Study Guide for Exam #3
Study Guide for Exam #3 PSYC 361 - 01
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in Developmental Psychology
PSYC 361 - 01
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marisol Murillo on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 361 - 01 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Lisa Weisman-Davlantes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 04/25/16
Psych. 361 – Exam #3 Review Ch. 10 : Erikson: Industry vs Inferiority - Work with and cooperate with others leads to high self esteem and achievement - Negative social, academic, family experiences and responses lead to sense of inferiority/ incompetence Child-rearing styles and self-esteem (over-inflated, under-inflated) - Firm, warm parents à high self esteem, feel good about themselves, help them evaluate their own behavior against reasonable standards - Controlling parents à low self esteem, adjustment problems, aggression and antisocial behavior Achievement attributions ( Persistors vs. resistors) - Persistors (internal) o Ask for help o Mastery oriented o Ability can improve with effort o Self esteem based on inner standards - Resistors (external) o Learned helplessness o Success is due to luck o Failure is from lack of ability o Self esteem based on other’s opinions Emotional development – 2 factors that lead to gains in emotional competence - Emotional understanding o Explain emotion using internal states o Understands mixed emotions o Empathy increases - Emotional self regulation o Motivated by self esteem and peer approval o Emotional self efficacy Awareness and understanding of diversity and inequality /belief in equality - By early school years: o Associates power, privilege with white people o Assigns stereotyped traits to minorities Individual factors that contribute to prejudice : fixed vs. changeable traits - Fixed view of personality traits - Overly high self esteem - Social world in which people are sorted into groups Defining factor involved in friendships - Trust Co-regulation - Transitional form of supervision à kids are given more independence for making personal decisions Consequences of divorce on kids - Immediate: o Instability, conflict, drop in income o Parental stress, disorganization - Long term: o Improved adjustment after 2 years o Multiple divorces associated with greater adjustments o Father’s involvement and effective co parenting improves adjustment Maternal employment and effects on kids - Benefits: o Higher self esteem (for all) o Positive family/peer relations o Fewer gender stereotypes o Better grades o More father involvement - Drawbacks: o Heavy employment demands associated with ineffective parenting Child sexual abuse – effects on victims - Anxiety, depression, low self esteem, mistrust of adults, anger and hostility - Younger kids: o Sleep difficulties, loss of appetite, generalized fearfulness - Adolescents: o May run away, show suicidal reactions, eating disorders, substance abuse, delinquency Ch. 11 : Puberty – primary vs. secondary sexual characteri stics, menarche vs. spermarche - Primary Sexual Characteristics: o Maturation of the reproductive organs o Girls à menarche (first period) o Boys à spermarche (first ejaculation) - Secondary Sexual Characteristics: o Other visible part of the body that signal sexual maturity o Girls à breasts, growth spurt o Boys à facial hair, voice change o Both à underarm hair Typical parent-teen conflicts - As children become physically mature, they demand to be treated like adults - Focus on everyday matters o Driving, dating partners, curfews Western society and adolescence –support for transition to adulthood - Skills young people must master are so complex and the choices confronting them so diverse that adolescence is greatly extended Anorexia vs. bulimia - Anorexia o Starve self due to fear of getting fat o Excessive exercise o Distorted body image; perfectionism o Heredity, neurotransmitter abnormalities, parenting style and personal/cultural factors contribute o Difficult to treat - Bulimia o Strict dieting, excessive exercise and purging o Perfectionism, lack of self control o Heredity, parenting style and personal/ cultural factors contribute o More common/easier to treat Sex and teens–outcome of parents who speak to kids about sex; teen STD rates - Kids more likely to wait to have sex and use birth control when they do - Highest incidence of STDs of all age groups Factors linked to development of homosexuality and sequence of “coming out” - Sequence of “coming out” o Feelings different ages 6 -12 o Confusion ages 11-15 o Acceptance à timing varies, usually by end of teen years - Impact of heredity: o X linked o Prenatal sex hormones o Birth order Factors involved in teen alcohol and drug use /abuse - Partly due to sensation seeking, impulsive teen behavior - See adults use caffeine, cigarettes, alcoho l, pain meds to cope - Experimenters dabble in typical drugs - Risks for abuse: o Low SES o Uninvolved or harsh parents, drug/other abuse in family o Family psychology issues o Poor school functioning Piaget’s Formal Operational stage: ages, milestones, imaginary audience and personal fable, problems with decision making - 11 years and older - Not everyone gets t o this level - Capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thought - Create own logic rules, ideas, definitions through independent thought/reflection - Hypothetico-deductive reasoning: when faced with a problem, they start wit h a hypothesis about variables that might affect the outcome, from which they deduce logical, testable inferences - Imaginary audience: adolescents’ belief that they are the focus of everyone else’s attention and concern - Personal fable: certain that others are observing that thinking about them o Teenagers develop and inflated opinion of their own importance à feeling that they are special and unique - Problems with Decision Making: o Less often carefully evaluate alternat ives, instead falling back on well-learned intuitive judgments o Do not have sufficient knowledge to consider the pros and cons and predict likely outcomes Ch. 12: Erikson – Identity vs. Role Confusion - If young people’s earlier conflicts were resolved negatively or if society limit s their choices to ones that do not match their abilities and desires, they may appear shallow, directionless and unprepared for the challenged of adulthood - Identity is a crucial step toward becoming a productive, content adul t Marcia’s Identity Statuses - Identity achievement à Commitment to values, beliefs and goals following a period of exploration - Identity moratorium à Exploration without having reached commi tment - Identity foreclosure à Commitment in the absence of exploration - Identity Diffusion à apathetic state characterized by lack of both exploration and commitment Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development (Preconventional, Conventional, and Postconventional. Don’t include stages within each level) – ages, descriptions. Follow lecture notes and read book for clarification - Preconventional (ages 4 -10) o Morality controlled by rules/authorities/reciprocity o We behave to avoid punish ment o Rules cannot be broken - Conventional (ages 10 -13) o Beginning internalization of norms o Social rules help maintain order o We behave to please other people, for approval o Focus on treating others the way you want to be treated - Postconventional (ages 13 and up) o Full internalization of norms o Personal interpretation of what is right o Rules are flexible o Development of personal set of ethics/morals Influences on moral reasoning - Appropriate role models (parents first) - Empathy - Emotional self regulation - Open mind Definition of moral identity (aka moral self-relevance) - The degree to which morality is central to self concept Teen depression – increases most in which gender and what ages? - Most common psychological problem - Girls; increases between ages 12 -16 Factors involved and types of kids who attempt or commit suicide - Gender - Ethnicity - Family environment, high life stress, conflict - Sexual orientation - Personality o Intelligent, withdrawn o Antisocial - Triggering negative events o Bullying, physical/emotional issues Factors related to delinquency - Gender - SES, ethnicity - Difficult temperament - Low intelligence, poor school performance - Peer rejection, association with antisocial peers - Family characteristics - Neighborhood Ch. 13: Immune system functioning during adolescence and after age 20 - Influences: o Genetic, lifestyle, environment - Immune system declines after age 20 Fertility risks for both men and women - Women: o Problems jump sharply at 35 -44 years o Reduced number of quality of ov aries - Men: o Problems gradual, starting at age 35 o Decreased sperm volume, motility Substance use/abuse focusing on cigarettes and alcohol (follow lecture, read book for clarification) - Peaks at 19-25 years, then declines - Up to 12% of men and 6% of women ages 19 -25 are substance abusers Perpetrator characteristics and cultural forces that contribute to sexual coercion - Perpetrator characteristics: o Manipulative, remorseless o Approve of violence against women o Accept rape myths o Misinterpret social cues o Childhood sexual abuse o Sexual promiscuity o Alcoholism - Cultural forces: o Men taught to be dominant, competitive o Women taught to be submissive o Acceptance of violence o Dulled sensitivity due to media, pornography Effects/consequences of sexual coercion - Physical injury - STDs - General ill health - Rape 18% of US women - Perpetrators personal characteristics and cultural forces are predictive - Immediate: o Shock, confusion, withdrawal - Long term: o Fatigue, depression, substance abuse, social anxiety, suicidal thoughts Perry’s theory of epistemic cognition: de finition, dualistic thinking, relativistic thinking, commitment within relativistic thinking - Our reflections on how we arrived at facts, beliefs and ideas - Dualistic thinking: driving information, values and authority into right and wrong, good and bad, we and they - Relativistic thinking: viewing all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought o Aware of a diversity of opinion s on many topics, they gave up the possibility of absolute truth in favor of multiple truths, each relative to its context LaBouvie-Vief’s theory – pragmatic thought vs. cognitive -affective complexity - Pragmatic thought: a structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real world problems - Cognitive-affective Complexity: Awareness of conflicting positive and negative feelings and coordination of them into a complex, organized structure that recognizes the uniqueness of individual experiences Periods of vocational development - Fantasy period: Early and middle childhood o Children gain insight into career options by fantasizing about them - Tentative period: Between ages 11 -16 o Adolescents think about careers in more complex ways § At first in terms of their interests § As they become more aware of personal and educational requ irements for different vocations, in terms of their abilities and values - Realistic period: Late teens, early twenties o With the economic and practical realities of adulthood, younger people start to narrow their options § Further exploration § Crystallization: focus on a general vocational category and experiment for a time before settling on a single occupation Ch. 14: Erikson – Intimacy vs. Isolation - Making a permanent commitment to intimate partner vs. loneliness, self absorption and state of searching Levinson’s Seasons of Life - Depiction of adult development as a sequence of qualitatively distinct eras - Underlying design of a person’s life, consisting of relationships with significant others (individuals, groups, institutions) Positives and negatives associated with following the “social clock” - Positives: o Foster confidence and social stability § Guarantees that young people will develop skills, engage in productive work and gain understanding of self and others - Negatives: o Causes them to feel inadequately grounded § Unsure of what others expect and of what t o expect of themselves Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love - Intimacy: o emotional component o involves warm, tender communication, expressions of concern about other ’s well- being and a desire for the partner to reciprocate - Passion: o Physical and psychological -arousal component o The desire for sexual activity and romance - Commitment: o Cognitive component o Leading partners to decide that they are in love and to maintain that love Passionate love vs. companionate love - Passionate love: intense sexual attraction - Companionate love: warm, trusting affection and caregiving Childhood attachment problems and effects on adult romantic relationships - Secure attachment à comfortable with intimacy, rarely worry about abandonment, empathetic and supportive towards their partner - Avoidant attachment à Stress independence, mistrust of love partners, anxiety about people getting too close, romantic love is hard to find and rarely lasts - Resistant attachment à Fall in love quickly, worried that their intense feelings would overwhelm others who really did not love them and would not want to stay, offer support but in ways that fir poorly with their partner’s needs Who does the majority of housework, regardless of work hours? - Women Factors related to marital satisfaction - Family background - Age at marriage - Timing of first pregnancy - Relationship to extended family - Marital patterns in extended family - Financial and employment status - Family responsibility - Personality characteristics and behavior Which factor makes the transition to parenthood easier? - Postponing childbearing until the late twenties or thirties Longitudinal study of divorce – strongest predictors of divorce - Infidelity - Spending money foolishly - Drinking or using drugs - Expressing jealousy - Engaging in irritable habits - Moodiness Factors involved in establishing a career in early ad ulthood - Opportunities - Access to an effective mentor
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