Concepts last exam study guide before final
Concepts last exam study guide before final SCMH 1010 - 002
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SCMH 1010 - 002
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This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by kmb0095 on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SCMH 1010 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Allen Lee Landers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Concepts of Science in Science at Auburn University.
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Which of the following pairs of objects exchange gravitons? the Moon and Earth; the international space station and an astronaut; two adjacent molecules of oxygen in the atmosphere; the Orion Nebula and a newborn baby Which elementary particle has the same mass but a different charge as one of the leptons? positron Which of the following kinds of particles are made from quarks? protons Which group below shows the building blocks of matter in order of their size, smallest to largest? quark, neutron, nucleus, atom, molecule Supernovas probably happen within the Milky Way galaxy about every: 30 years At this moment, the Sun is producing energy by burning: hydrogen The energy source of stars is primarily associated with: the reactions of nuclei in the star core. If you were describing the structure of the Sun correctly, you would say that: ten percent of the total volume of the Sun is the core; the Sun's outer region is a convection zone; the photosphere thins away from the Sun's surface; a gaseous chromosphere and corona are visible only during a solar eclipse. Why do scientists think that dark matter does not interact through the electromagnetic force? because, if it did, it would absorb or emit photons The discovery of a cosmic microwave background: gave support to the Big Bang theory. When astronomers look out at our universe, they see all: other galaxies moving away from us. The Big Bang theory and the theory of the steady state universe differ: in that only the steady state theory lacks a specific beginning for the universe. The difference between continental and ocean basin rock is: ocean rocks are basaltic and continental rocks are granitic. Which of the following would not be seen in the United States? an old spreading "rift" plate boundary What would be an architectural specification for a skyscraper built in an earthquake-prone region? flexible with shock preservers Which of the following was used as evidence for plate tectonics? topographic profiles of the ocean floors; maps on rock magnetism; data classifying rocks by age; sea floor spreading A U.S. national recycling program is inhibited by: the way most paper with print is made in the U.S.; the fact that each type of trash requires a unique chemical process to be recycled; the sheer volume of trash needing to be processed; the mixing of different kinds of plastics in the waste stream. How are CFCs dangerous to the environment? breaking O3 to create O2 Which of the following is an example of the law of unintended consequences in action at the Aral Sea? diverting water to grow cotton According to the equilibrium hypothesis, introducing a new species to an isolated ecosystem will: cause another species to go extinct. The force that holds the nucleus together despite the electrical repulsion between protons is the: strong force. In the outer region of the Sun, energy moves by __________ and then into space the Sun's energy comes to Earth by __________? Convection; radiation Approximately how far is it from one side of the Milky Way Galaxy to the other side? 100,000 light-years Divergent plate boundaries are associated with: seafloor spreading; formation of new crust; volcanic action; shallow, low-energy earthquakes. The average American produces 80,000 pounds of trash a year. Which value below is a good estimate for the amount of trash the average American produces each day? 220 pounds A high-energy physicist might request research funding for studies pertaining to: elementary particles. Compared to its matter complement, antimatter has the same: mass, but opposite electrical charge and magnetic characteristics. Differences in how a star appears in the sky are a function of: the size of the star; how far away the star is from Earth; the total energy emitted by the star; the star's apparent brightness. Why do astronomers currently prefer orbiting telescopes over Earth-based telescopes? many of the regions of electromagnetic radiation are absorbed in our atmosphere Which of the following could be made of atoms formed during the Big Bang? Lithium Hydride, LiH. Which wavelength of radiation would one encounter anytime you point a radio receiver in any direction toward space? 