Exam 2 Study Guide
Exam 2 Study Guide SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chloe Lall on Saturday March 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1300 - DORSEY at University of Houston taught by Patricia Dorsey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 520 views. For similar materials see SOC 1300 in Sociology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 03/07/15
Key Terms Agency capacity to make free choices and exert their own wills 0 Connected with freedom Classes Different economic and social groups teach members about different ways of living Class reproduction process that causes class boundaries and distinctions to be maintained over time Community the degree to which individuals connect with support and interact with each other Concentration of poverty associated with high levels of violence homelessness joblessness and welfare receipt in the urban ghetto Conurbs continuous urban regions extending across city and suburban political boundanes EX SeattleTacoma DallasFort Work Conglomeration describes a firm controlling multiple types of media functions 0 Like Disney owning various stations and print media operations 0 They can rely on their subsidiaries to promote the movie on its stations and tv programs Known as synergy Counterculture group those ideas attitudes and behaviors are in direct conflict with mainstream culture and who actively contest the dominant cultural practices in the societies in which they are a part of Counterpublics alternative public spheres through which they produce and circulate their own values beliefs and ideas Critical mass a point where everyone becomes aware of changes and they are large enough to sustain an important activity Culture the entire way of life of a people 0 Sociologists refer to one of the 2 things i Shared system of beliefs and knowledge system of meaning shared among a group and transmitted to indiv Through social interactions ii Set of tools for social actions a quottool kitquot of assumptions and behaviors for daily life Cultural capital your success in life Your education attitudes preferences We display taste in everyday life Taste also implies distaste Culture industry popular music movies and other types of mass culture Culture jamming people do not just passively accept corporate culture but intentionally disrupt and subvert it in a reaction to the common view that corps Have too much influence in social life Naomi Klein relies on constant exposure in order to mock it Jammers reject the idea that marketing has to be passively accepted as a oneway info flow Cultural omnivores cultural elites who demonstrate high status through a broad range of cultural consumption including lowstatus culture Cultural relativism evaluating cultural meanings and practices in their own social contexts Opposite of ethnocentrism Cultural universal which is a cultural trait common to all humans Culture wars refer to arguments over the proper role of family and religious values in certain questions of state policy Abortion rights Immigration rights Gay rights Two dominant cultures against each other liberal and conservative culture Curriculum structure of coursework and content of a sequence of courses making up a program of study in a school or school system When schools became institutionalized Demography study of population size Digital divide a divide between who is connected and who is not who has access to the information vs who does not Discrimination when a dominant group uses either legal or informal means to control opportunities and reduce or eliminate challenges from the subordinate groups Edge city selfcontained worlds typically located at the junctions of major freeways and featuring businesses and social and cultural spaces condensed in a small geographical area EX Valencia California gt 30 miles north of downtown LA Mostly people come and go Ethnography research method based on lengthy and intimate observation of a group Ethnocentrism an inability to understand or accept cultural practices different from one39s own EX The melting pot Leads us to make incorrect assumptions about others on the basis of our own experience Framing the reporters cover a diversity of topics but only do so through certain existing storylines and narratives Folkways routine of casual interaction Glass ceiling metaphor which is used to describe the lack of progress women have made moving into valued executive positions The maximum level that can be reached in a business based on certain circumstances 0 Corps Hire women to work in the lower ranks of management but when the promotion times come the women are still disadvantaged Global city urban center where the headquarters of transnational firms that create and control the international flow of info and commerce are located They are hubs of international finance and technology Some quotglobalizingquot cities now are Sao Paulo Brazil Jakarta Indonesia Moscow Russia Global culture incorporates cultural practices common to large parts of the world Microsoft Windows spread around the world and has a common language with different people Global neighborhoods neighborhoods that contain members of several different racial and ethnic groups May chip away traditional boundaries separating whites and blacks Great Migration the migration of African Americans from the rural south to the industrial cities of the Northeast and Midwest US The individuals and families that migrated out of the south were driven by declining agricultural opportunities African Americans did have new opportunities for economic mobility outside of the South they flourished in cities through the Midwest and Northeast Racial segregation became a problem in cities throughout the country Group style set of norms and practices that distinguishes one group from another Different groups have different norms Growth machine where investors and governments work to increase the size of the city39s population and the level of economic activity occurring within it Habitus