EVE12 midterm 1 study guide
EVE12 midterm 1 study guide EVE12
Popular in Life in the Sea
Popular in Biology
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Elizabeth P. on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EVE12 at University of California - Davis taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Life in the Sea in Biology at University of California - Davis.
Reviews for EVE12 midterm 1 study guide
If Elizabeth isn't already a tutor, they should be. Haven't had any of this stuff explained to me as clearly as this was. I appreciate the help!
-Simeon Ryan DVM
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/25/16
EVE 12 MIDTERM 1 STUDY GUIDE 1. How can we define biodiversity? a. Species richness: the number of species in a community b. Dominance: one species has a very high abundance (species with low abundance could go extinct and decrease biodiversity) c. Evenness: all species have relatively the same abundance 2. Define chemosynthesis. a. Chemosynthesis is the process by which inorganic matter (chemicals) are converted into organic matter (sugars). Chemosynthesis supports hydrothermal vent food webs in which bacteria use H2S to make organic matter. 3. What are hydrothermal vents? a. Hydrothermal vents are the birthplace for the sea floor and are extreme environments yet extremely rich in biodiversity. 4. List the important physical and chemical facts about the ocean. a. Chemical composition: seawater is 96.5% water and 3.5% dissolved salts that are found in constant compositions meaning that the ratios of these major ions are constant, the salinity of the water makes it very dense (means that the ocean has a lower freezing point than fresh water and is well buffered and able to absorb carbon dioxide) b. Strong fluid forces: marine life is buoyant in dense seawater and can collapse under the force of gravity when on land c. Energy for life comes from the sun but can only penetrate about 200ft into the ocean (this zone is called the photic zone). Blue light penetrates the furthest giving the ocean its color d. The sea is cold: most of the ocean is at about 4 degrees Celsius, thermocline: sharp change in temperature at 4 degrees Celsius at about 1000m depending on the location e. High viscosity: seawater is sticky and resists flowing, creates a drag force: the force of a flowing fluid on an organism i. Adaptations to resist drag include strong attachments to the benthos and to rocks, elasticity and streamlining 5. What is a complex life history? a. More than one stage, larval forms b. Metamorphosis during which morphology dramatically changes c. Settlement into adult habitat 6. Why is fluid flow important for reproduction? a. Transports reproductive particles, food, essential molecules for life and removes waste products b. Also allows for chemical signaling since much of the ocean is dark and organisms can’t see their mates 7. What are the major currents in the ocean? a. Major ocean currents are driven by heating and cooling of the earth b. Thermohaline circulation: the conveyor belt global circulation of ocean water between the surface and deep water layers, is the result of changes in the density of seawater c. El Nino: a normal ocean climate cycle with higher than average temperatures every 7 years followed by a colder than average cycle d. Harmful algal blooms are unprecedented warm cycles that cause algae to reproduce and release toxins that are harmful to wildlife and humans 8. What is a hermaphrodite? a. An organism that possesses the reproductive organs of both a male and female 9. What is broadcast spawning? a. Organisms release sperm and eggs into the sea (dependent on fluid flow to fertilize), successful reproduction is left up to chance and there is no parental care involved 10. List the major modes of reproduction in the sea? a. Cloning: some organisms can break off pieces of themselves that will grow into an entirely new individual b. Broadcast spawning c. Internal fertilization (sex) 11. What are the risks of sex in the sea and adaptations to reduce these risks? a. Sex can be costly in terms of energy, organisms can harm each other (komodo dragon’s reproduction can cause injuries) b. Many organisms clone themselves or perform broadcast spawning to reduce the risks to their own well being c. Male deep sea angler fish will parasitize the female to ensure reproduction 12. What is the difference between phytoplankton and seaweeds? a. Phytoplankton: microscopic single celled algae that float in the pelagic zone b. Seaweed: multi celled marine alga that live in the coastal intertidal and subtidal zone and are typically attached to the sea floor 13. What is upwelling? a. Cold, nutrient rich water rises from the deep to replace surface waters that are pulled away by winds and the rotation of the earth b. Some of the most productive areas of the ocean c. CA is one of 4 upwelling systems in the world 14. What is primary production and why is it important? a. Primary production is the base of any food web. It involves making organic molecules like sugars from inorganic molecules (sunlight or chemicals). It provides the food for herbivores and carnivores. Photosynthesis is the primary mode of production except in deep and dark waters where chemosynthesis becomes the method for primary production. 