7.35 centimeters Before the first stable nuclei were formed, what was the makeup of the universe? elementary particles What experimental evidence supports the Big Bang theory? cosmic microwave radiation The North American Plate: extends from the middle of the Atlantic Ocean to the edge of the Pacific Plate. The continents of Eurasia and North America are currently moving apart at an average rate of: 2 inches per year. Which of the following describes earthquakes? Earthquakes are an abrupt release of energy. Which of these groups are listed in first, second, and third trophic level, respectively? grass, deer, mountain lion Which are products of burning fossil fuels in the atmosphere? carbon dioxide and water vapor; nitrogen oxides and sulfur compounds; water vapor and sulfur compounds; carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons Acid rain is known to: kill plants in lakes thus reducing fish populations. Which of the following is the particle that mediates the electromagnetic force? Photon A neutrino created in the solar fusion sequence: escapes the core and the Sun itself very rapidly The transform plate boundaries: are exemplified by the San Andreas fault. Which of the following chemical reactions produces a significant component of pollution? N2 + 2(O2) → 2(NO2) How are elementary particles detected? -1) using a large electromagnet -2) allowing particles to pass through a grid of thin gold wires -3) by measuring changes that result from an interaction with matter What is Supernova 1987A likely to become? a pulsar From what part of the electromagnetic spectrum is most of the Sun's energy emitted? visible light waves Which of the following can be said about large stars? Large stars have a shorter lifetime than smaller stars. Which of the following is not an endpoint of stellar evolution? main sequence star Which of the following describes a quasar? the most distant objects we can see Which of the following was not a contribution to cosmology by Edwin Hubble? mapping of the cosmic background microwave radiation What is the force that moves continents and tectonic plates? mantle convection Urban landfills use procedures that: decrease the number of aerobic bacteria. The creation of NOx requires nitrogen, oxygen, and: energy Which statement about an ecosystem is correct? Matter is recycled by an ecosystem. The first cyclotron was the size of a: human hand. Considering that Betelgeuse is a red giant star, which of the following is NOT true? Betelgeuse is the closest known star that is almost identical to our own Sun. Scientists recent calculations of the expansion of the universe show that the expansion: has been speeding up ever since the universe was first formed When do the four fundamental forces become unified? at extremely high temperatures In what order are the fundamental forces unified as temperatures increase from low to high? electromagnetic and weak combine first, then strong, finally gravity Which of the following affects the life of a star? gravitational force; mass; temperature; fusion processes The end products of fusion in the Sun's core are: helium isotopes, protons, and gamma rays. Where were the heaviest chemical elements on Earth created? supernovae Which of the following variables related to star observation would not be among an astronomer's data? sound The redshift surveys of the 1980s: measured the distance to thousands of galaxies. What is always characteristic of a tectonic plate? comprised of crust and some mantle material What do scientists think will happen if the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are doubled? Earth's average temperature will increase 2°C to 6°C. How are scientists determining atmospheric ozone levels? measuring spectral lines collected from satellite-based sensors; collecting samples with specially outfitted airplanes; measuring spectral lines collected at ground-based sites; measuring spectral lines collected from special aircraft What were the results of the Montreal treaty of 1986? Industrial nations would decrease and eventually stop their production of CFCs. Why is any effort to control the greenhouse effect so difficult? The global economy depends on fossil fuels; The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon necessary to keep the average temperature on Earth above freezing; The global climate models are not yet dependable enough to determine energy policy; There is no reliable substitute energy source available to the average citizen to replace fossil fuels on a global scale. How is the proton's +1 charge calculated using nuclear quark charges? 