development of a set of specific habits Hegemony when elites gain legitimacy and power from widely shared yet taken for granted beliefs about what is right or wrong proper or improper valuable or not Immigration when individuals and families move to take up residency in a new country 0 Often encourage other family members and friends to join them 0 Competition for jobs housing places in schools and other forms of conflict may begin to occur 0 The presence of immigrants are said to reach a critical mass because there has been a noticeable change 0 First waves of immigration occurred between 1880s and 1920s The US became a destination for immigrants from Central and Southern Europe Drawn to America because of economic opportunity lnequality differences in endowments and valued goods held by individuals or families such as 0 Income 0 Wealth 0 Status 0 Wellbeing lnstitutions enduring customs of social life Like religion or marriage along with formal organizations like schools or gov agencies Institutionalized or formalized when the beliefs became systematically spread lntergenerational social mobility movement of individuals from the social position of their parents into their own social position as adults Interest groups organizations established to promote the concerns of a group or business corp Journalism about all a form of communication It is the production and dissemination of information of general public interest Journalists help to create and change news Language which refers to any comprehensive system or words or symbols representing concepts and does not usually have to be spoken Life Chances individuals39 longterm possibilities and potential 0 One key conclusion Where you stand in relation to the important social hierarchies in society will have a major impact on your chances in life Life course when we shift from one stage to another we are supposed to transition as we age through our lives expected to grow up 0 Expected to alter our behavior to fit new roles that we acquire Mainstream culture widely shared systems of meaning and cultural tool kits in society Mass communication communication that can occur at large within society Megacities cities with populations of over 10 million people EX Mexico City Lagos Nigeria Tokyo Megaregion where two or more large cities in geographical proximity are linked together through infrastructure and through economic activity EX Areas in Northeast corridor gt Boston through NYC to Philadelphia and Baltimore to Washington DC Over 20 of the human population is concentrated in 40 mega regions across the world Largest developing in India and China Mores great moral significance Multiculturalism refers to beliefs or policies promoting equal accommodation of different ethnic or cultural groups within a society National Culture set of shared cultural practices and beliefs within a given nationstate Nationalism fact that people think of themselves as inherently members of a na on Networked public online public sphere Attract teens because they offer things that facetoface public settings cannot Allows for persistence Norms the basic rules of society that help us know what is appropriate to do and what is not Redlining emerged from the system used to determine areas ineligible for loans Remittances money sent from migrant workers to family and friends at home flows from the US every year Role position to occupy certain things you do for your team 0 Organizations establish roles because it is an efficient way to organize things People know what they are supposed to do at a given time Roles overlap Efficient to where people take on multiple tasks and responsibilities outside of their role Organizations social networks that are unified by a common purpose including the government agencies 0 Most important organizations are Schools Economic institutions of society The government all of it military Religion Path dependency developments and institutionalization make it easier for individual to work within them than to try to rip them apart 0 The ways in which outcomes of the past impact the present making some of the choices logical and some other illogical 0 When paths are once adopted it is hard to reverse them Power The ability to influence the behavior of others Privilege ability or right to have special access to opportunities or claims on rewards dominant group seeks to monopolize opportunities and control rewards o Subordinate groups are treated to inferior status and limited opportunities Public sphere how ideas are produced and exchanged in modern society Segregation degree to which individuals from different racial and ethnic groups living within the same communities 1968 Fair Housing Act Made discrimination in the public and private housing markets illegal Segmented assimilation immigrants follow one of many possible pathways of assimilation One path is traditional trajectory of upward mobility and cultural assimilation into the mainstream Another path involves downward economic mobility and assimilation into the urban poor Another path is to integrate into the economic mainstream while sustaining ties to culture in the origin community while remaining within residential enclaves Socialization process through which we are taught and trained to behave in society or in particular social settings Social hierarchy provides individuals and groups with different statuses Sociological imagination through the social structure is that society imposes its will on individuals and groups Social isolation lack of interpersonal connections and a decline in civic life Social movement when subordinate groups challenge the laws rules to bring about some kind of change 0 Civil rights movement 0 Women39s movement Social Structure forces that shape the background conditions of society 0 Forces of background conditions Government Social Capital resources available to individuals through their relationships and networks Most useful ties are ones that connect people to new networks of individuals Social networks the