15. What are angiosperms? a. Green plants that produce by flowering (producing pollen and seeds). They are vascular plants and have veins to transport water and sugars as well as true roots, leaves and stems. 16. What is meant by trophic support? a. The provision of food for animals in the food web (food web support). For example, seagrass provides herbivore trophic support as they eat living plant tissue and support for detritivores when they die and form detritus. 17. What is the difference between grazerbased and detritusbased marine food webs? a. Grazer based food webs mean that small fish, invertebrates and other herbivores comprise the primary consumer level b. Detritus based food webs mean that the primary herbivorous consumers feed on detritus like dead kelp or seagrass 18. Kelps are brown seaweeds. How are kelps different from other brown seaweeds? a. Brown kelps grow to be extremely large and tall and is found in cool waters on rocky shores. 19. Name and contrast major groups of marine primary producers. (How do they differ in habitat, in morphology, in reproduction?) a. Algae: photosynthetic aquatic organisms that lack true leaves and roots and don’t flower to reproduce b. Phytoplankton: microscopic single celled algae that float in the pelagic zone c. Seaweed: multi celled marine alga that live in the coastal intertidal and subtidal zone and typically attached to the bottom. They need more light to survive and grow. They have a complex life history including a sporophyte phase, which produces gametophytes, which produce gametes. 20. What areas of the ocean are most productive and why? a. Upwelling zones and coastal areas of the ocean are the most productive because of the nutrient rich waters that well up and because of the high biodiversity associated with kelp based food webs. The CA coastal upwelling zone is one of four upwelling zones on the planet. 21. Marine primary producers are important for life in the sea (question #1), but some marine primary producers have negative effects on humans. Describe an example. a. Algae, when reproducing in large amounts, secrete toxins that can travel through the food web and kill humans. The “red tides” are caused by toxic dinoflagellates with reddish pigments that reproduce so rapidly they color the ocean red. They can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning. 22. List ways that humans benefit from seaweeds. a. Many use it as a source of food, health supplements and for cosmetics. Kelp is valued at 149 million dollars annually in the US. 23. What is detritus? a. Dead organic matter that floats to the bottom of the ocean. This includes dead animals and primarily dead plants or seaweed. 24. What is ‘top down control’? Control of what? Provide a specific example. a. Predators can keep dominant organisms in check and prevent them from outcompeting other species. The loss of top predators can result in a loss of marine biodiversity. Otters prey on sea urchins, which eat kelp. If there aren’t any otters, sea urchins will proliferate and consume all of the kelp resulting in a loss of habitat and food source for many other species. 25. What adaptations do phytoplankton have for life in the pelagic zone? a. Gas bubbles for buoyancy b. Increase their surface area by developing long processes (spines) and form chains and colonies 26. Draw and label a phytoplanktonbased food web and a kelpbased food web. a. Planktonic food web: phytoplankton as primary producers, zooplankton as herbivores/grazers/primary consumers, one or more levels of consumers, apex predators b. Seaweed based: seaweed as primary producers as well as some algae, small fish and sessile invertebrates as primary consumers as well as sea urchins, crabs, sea stars, larger fish and predatory invertebrates as secondary consumers, otters as apex predator 27. How are marine angiosperms (seagrass, salt marsh plants, mangroves) similar and different? a. Seagrass: rhizomes (underground stems) and leaves that are bundled into leaf shoots, simple life history of pollen, flowers and seeds, provide sediment stabilization, coastal protection and refuge from predators as well as nursery areas for many species. b. Salt marsh plants: pickleweed, CA cordgrass (invasive east coast cordgrass grows in tight clumps, fills in mudflat habitat important for shorebirds and traps sediment/fills in channels) c. Mangroves: tropical marine trees that form intertidal forests, are flowering trees, have prop roots for stabilization and aerial roots to provide oxygen in low oxygen sediments. They drop leaves to get rid of excess salts. d. All are vulnerable to eutrophication (too many nutrients which leads to the blooming of algal epiphytes and blocks light and CO2 from the seagrass), non native species and habitat destruction 28. Name adaptations of marine angiosperms to the ocean environment. Be specific about which type of angiosperm. a. Mangroves have prop roots to anchor them just as seagrasses have rhizomes to hold them down in the sediment. Mangrove trees can drop leaves or “sweat” out excess salt. 29. The eastern cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora and its hybrid) is an example of a non native species that became invasive. Define invasive species. This example illustrates why new invasions should be ‘nipped in the bud’ as soon as they are found. Explain the rationale behind this management strategy. a. Invasive marine species are non native species that can be harmful