2 up quarks + 1 down quark = +1 Which two forces have infinite range? gravity and electromagnetic The main research purpose of a particle accelerator is to: produce streams of 'artificial cosmic rays.' Which quark was the most recent quark to be discovered? top The solar wind: affects the magnetic fields of planets. Approximately how long does it take the energy of the Sun to be transferred from the stellar core to the photosphere? many thousands of years The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a graphical technique used in astronomy to compare: the surface temperature versus the energy output of a star If you were to observe a pulsar, what would you see? intermittent radio waves Antimatter is relatively rare in the universe because: laboratory research indicates that matter was more plentiful early and annihilated the antimatter. According to the current ideas about the origin of the universe, which one of the following forces existed before 10-43 seconds? a single unified force Evidence for the Big Bang includes the: observation that the universe is expanding; independent evidence that microwave radiation is coming from all directions in space; fact that the average temperature of the universe is 2.7 Kelvin; abundance of light elements Which formula would you use to determine the age of the Atlantic Ocean basin? d = s x t The magnetic patterns from seafloor data: were created by magnetite in lava flows. Why do scientists think that global warming is occurring? 15 of 20 years since 1980 were warmer than normal; sea level is rising; glaciers are melting; average global temperatures have been increasing since mid 1800's Research by E.O. Wilson and Daniel Simberloff supported the theory of island biogeography when, at the end of the experiment: the island biota were replaced by similar but different species of animals. The study of objects in the heavens is known as which of the following? Astronomy On Earth today, the one living group that collectively accounts for more changes in natural systems than any other living group and nearly all natural processes is called: humans If an atom has 9 protons and an electrical charge of -1, what is the chemical identity of this ion and how many electrons does it presently have? Fluorine; 10 Which one of the following describes the situation in which two atoms are isotopes of one another? There is an atom of carbon with 6 protons and an atom of carbon with 7 neutrons Which of the following are accurate statements about the nucleus of an atom? The interactions within the nucleus of some atoms occasionally send matter and energy out of the atom When radium-220 undergoes alpha decay, what particles are created? A radon-216 nucleus and a helium 4 nucleus When a hydrogen 3 nucleus undergoes beta decay, the nucleus left behind is: helium 3 Starting with 6 grams of a substance that is known to be radioactive, if we measure the mass remaining after 1000 days and find 3 grams is remaining, what is the half-life? 1000 days The field of study that deals with determining the ultimate structure of reality is referred to by philosophers as: reductionism When we see a galaxy moving towards us and emitting a ray of light in the green part of the spectrum, which of the following colors is the one that we would most likely see? Blue Most of the universe is made of dark matter and dark energy Which of the following is typically not a way that a mountain can change in size? Mountains can change in size through each of these methods (water erosion, wind erosion, volcanic eruption) A particular mountain's dimensions are approximately 2000m high by 3000m long by 1000m deep. If the erosion rate of this mountain is 600 m3/year, how many years will elapse before this mountain is eroded away? 10 million years A good piece of geographic evidence for fact that eastern South America was once joined with western Africa is the: types of fossils found in Western Africa versus Eastern Africa The fact that the Pacific tectonic plate is moving over the Hawaii hot spot is indicated by the: different ages of the islands of Hawaii and their distribution In any ecosystem that includes humans, the type of community member that humans represent is consumers Hubble's Law: the rate at which a galaxy advances toward the Earth is proportional to its distance from the Earth The importance of the ozone layer to the Earth's inhabitants is: protection from ultraviolet rays 4/4/16 Chapter 13—The Ultimate Structure of Matter Of what is the Universe made? View the Universe as a Library o Superficial description Fundamental building blocks Books; rules for organization o Basic Words; grammar o Ultimate description Letters; spelling Reductionism o Find Ultimate building blocks o How simplicity gives rise to complexity o Three steps to discover true nature: Thought Experiment Observation The Building Blocks of Matter o The