study of the ties that link people and groups together Social ties individuals within cities or various types of connections that individuals make with other people no matter what the setting is State which refers to all the agonies and offices of government the legal system the military and the constitution Stereotypes faulty generalizations about a subordinate group being applied to all the members in the group EX groups that are lazy unintelligent prone to criminal activity etc 0 These justify continuing discrimination against subordinate groups even if formal legal equality is achieved 0 Laws can be passed that require employers to consider all applicants for jobs equally Employers can hold negative stereotypes and make favored decisions on who to hire 0 Limitations on the background conditions Can limit interaction 0 You don39t see social structure until you see it being doing wrongly 0 Not easy to change Structuralism emphasize the ways in which social structure primarily determines our individual lives and behavior Subcultures relatively small groups of people whose affiliation is based on shared beliefs preferences and practices that exist under the mainstream and are distinguished from the mainstream Suburbs areas within metropolitan regions but outside the political boundaries of central cities Suburban sprawl the boundaries of suburbs have stretched further and further away from central cities Symbols communicates an idea while being distinct from the idea itself EX A red heart implies love a green traffic lights tells us we are allowed to quotgoquot Communicate implicit meaning about an idea Symbolic Boundaries the kinds of distinctions that people make between themselves and others on the basis of taste Socioeconomic status the amount of money you make and the kind of job you have Morality the moral considerations that guide the way you live or appear to Often take geographical form Use terms such as quotout of placequot or quotknowing your placequot Taste cultural preferences Tool kit a set of symbolic skills or devices that we learn through the cultural environment we live in and apply to practical situations in our own lives Apply to different situations people find themselves in Torrent a nonstop flow of info that we are rarely disengage from Urban areas areas with a population density of at least 1000 people per square mile plus all the surrounding areas that have an overall density of at least 500 people per square mile Urban Ecology One of the central ideas is that the form of cities can be understood as the result of a process in which different segments of the population sort themselves into the areas of the city Urban ghetto refers to sections of cities that are characterized by sever racial or ethnic segregation and deep poverty Urban renewal destruction of poor and workingclass neighborhoods in cities and the replacement of these communities with carefully planned areas featuring new commercial space transportation infrastructure and highrise apartments Urbanization growth in the proportion of the population living in cities and urban areas Values judgments about what is intrinsically important or meaningful Like patriotism competitiveness and consumerism Welfare state when government policies have a bundle of policies and programs that provide social insurance and assistance which can reduce the amount of poverty and inequality in society or to allow high levels of it Typically impose higher taxes on affluent citizens Set limits on how wealthy individuals or families can become Provide benefits to poor families and children Also benefit older people who cannot continue working Provide health insurance for all citizens not in US Older people get Medicare gt poorer get Medicaid o The state changes conditions of social life White flight refers to the movement of white families out of central cities and into the suburbs Driven by the changing demographics of cities who experience an influx of African Americans or other racial and ethnic minorities OOOOO Key People to Know Theodor Adorno Culture industry popular music movies and other types of mass culture Complaint that pop culture encourages audiences to passively consume what they are watching reading or listening to rather than participating or engaging creatively with work Pop culture is an element of cultural democracy It is advertising rather than art Pop culture is user driven Art is tailored to reflect people39s preferences Is an element of cultural democracy Pierre Bourdieu O O O Argued that socialization works the most powerfully through our development of a set of specific habits or our habitus They become routine and we don39t realize that we are following them The kind of habitus we have comes from our upbringing Our understandings of rules and norms become so ingrained it becomes a routine in our lives Guides us how we act in the world and how we respond to situations which include our Tastes Preferences Skills Dispositions Reflects the outcome of the socialization processes we go through in our lives Depend on family background and particular kinds of institutions Different economic and social groups also known as classes teach members about different ways of living The differences between the middle and upper classes include all those things contained in their habitus Manuel Castells Argues that we are participating in a new form of Internetcentered communication that he calls mass selfcommunication because it can reach a global audience but the content is self generated and directed Edward Herman and Noam Chomsky Developed a quotpropaganda modelquot of the media quotThe role of the media is to inform entertain and ingrain citizens with national values and to suppress dangerous oppositional perspectivesquot Claims that private sector media in the US operate in the same way for 5 reasons 5 Concentration of media ownership in a small number of wealthy hands Advertising is the primary source of revenue for the media Media relies on gov officials corp leaders