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PSY 101 Exam #4 (Ch. 11, 13, 14, 15)

by: Ju Lee

PSY 101 Exam #4 (Ch. 11, 13, 14, 15) PSY 101

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These notes cover Ch. 13 (Social Psychology), 14 (Psychological Disorders), 15 (c). exploring psychology
Introduction to Psychology
Heather Cate
Study Guide
Psychology, Psy101, final, Study Guide, Intro to Psychology, exploring psychology, social psychology, psychological disorders, Cate
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ju Lee on Monday April 25, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Heather Cate in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.


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Date Created: 04/25/16
Psychology Exam #3 Study Guide- Professor Cate’s Class Highlight = Important People Highlight = Important Idea Highlight = Key Term CHAPTER 13: SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY A. Social Psychology  Why might students speak up in class, or hesitate to speak?  Study emotions, cognitions, motivations, reinforcers, and more: • Personality Psychologists could study the traits that might make one person more likely than another to speak. • Social Psychologists might examine aspects of the classroom situation that would influence any student’s decision about speaking.  Attribution: Identifying causes  Attribution: a conclusion about the cause of an observed behavior/event.  Attribution Theory: we explain others’ behaviors with 2 types of attributions: • Situational: factors outside the person doing the action (ex: peer pressure) • Dispositional: the person’s stable, enduring traits (ex: personality, ability, and emotions)  People raised in Western Individualistic cultures, tend to make Fundamental Attibution Errors: When we go too far in assuming that a person’s behavior is caused by their personality. We think a behavior demonstrates a trait.  Tend to overemphasize and underemphasize.  Self vs. Other/Actors and Observers (Self-serving bias or Actor-observer effect)  When we explain our OWN behaviors, we partly reverse the fundamental attribution error: we tend to blame the situation for our failures (although we take personal credit for our successes).  This happens not just out of selfishness: it happens whenever we take the perspective of the actor in a situation, which is easiest to do for ourselves and people we know well.  Cultural Differences  People in collectivist cultures (those which emphasize group unity, allegiance, and purpose over the wishes of the individual), do not make the same kinds of attributions:  1. The behavior of others is attributed more to the situation  2. Credit for success is given more to others  3. Blame for failures is taken on oneself  Actions Affect Attitudes:  If attitudes direct our actions, can it work the other way around? How can it happen that we can take an action which in turn shifts our attitude about that action?  Through 2 social-cognitive mechanisms: • The Foot in the Door Phenomenon • The effects of playing a role (Zimbardo slide)  Foot in the Door Phenomenon: Small Compliance Large Compliance  Foot in the Door Phenomenon: When one small task starts to add up until the task becomes bigger.  Example: A political campaigner asks if you would open the door just enough to pass a clipboard through. You agree to this, then you sign a petition, and agree to make a small contribution by a check mark.  Role Playing Affects Attitudes  When we play a role, even if we know it is just pretending, we eventually tend to adopt the attitudes that go with the role, and become the role.  In arranged marriages, people often come to have deep love for the person they marry.  Actor’s say they “lose themselves” in roles.  Participants in the Stanford Prison Study ended up adopting the attitudes of whatever roes they were assigned to; guards had demeaning views of prisoners and prisoners had rebellious dislike of the guards. B. Social Influence  Cultural Influences  Conformity: Mimicry and Norms  Obedience: Factors and Lessons  Group situations and group behavior:  Social facilitation  Social loafing  Deindividuation  Group Think  The Power of Individuals  Cultural Influences  Culture, the behaviors and beliefs of a group, is shared and passed on to others including the next generation of that group.  This sharing of traditions, values, and ideas is a form of social influence that helps maintain the culture.  Norms are the rules, often unspoken but commonly understood, that guide behavior in a culture. Norms are part of the culture but also part of the way social influence works to maintain the culture.  