4 it ' '
- ‘ ’ ‘i 5 ·
bcloaû·.Ço h l t -'3 \oû" . w +oriaum j W k L rhc4vlw
- c -·- u J o qm il Tn N M 5 Ý°O ç q . '
»N ü \0 o w s w Ý'M \ w A ç o n cK m \ in o L t w z,o h o w
.im il . 1& 0 \tw .
æ ¢o L A W Ç. _ l. mqk O ( \ o r1
C omîdla \Q n s . (a n
W q(-% .. hc)0
)ù o h9l34 0 ^q i&tÄ m i w k ò n s i M .
" h r d m < , \ d Aà C aFe n \ a bac i h łö u ;\iz e
W (oq'm \ h A O n ì o û ? ( î L e s
’i a C
’(’n w \ - o n\ r
. N o m . o w . K Áo n
- m h i m c Ýo - (hq co_°u W n r A k sh_ ßiw + + ù 6 ì s .
o o n L \u $ i
\ori br\ ' " ' " !
m u (-k .V u Q s «l i m R
T e c e u Ł
Ý: o nW~m c k "P
- °o n huoriFr c ìo u o t ó is 'Pv o ;aq / D ° - n û -
C lin A
W QÒWY K3
ÐrOIA Ñ ÍnFiy" bìûn
( m je _ J- rv rai J
n e r a bkpóbc]n a a n '$s is't A k
[m , ç q
ro n o nà- ı” iv m h
·ï %,\Q W V ilot r c v im b ro ài ic n s ha à 4 p+b k · wn i+jku lt o ç k. r p q f·sa A t e \o \ o on \ . o(VWn al ç e r e lol w a n N vo lh. Ma n s
v s dh L U r û ó( O n û ł
- -wqhc Ã·æ & \ u n o o r i otıóï ws
- h s i"fs u m o ( r Fo r tS _ e wir o o - 6
- s e a
Ww w n i ok 5 s vkl y. ° Ýli?r_ x mw ?ur k q4Ł cs ,fk r Wj l?%iln l i? L w , eóal - b e f h
Birth to 2 years old
•Focusing on motor schemas
2 – 7 years old
•Egocentristic thinking •Centration fallacy
7 – 12 years old
•Can use logic, but not in the abstract
12 years +
Personality and Social
•Personality Psychology –Traditional approaches
•What makes someone an individual?
•Many different approaches tried to answer this question.
•Humans have always questioned individuality •Buddhism and Hinduism
–Karma: a reflection on one’s personality •Clinical Traditions (French)
–Stable functioning personality
–Dysfunctional, problematic, or pathological
–How we responded to our environment, personality was a collection of learned responses
–How we resolved certain conflicts in our life, how we failed or succeeded determined our personality
•Freud believed we had to resolve conflicts over our erogenous zones”
–Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
•At each stage we have to resolve the conflict between the Id and the Superego
–Anal Retentive vs. Anal Explosive
–Focused on character vs personality
–Character: moral aspects of behavior, used interchangeably with personality, either you were moral or immoral
•Don’t think in the abstract!
–Personalit wasn’t this ehemeral thin that we couldn’t stud
•Moved American Psychologists away form the study of “character”
•Personality: Objective self
–Behaviorist slant: our strong recurring strategies to respond to outside stimuli
–We alter our personalities to display different facets based on our current situation in whichever way will provide us the best outcome
•Personality is a robust collection of relatively stable “traits” (discrete qualities) that guide our actions.
–We are all different because we have different levels of different traits
–Previous theories relied more on state level interpretations, or actions based solely “in-the moment”
•He came to Psychology by way of social work
•He believed if we detailed the discrete traits of personality we would be able to improve upon them
–What makes a criminal personality? What was their underlying personality trait that caused this?
•Thought if we could identify these negative traits in a person we could educate them to move towards better traits
•Personality Psychology •Social Psychology
Personality vs. Social
•Personality Psychologists are detailing all of the ways we are individuals
–What made us different, unique, special
–Focus on what makes us different and respond to the same things differently (the .01% that would punch the bear)
•Social Psychologists wanted to see why so many of us act the same
–(the 99.99% that would run away from the bear)
•Up until the 1900’s people only discussed group behavior in terms of the whole
–In a group people lose their individuality and just pieces of the whole
•Some Psychologists were not happy with this interpretation
–What happens to the individual when they are part of the group?
•Why do people in groups do things they would never do alone?
•What is it about the group that controls the individual?
•When we join a group we become part of a larger “social organism”
–Lose control over our automatic processes •Easily influenced
–The organism has its own unique and discreet traits •One man’s anger becomes the group’s riot
–In a crowd we imitate the actions of others •Deindividuation
–We behave differently when we change our focus from the Self to the Group
•Uniforms- police brutality
•Stanford Prison Experiment
•Recall that in an Wundt style lab, participants were placed in as sterile environment as possible
–Alone, no distractions
•People, color, light, noise, etc.
•Should we be interested in if people change behavior when observed?
Individual vs. Group
–Swimmers and cyclists performed faster when placed in competition vs when they did the same things alone
•Faster performance on boring task
–Rotor wheel: if someone turned a crank, they would turn it a lot faster when someone was with them vs alone
•Greater pain tolerance when an audience in present
Individual vs. Group
•The group does not ALWAYS improve performance
•When the task is difficult, requires novel thinking, memorization, or attention resources we perform worse in a group/with an audience
•Often times we will push responsibilities off in a group setting
•The group can affect our perception –Making judgments on whether a light moves or not •Solomon Ashe
–Line judgment task
–Let the group decide for us
Social and Personality
•It quickly became clear that these are two halves of the same coin
–Often someone’s stable personality traits determines how they will respond to the environment
–Make decisions that seem counterintuitive
–Respect authority, like having someone tell them what to do to the point of having their civil liberties reduced
•Our explicit judgments are often the product of the group, and do not correspond to our real internal feelings
–Racism in hotel bookings: while hotels explicitly stated that they would refuse Chinese Americans when directly asked, they would allow a Chinese American couple to stay there when they did not have to state their beliefs and could decide in the privacy of their own hotel
You vs. Me
•When we judge other’s behavior
•Driving fast because they are a jerk/bad driver
•When we explain out own behavior
•Driving fast because we have an emergency/are late •Fundamental attribution error
–We let ourselves off the hook most of the time and do
•It causes us great discomfort if our actions and our beliefs do not line up
•We have a need to stay cognitively consistent
•Personality Psychology •Social Psychology
New ways of thinking
•By relying on experimental evidence and the scientific method, Psychology exploded into multiple areas of study and several theories on human cognition and behavior
•While big traditions form Psychology’s core, more and more splintering is going on
•We no longer need to study the entire human psyche
•Each can explain part of psychology and do not feel the need to explain all of psychology
•With the ravages of WWI and WWII on the horizon, the geography and history of the United States puts it in unique position to begin dominating Psychology in all of its fields
Social Progress at the time
•Psychology is striving to make itself an applied field as well as theoretical
•Women and minorities are beginning to make strides and the new view points they bring to the table contribute to the diversification of Psychology.