and public relations as sources for reporting The power of governments and big business to discipline and threaten media is too critical The ubiquity of anticommunist sentiment to be aroused Hold that the media tell the public what to believe and the messages that they communicate are biased ones Kingsley Davis The process of urbanization follows an quotsquot curve whose shape is driven by the timing of industrialization Before widespread industry the pace of urbanization was slow and gradual gt this is the long tail at the bottom of the S After industrialization cities grew rapidly gt this is steep upward slow of the S After cities reach carrying capacity migration into the city slows gt this is flat top of the S Mike Davis Documented the way that quotgrowth coalitionsquot sought to keep poor African American and Latino populations from spreading into spaces Labeled LA metropolis a quotfortress of exclusionquot The city removed homeless shelters and mental health facilities for the wealthy property owners to be able to develop new real estate City even put it new park benches and but stops that were designed to be physically uncomfortable in order to prevent homeless people from loitering Inge Deutschkron was a socialist Believed that modern society could be best understood as shaped by a struggle between 2 class 1 Owners of capital 2 The bourgeoisie EB Du Bois 0 Race may be more important an influence than class 0 People inhabit multiple roles and are located in different hierarchies 0 Structures are not just constraints on action but they are things that enable ac on Claude Fischer 0 Claimed that subcultures are most likely to emerge in cities 0 Cities encourage unconventional behavior o The size and density of urban spaces lead individuals into subcultures with similar interests or occupations 0 Cities have higher rates of artistic innovation High rates in crime More extreme lifestyles Herbert Gans Studied community life in a diverse array of urban and suburban settings also found isolation and alienation but also found strong ties between neighbors and active community life The differences between the type of life in nonurban and urban areas are Age Race Occupation Income of individuals We should focus on demographic and economic differences between groups in different places as opposed to the ecological factors like size density and heterogeneity Clifford Geertz 0 Demonstrated the idea that culture is a system of collective meaning by analyzing a Balinese cockfight in 1950s in Indonesia boxing matches between Roosters Outlawed by national gov but still important events in the local communities 0 Concluded that betting wasn39t only about winning or losing the money it was a way of indicating and reworking status hierarchies determining high status through amount of betting Gramsci Hegemony when elites gain legitimacy and power from widely shared yet taken for granted beliefs about what is right or wrong proper or improper valuable or not Argued movements seeking to radically transform a society needed not just to win political power but to overthrow cultural hegemony fight common sense with good sense Mark Granovetter quotThe Strength of Weak Tiesquot Found that professionals he interviewed did not hear about their job through contacts that they saw or interacted with frequently Got word of their potential employment from contacts who they rarely saw The weak ties were useful because they had access to unique info and contacts which opened up new opportunities for jobs for the seeker Jurgen Habermas Public sphere how ideas are produced and exchanged in modern society According to the highest form of public life in capitalist society is private citizens assembled in a public body to confer about matters of general interest Citizens set aside their own interests as well as their wealth and status When it first emerged it was centered in a range of institutions such as Newspapers Pubs Social clubs Coffee shops Showed a citizens a way to criticize and influence the government Today Tea Party Occupy Wall Street movements National Rifle Associations or interest groups like AARP are some of the prominent groups in the public sphere William Hearst saw the news as a form of entertainment James Davison Hunter Argued that people tended to line up on the same sides on many of these issues Eric Klinenburg Documented growth in the number of Americans living alone Many have great satisfaction with their living situation and remain close with family and friends Jane Jacobs Argued that vibrant neighborhoods that use public spaces can foster social connections interactions and public safety Fought to save her neighborhood gt New York39s Greenwich Village Neighborhoods physical layout has a lot to do with the quality of life in them Her ideas are seen in the school of urban design gt quotNew urbanismquot They call for a return to mixeduse walkable urban communities as a response to the growing suburban sprawl Marshall McLuhan The medium is the message Different media encourage different ways of communicating of organizing power and of centralizing or decentralizing social activity Listening to the news and reading about it on the internet are two different experiences Reading on a website requires more direct engagement that listening to the radio does Harvey Molotch o Suggests individuals define themselves through the identities required for social interaction Robert Park Founded the Chicago School of sociology Was a newspaper journalist Also launched the modern social science of the city Studied immigrants to study social relations Most recently left home countries but still wanted to keep track of what is going on at home Before the internet TV radio Newspapers were the only one able to do this Foreign newspapers were popular in Chicago These addressed the experience of new groups Immigrants changed through the process of immigration the newspapers provided a new set of common themes stories characters and even vocab for making sense of the new world that