Cultures change over time; norms for marriage and divorce have changed in Western culture.  Conformity: Mimicry and more  Conformity: refers to adjusting our behavior or thinking to fit in with a group standard or align ourselves with what we perceive to be a group standard.  The power of Conformity has many components and forms, including:  Automatic Mimicry affecting behavior  Social Norms affecting our thinking  Normative and Informational Social Influence  Automatic Mimicry  Some of our mimicry of other people is not by choice, but automatic:  Chameleon Effect: unintentionally mirroring the body position and mood of others around us, leading to contagious yawning, arm folding, hand wringing, face rubbing, leg shaking…  Empathetic shifts in mood that fi the mood of the people around us  Copying the actions of others, including forms of violence, hopefully forms of kindness.  Responding to Social Norms  When we are with other people and perceive a social norm (a “correct” or “normal” way to behave or think in a group), our behavior may follow the norm rather than following our own judgement.  Asch Conformity studies: bout one third of people will agree with obvious mistruths to go along with the group. • A nerdy guy dropped into a group of cool guys in a table. Most likely the nerdy guy will conform to the majority’s mistruths.  What makes you more likely to conform?  When you are not firmly committed to one set of beliefs or style of behavior. Don’t trust your opinion.  The group is medium sized (at least 3 people) and unanimous.  You admire or are attached to the group.  The group tries to make you feel incompetent, insecure, and closely watched.  Your culture encourages respect for norms.  2 Types of Social Influence  Normative: Going along with others in pursuit of social approval or belonging (and to avoid disproval/rejection)  Ex: The Asch conformity studies; clothing choices.  Informational: Going along with others because their ideas and behavior make sense, the evidence in our social environment changes our minds.  Ex: Deciding which side of the road to drive on.  Obedience: Response to Commands  Milgram wanted to study the influence of direct commands on behavior.  The question: Under what social conditions are people more likely to obey commands?  The experiment: An authority figure tells participants to administer shocks to a “learner” (actually a confederate of the researcher) when the learner gives wrong answers.  When voltages increase, how high would people go?  What Factors Increase Obedience?  When orders were given by:  Someone with legitimate authority  Someone associated with a prestigious institution  Someone standing close by  When the “learner”/victim is in another room.  When other participants obey and/or no one disobeys (no role model for defiance)  Other Evidence of the Power of Obedience  The good news: Obedience can also strengthen heroism; soldiers and other risk or even sacrifice themselves, more so when under orders.  Social Facilitation  Individual performance is intensified when you are observed by others.  When people feel pressured when you’re being watched either you’re really good or bad at performing.  Experts excel, people doing simple activities show more speed and endurance in front of an audience… but novices (people trying new things), trying complex/ difficult skills, do worse.  Deindividuation  Loss of self-awareness and self-restraint.  Ex: Riots, KKK rallies, concerts, identity-concealed online bullying.  Happens when people are in group situations involving  Anonymity  Arousal  Group Polarization  When people of similar views form a group together, discussion within the group makes their views more extreme.  Thus, different groups become MORE different, more polarized, in their views.  People in these groups may have only encountered ideas reinforcing the views they already held.  Liberal Blogs (blue) and conservative blogs (red) link mostly to other like-minded blogs, generating this portrait of the polarized Blogosphere.  Groupthink  In pursuit of social harmony (and avoidance of open disagreement), groups will make decisions without an open exchange of ideas.  Irony: Group “think” prevents thinking, prevents a realistic assessment of options.  The Power of Individuals  Some people resist obeying and conforming.  Individuals can start social movements and social forces, not just get caught up in them.  Groupthink can be prevented if individuals speak up when a group decision seems wrong.  Altruism  Unselfish regard for the welfare of other people.  