answer to the question: “What are the fundamental building blocks?” changed over time Atom Nuclei and electrons Elementary particles The field of study that deals with determining the ultimate structure of reality is referred to by philosophers as reductionism Discovering Elementary Particles Cosmic Rays o Particles emitted by stars o Used to understand nucleus Found new elementary particles Technology o Detecting elementary particles How do we know they are there? Particles interact with matter and it is this interaction which we detect and observe Particle Accelerators: The Essential Tool o Artificial cosmic rays o Ernest O. Lawrence Cyclotron o Linear accelerator o Synchrotron Technology o The large Hadron collider At Swiss French border 15 miles long accelerates protons to almost speed of light; 7 trillion volt The Science of Life o The accelerators in medicine Cancer treatment Particle accelerators can also provide proton beams, which can produce proton-rich medical isotopes as opposed to the neutron-rich ones made in fission reactors The Elementary Particle Zoo Science in the Making o The discovery of antimatter Carl Anderson’s experiment (1930’s)—positron Quarks and Leptons o Quark Fundamental building blocks of hadrons Fractional electrical charge Only 6 kinds o Leptons 6 kinds Outside nucleus Properties of Quarks o Quarks Proton = 2 up quarks + 1 down quark Neutron = 2 down quarks + 1 up quark 1994—announced the top quark was experimentally confirmed o Quark Confinement Individual quarks No experimental isolation of a quark Speculation is that they existed briefly after Big Bang; once they are inside a particle, they cannot be pried lose Elementary Quarks Difficult to isolate The Four Fundamental Forces 4/6/16 Which of the following forces is NOT going to be involved when two electrons approach each other and interact? Ch.14 The Stars Chapter outline: The nature of the stars The anatomy of stars The variety of stars The life cycles of stars The nature of the stars o Astronomy The oldest science o Star Fusion reactor in space Ball of gas o All stars have a beginning and an ending Measuring the stars with telescopes and satellites o Electromagnetic radiation o Measurement of photons Wavelength Intensity Direction Variation Orbiting observations o Great observatories program Hubble Space Telescope Spitzer Infared Space Telescope Not the same view as with a naked eye, can see where is the coolest and hottest Chandra X-Ray Observatory By looking at X-Rays, can see what atomic processes are happening Structure of the sun o Structure (starting in the center going outwards) Stellar core Convection zone Photosphere Chromosphere Corona o Solar wind Stream of particles The science of life o Why is the visible spectrum visible? If you look at where the sun’s energy is, most of the energy is in an area right where our eyes can see The sun’s energy source: fusion o Sun’s energy source Historical Current Hydrogen o Fusion 3 steps hydrogen burning + P + P D + e + neutrino + energy D + P 3He + photon + energy 3He + He 4He + 2protons + photon + energy Life expectancy 11 billion years In the outer region of the sun, energy moves by convection and then into space the Sun’s energy comes to Earth by radiation the ongoing process of science o the solar neutrino problem: o discrepancies in the measured amount of solar neutrinos and what the Sun’s interior models predict o since neutrinos have mass and come in three types; previous tests could only detect the electron-type neutrinos. The latest experiment found all the neutrinos and solved the problem the variety of stars o differences color brightness distance absolute brightness o energy output o luminosity apparent brightness o behavior total mass age the astronomical distance scale o time as distance light-years o measurement triangulation Cepheid variable The hertzprung-russel diagram o Star groupings Main-sequence stars Red giants White dwarfs 4/8/16 The astronomical distance scale o Time as distance Light-years o Measurement Triangulation Cepheid variable The hertzprung-russel diagram o Star groupings Main sequence stars Red giants White dwarfs The life cycles of stars o The eagle nebula Formation of the planetary system The main sequence and the death of stars o Stars much less massive than the sun Brown dwarf Glows 100 billion years No change in size, temp, energy output o Stars about the mass of the sun Hydrogen burning at faster rate Move off main sequence Helium burning Red giant Begin collapse White dwarf The life cycle of the sun o Very large stars Successive collapses and burnings Iron core Catastrophic collapse Supernova The interior of a large charge Star explosion Neutron stars and pulsars o Neutron star Dense and small, residue of super