they were living in News aimed at the common reader Joseph Pulitzer saw the news as information Joseph Schumpeter O O The rooms of the hotel stay the same while the specific occupants change The separation of individuals from the various positions that exist Georg Simmel quotsociety is merely the name for a number of individuals connected by interactionquot He noted that the large scale migration to cities that occurred all over Europe during the 19th century had a shift in the environment surrounding A substantial portion of the population has consequences on the ways individuals act and interact Also argued that the barrage of stimuli found in the urban setting and the impersonal character of economic interactions lead individuals to live life with a blase attitude which provides a shield against the chaos of the city The city allows individuals to have freedom to express themselves in new ways and to escape conformity found in the small towns Individuals find freedom and isolation in city Barry Wellman Classic conceptions of community that focused entirely on the space surrounding an individual Social ties individuals within cities or various types of connections that individuals make with other people no matter what the setting is Thinking strictly about geography and layouts of neighborhoods limited urban sociology39s focus gt made it unable to fully capture how a community works When sociologists see a lack of community cohesion it was because they didn39t see the wider networks in which the individuals are in cohesion Community was liberated gt individuals in cities do not lack strong intimate ties William Julius Wilson His theory began by documenting how manufacturing jobs began to disappear from cities in the Northeast and Midwest Left minority populations without stable working class jobs that drew them northward in the Great Migration Louis Wirth o quot a large dense and permanent settlement of heterogeneous individuals These are the essential characteristics of cities gt they alter the lives of individuals and the nature of social interactions within them 0 Diversity in cities does not necessarily lead to interaction among different groups living in close proximity 0 Ideas relate to Georg Simmel He noted that the large scale migration to cities that occurred all over Europe during the 19th century had a shift in the environment surrounding A substantial portion of the population has consequences on the ways individuals act and interact Also argued that the barrage of stimuli found in the urban setting and the impersonal character of economic interactions lead individuals to live life with a blase attitude which provides a shield against the chaos of the city The city allows individuals to have freedom to express themselves in new ways and to escape conformity found in the small towns Individuals find freedom and isolation in city Key points Chapter 4 What are the limits of indiv Free will I Free will able to do what we want to when we want To make our own choices Ex choosing electives times days and professors to take class Why can39t we do what we want Social structure Laws Formal and informal things Social norms Environment What is Individual Agency Ability and capacity to make choices and assert will How far does social structure impacting our behavior Forces of background conditions Government Limitations on the background conditions Can limit interaction You don39t see social structure until you see it being doing wrongly Not easy to change Humans creations that influence of pressure people to Act behave It guides limits constrains and also enables opportunities Slow to change Key components 1 Social hierarchies how people rank in society 2 Institutionalenvironments a Laws rules organizations and the government Involve important social relationships Give you certain opportunities Give us different identities within the hierarchies Tied to inequalities The concept of social structure is essential to the sociological imagination because through the social structure is that society imposes its will on individuals and groups Breaking down the concept down to 2 components 1 The social hierarchies can be found in any society in which some of the groups or individuals have greater advantages than others 2 The institutional environments which are made up of laws rules organizations and the gov in which individuals navigate These components make up what sociologists mean by social structure Hierarchies arise and persist in any situation in which members are able to use their possession of some asset as the basis for granting them special privileges over others who do not have that asset The asset can be something individuals are born with skin color gender Born into membership to relgious denomination Acquire at birth or attain later in life start a business and hire others Most common hierarchies today are based on Class Race Ethnicity Religious Educa on Region Gender People wrote these religious ideas down in public places and they began to spread which made the religion become organized Organized into religious traditions Denominations Individual places of worship churches temples etc Chapter 5 Nonmaterial culture Nonphysicaintangibe human creations Cannot hold or see Symbols Language Values Things that matter to you Standards of ideals Culturally define standards The sports we play the things we see Demonstrate our values Comparisons value judgments Contradictory Commitments and choices Can also change We have cultures conflicting and changing Beliefs specific 0 What we believe to be true Ex I believe it39s important to be patriotic 0 Culture conflict arises Norms 0 Rules and expectations of what behavior should consist of Mores great moral significance Hurting a child 00000er Loooo L Killing Stealing Incest Folkways routine of casual interaction Do you open a door for a women going through Pass the food around the dinner table Public sphere is when people meet to together and have meetings and discuss issues important to them