Helping and protecting others without need for personal gain, doing it because it is the right thing to do, often despite personal risk or sacrifice.  The Psychology of Altruism:  Under what conditions do people help others?  How do bystanders make a decision about helping?  What cultural norms reinforce the motive to help others?  Bystander Intervention Attention: Appraisal: Social Role: Taking Action:   Bystander Action: Social Factors  Why are there some crowds of people near a suffering person and no one is helping?  Because of the (multiple) Bystander Effect: Fewer people help when others are available.  Why does the presence of others reduce the likelihood that any one person will help?  1. Because of diffusion of responsibility: The role of helper does not fall just on one person.  2. People in a crowd follow the example of others; which means everyone waiting for someone else to help first.  After a while, people rationalize inaction; “if no one is helping, they must know he’s dangerous or faking it.”  Other factors promoting helping  Bystanders are most likely to help when:  The person we might help appears to be in need, deserving assistance.  Similar to us in some way.  Is in a small town or rural area.  Feeling guilt or saw someone else trying to help.  Not in a hurry. Or not preoccupied.  In a good mood.  Norms/Processes Influencing Helping  Utilitarianism: seeking the greatest good for the greatest number of people.  Social Responsibility: others depend on us to help to go first; it’s the right thing to do.  Reciprocity: we help those who have helped us… although someone must go first.  Social Exchange: we help if it brings more benefit (social approval, reduced guilt) than cost (risk, inconvenience). CHAPTER 14: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS  Psychological Disorder  Psychological disorder: a significant dysfunction in an individual’s cognitions, emotions, or behaviors.  More in understandings about disorders:  Disorders are diagnosed when there is dysfunction, behaviors which are considered maladaptive because they interfere with one’s daily life.  Disorders are diagnosed when the symptoms and behavior’s accompanied by Distress, suffering.  New definition (DSM 5): “a disturbance in the psychological, biological or developmental processes underlying mental functioning.”  Understanding the Nature of Psychological Disorders  One reason to diagnose a disorder is to make decisions about treating the problem.  Based on older understanding of psychological disorders, treatments have included: exorcising evil spirits, beatings, and caging/restraint.  Pinel’s New Approach:  Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) proposed that mental disorders were not caused by demonic possession, but stress and inhumane conditions.  Pinel’s “moral treatment” involved gentleness, nature, and social interaction.  Pinel’s inventions improved lives but not effectively treat mental illness.  The Medical Model  The discovery that the disease of syphilis causes mental symptoms (by infecting the brain) suggested a medical model for mental illness.  Psychological disorders can be seen as psychopathology, an illness of the mind.  Disorders can be diagnosed, labeled as a collection of symptoms that tend to go together.  People with disorders can be treated, attended to, given therapy, all with a goal of restoring mental health.  The Biopsychosocial Approach  Studies how this approach interact to produce specific psychological disorders.  On psychological disorder:  Biological influences:  Evolution  Individual genes  Brain structure and chemistry  Psychological influences:  Stress  Trauma  Learned helplessness  Mood-related perceptions and memories  Social-cultural influences:  Roles  Expectations  Definitions of normality and disorder  Classifying Psychological Disorders  1. Diagnoses create a verbal shorthand for referring to a list of associated symptoms.  2. Diagnoses allow us to statistically study many similar cases, learning to predict outcomes.  3. Diagnoses can guide treatment choices.  The Diagnoses and Statistical Manuel (DSM) include lists of symptoms, often in groups. Creates criteria about how many symptoms must be present in each category to justify a label.  It’s easier to count cases of autism if we have a clear definition.  Versions: DSM-IV-TR, DSM-V  The DSM is used to justify payment for treatment.  It’s consistent with diagnoses used by medical doctors worldwide.  Critiques of Diagnosing with the DSM  1. The DSM calls too many people “disordered”.  2. The border between diagnoses, or between disorder and normal, seems arbitrary.  