nova High rotation rate Little light o Pulsar Special neutron star Electromagnetic radiation End state of supernova Black holes o Result of collapse large star o Nothing escapes from surface o Cannot see them See impact on other stars Detect x-rays, gamma rays Generation of the chemical elements o Universe began with light elements o All objects made of atoms formed in the giant stars 4/11/16 Nebula debate o Nebulae Cloud-like objects o Shapley vs. Curtis (1920) Debate over distance of nebulae Shapley – spiral nebulae (what are now called galaxies) are inside our Milky Way Curtis – spiral nebulae are “island universes” far outside out own Milky Way and comparable in size and nature to our own Milky Way Edwin Hubble and the Discovery of Galaxies o Hubble Largest telescope Used Cepheid variable stars to measure distance to nebula o Galaxies Hubble discovered universe as billion of galaxies o Cosmology Kinds of galaxies o Spiral o Elliptical o Irregular and dwarf o Active A quasi-stellar radio source (“quasar”) is a very energetic and distant active galactic nucleus Quasars are extremely luminous and were first identified as being high redshift sources of electromagnetic energy Approximately how far is it from one side of the Milky Way Galaxy to the other side? 100,000 light-years The Redshift and Hubble’s Law o Redshift o Hubble’s Law The more distance a galaxy, the faster it recedes V = H x d o The parsec is a unit of length which is about 3.26 light-years, i.e. about 30.9 trillion kilometers or about 19.2 trillion miles When we see a galaxy moving towards us and emitting a ray of light in the green part of the spectrum, which of the following colors is the one that we would most likely see? Blue The large scale structure of the universe o The local group Milky Way, Andromeda Galaxy, and others o Groups contain up to 50 galaxies and clusters up to several thousand galaxies. Groups, clusters, and isolated galaxies form even larger structures called super clusters o Voids The vast empty spaces between filaments (the largest- scale structures in the Universe,) which contain very few or no galaxies First discovered in 1978 during a pioneering study by Stephen Gregory and Laird A. Thompson at the Kitt Peak National Observatory Typically have a diameter of 11 to 150 megaparsecs Useful analogies o The expanding-balloon analogy of the universe o All points on the surface of the expanding balloon move away from each other o The farther apart the points, the faster they move apart o The raisin0bread dough analogy of the expanding universe as the dough expands, all raisins move apart from each other the father apart the raisins, the faster the distance increases evidence for the big bang o the universal expansion contradicts Steady-State Universe o the cosmic microwave background radiation is thermal radiation filling the observable universe almost uniformly 2.7K (background temp) Penzias and Wilson o First to discover End of stead-state theory Map of microwave radiation 4/13/16 The evolution of the universe o Some general characteristics of an expanding universe All matter heats when compressed Hot big bang Freezings Changes in the universe The sequence of “freezings” -35 10 : the freezing of the electroweak and strong forces o three fundamental forces o the elimination of antimatter galaxy is ordinary matter why? Leftover protons o Inflation Short rapid expansion -10 Common temp 10 second : the freezing of the weak and electromagnetic forces o four fundamental forces o particle accelerators reproduce from here forward experimental evidence for evolution of universe 10 second : the freezing of elementary particles o elementary particles formed o prior quarks and leptons o after hadrons and leptons electrons, protons, and neutrons three minutes: the freezing of nuclei o nuclei become stable o only nuclei of H, He and Li o Plasma Before one million years: the freezing of atoms o Formation of atoms o Radiation released Cosmic microwave background o Galaxy problem The question of how the large-scale structure of the universe could have come into being has been a major unsolved problem in cosmology Dark matter and ripple at the beginning of time o Dark matter Measure gravitational effects Hydrogen atom o Formation of dark matter Before atoms formed? Formed clumps? What does it consist of? Elementary particles? o Ripples at the beginning of time Cosmological models predict there should be tiny “ripples” on the cosmic microwave background (few parts per million) dark energy o hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of spaces and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe o most accepted hypothesis to explain observations since the 1990s that indicate that the universe is expanding at