ls everyone included in the important issues Does it benefit everyone Everyone participates and discusses Today social groups organize to become political actors and Habermas Alt public spheres Counterpublics Fraser The relationship between media and democracy is likely to grow more troubled by 3 trends Fewer and fewer corps own more and more of the media outlets in the market 1 Markets controlled by a handful of firms are the norm in the media now a This makes it harder for new entrants to break into the market 2 Conglomeration describes a firm controlling multiple types of media functions a Like Disney owning various stations and print media operations b They can rely on their subsidiaries to promote the movie on its stations and tv programs 1 Known as synergy 1 Hypercommercialism a Standard for movies or shows to feature a product placement which is advertising when shots or mentions of a product are integrated not as a direct advertisement quotWere it left to me to decide whether we should have a governement without newspapers or newspapers without a government I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latterquot Thomas Jefferson Citizen journalism has exploded in the last decade because barrier entry is low Internet activism Arab Spring uprising in the Middle East Tahrir Square demonstrations in Egpyt which overthrew the Mubarak regime Social networks are crucial to activists today Cultural signs The way someone dresses How they speak Sports they play Music that they life AKA taste their cultural preferences Resources people can bring to bear in their lives Economic capital money and other economic assets Social capital social connections and networks of friends and acquaintances Cultural capital your success in life Your education attitudes preferences We display taste in everyday life Taste also implies distaste Sociologists say that the media is biased Change our notions of truth and our values Sociologists needs to pay attention to the changing patterns of media consumptions and engagement Age of Television Has been an age of irrelevance impotence and incoherence in public discourse A lot of what we see on the news barely has any actual relevance to our lives We become used to receiving info without us having to act on it in a specific way We spend less time watching the news The 3 most widely reads newspaper in the US today are 1 Wall Street Journal 2 USA Today 3 New York Times Chapter 8 Sociologists look at how other dimensions of places affect the way that people interact with each other how they form friendship ties and communities Where and how they work and produce goods How they generate culture and subcultures Cities first arose over 5000 years ago Mostly trading centers and capitals for empires Not built for growth That meant most people were living in the rural areas Britain was first nation to industrialize Suburban changes Before 20th century gt low population density bedroom communities annexa on White flight Moved to northeast Midwest and later in West Redlining defining who can live where covenant laws EX Levittown Urban sprawl developing of new areas Edge Cities actual places where there is business shopping entertainment Neighborhoods and urban change 0 The Chicago school Different segments of population sort themselves into area of city in which they thrive 0 Park and Burgess Concentric Zones Map of Chicago As indiv Assimilate and move upward they move outward to residential zones megaregion where two or more large cities in geographical proximity are linked together through infrastructure and through economic activity EX Areas in Northeast corridor gt Boston through NYC to Philadelphia and Baltimore to Washington DC Over 20 of the human population is concentrated in 40 mega regions across the world Largest developing in India and China quotChicago Schoolquot One of the central ideas is that the form of cities can be understood as the result of a process in which different segments of the population sort themselves into the areas of the city which is urban ecology Laid out mostly in the work of Robert Park and Ernest Burgess Burgess created the quotloopquot AKA Central business district Was seen as the eye of metropolis where businesses highend shopping and high culture museums and symphonies were located Surrounding was the quotfactory zonequot which featured low quality housing for new immigrants and the poor The model was criticized because it was too rigid Did not account for variation in the spatial structure of cities outside of the Northeast and Midwest ldea that organisms adjust to their surroundings and find the best fit within their environment Growth provides Retailers with more businesses Newspaper editors wither wider readerships Larger applicant pools for universities Provides gov with Larger tax base Greater ability to request funding from state and federal governments Local govs regulate use and distribution of land within the city through establishment of taxation rates Through policing and protection of private property Through city39s responses to demands Regulation of utilities and transportation Policy decisions are influenced by tight group of elites EX best represented in LA Communities who have a high level of cohesion and trust are more able to organize as a community and enforce common norms of behavior Due to this there is lower levels of crime and violence even if the community is poor The city is home to some of society39s social problems such as Crime Violence Severe poverty New urban poverty can be distinguished by new features Growing concentration of the urban poor within a small number of extremely highpoverty neighborhoods Persistence of sever racial segregation despite fair housing laws Humans cross national boundaries to live and work in greater numbers than before About 43 million immigrants are now estimated to live in the US Some quotglobalizingquot cities now are Sao Paulo Brazil Jakarta Indonesia Moscow Russia
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