3. Decisions about what is a disorder seem to include value judgments; is depression necessarily deviant?  4. Diagnostic labels direct how we view and interpret the world, telling us which behavior and mental states to see as disordered (stygmatized??).  Insanity and Responsibility  Jared Loughner shot many people, including a U.S. Representative, in 2011.  Loughner had schizophrenia and substance abuse problems, a combination associated with increased violence.  Note: schizophrenia alone is not associate with increased risk of violence. However, schizophrenia plus substance abuse increases the risk of violent behavior.  Anxiety Disorders: Our self-protective, risk-reduction instincts in overdrive  Generalized Anxiety Disorder: painful worrying  Panic Disorder: fear of the next attack  Phobias: scared of weird looking things  OCD: everything has to be organized and perfect  PTSD: stuck re-experiencing trauma  Causes of Anxiety Disorders:  Fear conditioning  Observational learning  Genetic/evolutionary predispositions  Brain involvement  Fears and Phobias  Being alone  Storms  Water  Closed spaces  Flying  Blood  Height  Animals  Agoraphobia is the avoidance of situations in which one will fear having a panic attack.  Social phobia: an intense fear of being watched and judged by others, often showing as a fear of possibly embarrassing public appearances.  Common OCD Behaviors  Thought or behavior:  Obsessions (repetitive thoughts):  Concern with dirt, germs, or toxins  Something terrible happening (fire, death, illness)  Symmetry, order, or exactness  Compulsions (repetitive behaviors):  Excessive hand washing, bathing, tooth brushing, or grooming  Repeating rituals (in/out of a door, up/down from a chair)  Checking doors, locks, appliances, car brakes, homework  Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)  About 10-35% of people who experience trauma not only have burned-in memories, but also four weeks to a lifetime of:  Repeated intrusive recall of those memories.  Nightmares and other re-experiencing.  Social withdrawal or phobic avoidance.  Jumpy anxiety or hypervigilance.  Insomnia or sleep problems.  Understanding Anxiety Disorders:  Explanations from Different Perspectives  Classical conditioning: overgeneralizing a conditioned response  Operant conditioning: rewarding avoidance  Cognitive appraisals: uncertainty is danger-hypervigilance  Genes: predisposed to some fears  The Brain: active anxiety pathways (serotonin, glutamate)  Natural Selection: surviving by avoiding danger  Observational Learning and Anxiety  Experiments with humans and monkeys show that anxiety can be acquired through observational learning. If you see someone else avoiding or fearing some object or creature, you might pick up that fear and adopt it even after the original scared person is not around.  In this way, fears get passed down in families.  Biology and Anxiety: The Brain  Traumatic experiences can burn fear circuits into the amygdala; these circuits are later triggered and activated.  Anxiety disorders include overarousal of brain areas involved in impulse control and habitual behaviors.  The OCD brain shows extra activity in the ACC (anterior cingulate gyrus), which monitors our actions and checks for errors.  Criteria of Major Depressive Disorders  Major depressive disorder is not just one of these symptoms. It is one or both of the first two, PLUS three or more of the rest.  Depressed mood most of the day or markedly diminished interest or pleasure in activities.  Significant increase or decrease in appetite or weight  Insomnia, sleeping too much, or disrupted sleep  Lethargy, or physical agitation  Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day  Worthlessness, or excessive/inappropriate guilt  Daily problems in thinking, concentrating, and/or making decisions  Recurring thoughts of death and suicide  Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)  Seasonal affective disorder is more than simply disliking winter.  Seasonal affective disorder involves a recurring seasonal pattern of depression, usually during winter’s short, dark, cold days.  Survey: “Have you cried today?” Result: More people answer “yes” in the winter.  Bipolar Disorder  Bipolar disorder was once called “manic-depressive disorder.”  Bipolar disorder’s two polar opposite moods are depression and mania.  Mania refers to a period of hyper-elevated mood that is euphoric, giddy, easily irritated, hyperactive, impulsive, overly optimistic, and even grandiose.  