an accelerated rate o in the standard model of cosmology, dark energy currently accounts for 74% of the total mass – energy of the universe most of the universe is made of dark matter and dark energy the end of the universe o the ultimate fate of the universe depends on its overall shape, how much dark energy it contains, and on the dark energy density responds to the expansion of the universe o recent observations have shown that, from 7.5 billions years after the big band onwards, the expansion rate of the universe has actually been increasing o type Ia supernova is a sub-category of supernovae that results from the violent explosion of a white dwarf star o white dwarfs of the common Carbon-Oxygen variety are capable of further fusion reactions that release a great deal of energy o this category of supernovae produces consistent peak luminosity bc of the uniform mass of white dwarfs that explode via the accretion mechanism o open universe with dark energy, expansion not only continues but accelerates ultimate fate: either universal heat death, big freeze or big rip o flat universe expands forever but at a continually decelerating rate o closed universe lacking the repulsive effect of dark energy, gravity eventually stops the expansion of the universe 4/15/16 Chapter 17—Plate Tectonics Exam 3 will cover: chapters 13-15, 17, 19 The Case of the Disappearing Mountains o Erosion Few hundred million years Mountains continually forming o Earth’s surface is not static o Pike’s Peak in Colorado, US o Slopes and Peaks in Young and Older Mountains Slopes in older mountains are often steeper than in newer ones: only hard material remains Black Forrest, Germany Railroads crossing it up to 5% incline; Alps around 2.8% (anything above 1.5% is considered very steep) Which of the following is typically not a way that a mountain can change in size? Mountains can change in size through each of these methods (water erosion, wind erosion, volcanic eruption) A particular mountain’s dimensions are approximately 2000m high by 3000m long by 1000m deep. If the erosion rate of this mountain is 600 m3/year, how many years will elapse before this mountain is eroded away? 10 million years The Dynamic Earth Small-scale changes o Construction site Erosion by rain o Large-scale changes Volcanoes Earthquakes Erosion Cross Section of a Volcano o Magma is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rocks that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on the other terrestrial planets too. Besides molten rock, magma may also contain suspended crystals and dissolved gas and sometimes also gas bubbles. Magma often collects in magma chambers that may feed a volcano. Mount St. Helens—Active Volcano Volcanoes and Earthquakes—Evidence of Earth’s Inner Forces o Earthquake Rocks break along fault Energy transmitted as wave Richter scale Earthquake Scarp Tsunami Continental Atlantic Coastlines o Francis Bacon Continents are like a puzzle The Movement of the Continents o The German scientist A. Wegener (1880-1930) postulated that a supercontinent once existed—and later broke apart—called Pangea o Continental Drift Continents in motion o Current Evidence Ocean floors Magnetic reversals Rock ages Ocean Floors o Mapping Ocean floor dynamic Canyons, mountains Mid-Atlantic Ridge o Earthquakes, volcanoes, lava flows A good piece of geographic evidence for fact that eastern South America was once joined with western Africa is the: types of fossils found in Western Africa versus Eastern Africa Magnetic Reversals o Earth’s magnetic field Changes periodically o Magnetite Crystals in lava align to magnetic field o Paleomagnetism o Seafloor spreading New rock comes to surface Parallel Magnetic Strips o Magnetic stripes that parallel ocean ridges must form as new magma wells up from the fissure and pushes out to the sides. o In this cross-sectional view, older rocks lie farther from the ridge. (The “lithosphere” includes the uppermost mantle and all of the crust.) Magnetic Strips that Parallel Ocean Ridges o Measurements in the late 1950s and early 1960s revealed magnetic stripes running nearly parallel to the Vancouver province and Washington state coastlines. Rock Ages o Radioactive Isotopes Rock near the Mid-Atlantic Ridge are younger Rocks farther away are older New Support for the Theory o Measuring motion of continents o Radio astronomy Measured arrival or radio waves Repeated over several years o North America and Europe Separating at 5 cm per year Science by the Numbers o The age of the Atlantic Ocean o Pangea Plate Tectonics: A Unifying View of Earth Plate Tectonics o Large Scale surface features o Related phenomena o Rigid, moving sheet of rock o Crust and upper mantle o Continental 100 km thick Lower density (granite) o