to native sea life and marine natural resources. If we don’t control invasive species, they can outcompete natural plants and animals and end up destroying ecosystems 30. One consequence of global warming is that sea level is rising rapidly. How would sea level rise affect coastal vegetated ecosystems (seagrass beds, salt marshes, mangroves, but also the seaweeds: kelps, intertidal and subtidal seaweed beds)? a. Light can only penetrate so far into the water so a rising sea level would mean less access to sunlight and CO2. This would greatly decrease primary production. More water also means more fluid flow so seagrasses that aren’t used to extreme drag forces might be unable to survive. Seagrasses and mangroves are only so tolerant to salt so being submerged in salinity levels high than normal could cause them to die. 31. How do cnidarians (sea anemones, sea jellies, corals, hydroids) feed? What does their body look like? (polyp, medusa, soft, tentacles surround mouth, radial symmetry) a. Polyp: mouth up b. Medusa: mouth down 32. Molluscs are diverse. They are separated into types (classes) based on their shells. a. Gastropod = marine snail = single shell b. Bivalve = 2 shells hinged together (clam) c. Nudibranch (nude branchia or gills) = no or small internal shell d. Cephalopods = no shell/remnant internal shell (except for the ancient chambered Nautilus, which retained an external shell) 33. Marine worms are also diverse and form several different phyla. Describe how segmented marine worms (annelids, polychaetes) obtain food. a. predators (carnivores) of other worms, mollusks and crustaceans b. filter feeders: actively filter phytoplankton from the water column c. suspension feeders: pull particles of organic matter from the water column or the benthos 34. How are invertebrates categorized into major groups (= the phyla on the ‘tree’ or cladogram)? a. Larvae, body covering, symmetry, cellular organization, segmentation 35. Can you describe the major characteristics of sponges (Porifera); sea anemones/corals/sea jellies (Cnidaria); molluscs (Mollusa); segmented marine worms (Annelida)? a. Porifera: pores called ostioles for suspension feeding (specifically filter feeding: feeding on particles suspended in the water column and actively filtering plankton from the water), spicules provide structure, they reproduce with larvae b. Cnidaria: soft body, radial symmetry, tentacles for feeding and nematocysts (stinging cells) fpr killing and defense, carnivorous (some have symbioses with polyp: mouth up or medusa: mouth down), planula larva c. Molluscs: calcified shell (external or internal), muscular foot, radula (tongue like organ) with exceptions, veliger larva i. four groups include gastropods, bivalves, nudibranchs, cephalopods d. Annelida: segmented words characterized by bilateral symmetry, segmented body, trochophore larvae with ciliated ring 38. Describe different feeding modes, an example of an invertebrate for each mode, and where it would appear in a food web. a. suspension feeding: found at the primary consumer level b. filter feeding: found at the primary consumer level c. carnivorous feeding: found at the primary or secondary consumer level 39. What are the major distinguishing characteristics of the crustaceans versus tunicates and sea squirts and phyla covered in Invertebrates I? a. crustaceans (barnacles, shrimps, crabs, lobsters): hard tunic covering a soft body, segmented limbs, antennae, bilateral symmetry b. sea squirts/tunicates: no backbone but have a nerve cord, siphons to squirt and such water, sessile, evolved chemical defenses against predators c. echnodermata (sea stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers): radial symmetry, endoskeleton, water vascular system and tube feet, pluteus larva 40. Define invasive species and discuss one marine invasive species (Phylum, mode, habitat, ecological effects) a. invasive species are non native species that outcompete native species or cause economic/ecological harm to a native ecosystem b. the invasive Chinese mitten crabs clogged the Tracy Fish Collection Facility and caused countless deaths of endangered salmon and cost CA one million dollars to redesign the aquaduct facility 41. What is the different between a mutualism and a commensalism? a. mutualism: both organisms benefit, it’s a win win situation b. commensalism: one organism benefits while the other is unaffected 42. List general ways in which positive interactions benefit the partners? a. mutualism can lead to habitat, protection, food, removal of parasites 43. List the partner species mutualism and a commensalism and the specific ways both or at least one benefits a. bobtail squid bacterium symbiosis: the squid are hidden from their predators and the bacteria receive carbon and nitrogen b. clownfish anemone mutualism: the anemonefish chase away predators and increase fluid flow for the anemone while the fish are protected from the anemone’s toxic stinging cells and get to scavenge left over food 44. Under what environmental conditions do you expect to find positive interactions? a. we would expect to find these interactions under normal environmental conditions (not global warming conditions) b. ocean acidification due to global warming is already interfering with the clownfishes’ ability to find anemone habitats
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'