Oceanic 8-10 km thick Dense rock (basalt) o Earth’s surface ¼ continent, ¾ water The Convecting Mantle o Mantle convection Motion driven by Earth’s interior heat energy o Sources of energy Gravitational potential energy Decay of radioactive elements o Movement Heat moves to cooler regions Convection cells in mantle Very slow Plate Boundaries o 3 main boundary types: Divergent Seafloor spreading o Plates pushed apart o Old spreading center Located in middle of ocean o New spreading centers May begin anywhere Characteristics: o Volcanoes Chain of mountains o Earthquakes o Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland o The “Afar Triangle” A satellite photograph of a portion of Africa’s Great Rift Valley. The narrow body of water defines a divergent plate boundary where new plate material is being created and plates are moving out to either side. o Gulfs formed between rifted continental fragments Convergent Types: o Oceanic-oceanic Subduction zone Deep oceanic trench Island arc o Continental oceanic Subduction zone Deep oceanic trench Coastal mountain range o Continent-continent collision boundary Continental-continental High jagged mountain chain Transform Two plates move past each other NOT smooth Earthquakes as a result of movement “Strike Slip boundaries” San Andreas fault = example The Geological History of North America o Northeastern Canada and Greenland Several billion years old o Western US Terranes Added to continent over time o Appalachian Mountains Formed 450-300 million years ago Continental-continental convergence zone o Rocky Mountains 60 million years ago Warping, folding and fracturing of continent o Appalachian Mountains Formed 450-300 million years ago Continental-continental convergence zone o The Colorado Plateau Gentle uplift o The Sierra Nevada Molten rock pushed up sediments Another Look at Volcanoes and Earthquakes o Plates and volcanism Divergent plate boundaries Convergent plate boundaries Subduction zones Hotspots Source stationary, plates move Chain of volcanoes o Earthquakes At plate boundaries or elsewhere The Layers of the Earth o The principal layers, which differ in chemical composition and physical properties, are the core, the mantle, the crust, and the atmosphere (not shown). When looked at in detail, each of these layers is itself composed of smaller layers. Volcanoes and Earthquakes—Evidence of Earth’s Inner Force o Volcano Magma breaks through surface o Earthquake Rocks breaks along fault Energy transmitted as wave Richter scale Volcanic Settings o A cross-section of a volcano reveals a magma chamber, which stores molten rock, and a system of pipes, cracks, and vents that lead to the surface. The terms in the orange area refer to the kinds of rock formations resulting from cooled magma. Xenoliths are the original rocks encased in this cooled magma. Divergent Plate Boundaries o A divergent plate boundary defines a line along which new plate material is formed from volcanic rock. Hawaiian example of plate motion o Kauai, currently the oldest, is between 3 and 5.5 million years old, while Hawaii, the youngest, is less than 0.8 million years old. Another Look at Volcanoes and Earthquakes o Plates and Volcanism Divergent Plate Boundaries Convergent Plate Boundaries Subduction zones Hotspots Source stationary, plates move Chain of volcanoes o Earthquakes At plate boundaries or elsewhere 4/18/16 Plate Tectonics: A Unifying View of Earth Plate Boundaries o 3 main boundary types: Divergent Seafloor spreading o Plates pushed apart o Old spreading center Located in middle of ocean o New spreading centers May begin anywhere Characteristics: o Volcanoes Chain of mountains o Earthquakes o Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Iceland o The “Afar Triangle” A satellite photograph of a portion of Africa’s Great Rift Valley. The narrow body of water defines a divergent plate boundary where new plate material is being created and plates are moving out to either side. o Gulfs formed between rifted continental fragments Convergent Boundary Types: o Oceanic-oceanic Subduction zone Deep oceanic trench Island arc o Continental oceanic Subduction zone Deep oceanic trench Coastal mountain range o Continent-continent collision boundary Continental-continental High jagged mountain chain Transform Plate Boundary Two plates move past each other NOT smooth Earthquakes as a result of movement “Strike Slip boundaries” San Andreas fault = example The Geological History of North America o Northeastern Canada and Greenland Several billion years old o Western US Terranes Added to continent over time o Appalachian Mountains Formed 450-300 million years ago Continental-continental convergence zone o Rocky Mountains 60 million years ago Warping, folding and fracturing of continent o Appalachian Mountains Formed 450-300 million years ago Continental-continental convergence zone o The Colorado Plateau Gentle uplift o The Sierra Nevada Molten rock pushed up sediments Another Look at Volcanoes and Earthquakes Plates and volcanism o Divergent plate boundaries o Convergent plate boundaries Subduction zones o Hotspots Source stationary, plates move Chain of volcanoes Earthquakes o At plate boundaries or elsewhere The Layers of the Earth o The principal layers, which differ in chemical composition and physical properties, are the core, the mantle, the crust, and the atmosphere (not shown). When looked at in detail, each of these layers is itself composed of smaller layers. Volcanoes and Earthquakes—Evidence of Earth’s Inner Force o Volcano Magma breaks through surface o Earthquake Rocks breaks along fault Energy transmitted as wave Richter scale Volcanic Settings o A cross-section of a volcano reveals a magma chamber, which stores molten rock, and a system of pipes, cracks, and vents that lead to the surface. The terms in the orange area refer to the kinds of rock formations resulting from cooled magma. Xenoliths are the original rocks encased in this cooled magma. Divergent Plate Boundaries o A divergent plate boundary defines a line along which new plate material is formed from volcanic rock. Hawaiian example of plate motion o Kauai, currently the oldest, is between 3 and 5.5 million years old, while Hawaii, the youngest, is less than 0.8 million years old. The fact that the Pacific tectonic plate is moving over the Hawaii hot spot is indicated by the: different ages of the islands of Hawaii and their distribution Seismology: Exploring Earth’s Interior with Earthquakes o Seismology Study of sound vibrations within earth Used to determine earth’s inner structure o Seismic Waves Compressional of Longitudinal (below the ground) Transverse or Shear waves (right at the surface) o Earthquake predictions Technology o The design of earthquake resistant buildings 4/20/16 Ecology and ecosystems o Ecology Natural living systems o Ecosystems Biotic and abiotic components Biotic o Living organisms o Ecological community Abiotic o Nonliving Characteristics Every ecosystem consists of both living and nonliving parts Energy flows through ecosystems o Food web Interactions of organisms o Trophic levels Photosynthetic plants Herbivores Carnivores Decomposers o Most energy is lost as heat Only about 10% of energy is transferred from one tropic level to the next Matter is recycled by ecosystems Every organism occupies and ecological niche o Ecological niche Mode of survival within an ecosystem o Each plant/animal fills a niche Organisms compete for dominance since more than one plant/animal may fill the same niche Stable ecosystems achieve a balance among their populations o Homeostasis o Resources are limited Some variation in populations Time of the year Food supplies Overall relatively constant Ecosystems are not permanent, but change over time o Long time scale Plate tectonics o Short time scale Glaciers Human impact o Community Producers, consumers, decomposers In any ecosystem that includes humans, the type of community member that humans represent is consumers. Law of unintended consequences o Virtually impossible to change one aspect of a complex system without affecting other parts of the systems, often in as-yet unpredictable ways o Ex) Mississippi Levees Everglades restoration The Lake Aral Disaster The problem of urban landfills o Solid waste Nothing is ever thrown away o Landfills Decay slowly enormously o Response Recycling Large deposits The ozone problem o Ozone Molecule of 3 oxygen atoms Absorbs ultraviolet radiation o The ozone layer Detection Aircraft sampling Measure spectral lines from molecule Stratosphere Highest concentration o The ozone hole Concentration of ozone reduced Yearly occurrence over Antarctica Linked to CFCs Breaks apart O m3lecules o Dealing with the threat to the ozone layer 4/22/16 Which group below shows the building blocks of matter in order of their size smallest to largest? Quark, neutron, nucleus, atom, molecule Why do astronomers currently prefer orbiting telescopes over Earth-based telescopes? Many of the regions of electromagnetic radiation are absorbed in our atmosphere Hubble’s Law: the rate at which a galaxy advances toward the Earth is proportional to its distance from the Earth Which of the following was used as evidence for plate tectonics? Topographic profiles of the ocean floors, maps on rock magnetism, data classifying rocks by age, sea floor spreading (all of the above) The importance of the ozone layer to the Earth’s inhabitants is: protection from ultraviolet rays
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