Contrasting symptoms:  Depressed mood: stuck feeling down  exaggerated pessimism  social withdrawal  lack of felt pleasure  inactivity and no initiative  difficulty focusing  fatigue and excessive desire to sleep  Mania: euphoric, giddy, easily irritated  exaggerated optimism  hypersociality and sexuality  delight in everything  impulsivity and overactivity  racing thoughts; the mind won’t settle down  little desire for sleep  Understanding Mood Disorders  Biological aspects and explanations: Evolutionary, genetic, brain/body.  Social-cognitive aspects and explanations: negative thoughts and negative mood, explanatory style, the vicious cycle.  Evolutionary Perspective on the Biology of Depression  Depression, in its milder, non-disordered form, may have had survival value.  Under stress, depression is social-emotional hibernation. It allows humans to:  Conserve energy.  Avoid conflicts and other risks.  Let go of unattainable goals.  Take time to contemplate.  Biology of Depression: The Brain  Brain activity is diminished in depression and increased in mania.  Brain structure: smaller frontal lobes in depression and fewer axons in bipolar disorder  Brain cell communication (neurotransmitters):  More norepinephrine (arousing) in mania, less in depression  Reduced serotonin in depression  Fewer axons, less white matter, and larger ventricles (fluid filled areas in the center of the brain) point to a problem in having different parts of the brain work together smoothly.  Understanding Mood Disorders: The Social-Cognitive Perspective  Depression is associated with:  Low self-esteem: Discounting positive information and assuming the worst about self, situation, and the future.  Learned helplessness: Self-defeating beliefs such as assuming that one (self) is unable to cope, improve, achieve, or be happy.  Depressive explanatory style: how we analyze bad news predicts mood (coping or not)  Rumination: Stuck on focusing what bad  Dissociative Disorders  Dissociation: a separation of conscious awareness from thought, memory, bodily sensations, feelings, or even from identity.  Dissociative disorder: dysfunction and distress caused by chronic and severe dissociation.  Examples:  Dissociative fugue state: fugue ”running away”; wandering away from one’s life, memory, and identity, with no memory of them  Dissociative Identity Disorder (D.I.D): development of separate personalities  Dissociative Identity Disorder (D.I.D.) formerly “Multiple Personality Disorder”  In the rare actual cases of D.I.D., the personalities:  Are distinct, and not present in consciousness at the same time.  May or may not appear to be aware of each other.  Alternative Explanations for D.I.D.  Dissociative “identities” might just be an extreme form of playing a role.  D.I.D. in North America might be a recent cultural construction, similar to the idea of being possessed by evil spirits.  Cases of D.I.D. might be created or worsened by therapists encouraging people to think of different parts of themselves.  Personality Disorders  Personality disorders are enduring patterns of social and other behavior that impair social functioning.  There are three “clusters”/categories of personality disorders.  Anxious: e.g., Avoidant P.D., ruled by fear of social rejection  Eccentric/Odd: e.g. Schizoid P.D., with flat affect, no social attachments  Dramatic: e.g. Histrionic, attention-seeking; narcissistic, self-centered; antisocial, amoral  Antisocial Personality Disorder [APD]  Antisocial personality disorder: Persistently acting without conscience, without a sense of guilt for harm done to others (strangers and family alike).  The diagnostic criteria include a pattern of violating the rights of others since age 15, including three of these:  Deceitfulness  Disregard for safety of self or others  Aggressiveness  Failure to conform to social norms  Lack of remorse  Impulsivity and failure to plan ahead  Irritability  Irresponsibility regarding jobs, family, and money  Biosocial Roots of Crime: The Brain  People who commit murder seem to have less tissue and activity in the part of the brain that suppresses impulses.  Other differences include:  Less amygdala response when viewing violence.  An overactive dopamine reward-seeking system. CHAPTER 15: THERAPY  Chapter Overview  Therapy refers to how mental disorders are treated, with the help of the knowledge base of psychology.  Topics:  Psychotherapy, the “Talk Therapies” including psychoanalytic, humanistic, behavior, cognitive, and group, and family psychotherapy.  Issues in psychotherapy, including culture, values, and the evaluation of psychotherapy effectiveness.  Biomedical therapies such as drugs, brain stimulation, surgery, and lifestyle change.  Prevention of psychological disorders, building resilience.  The Psychological Therapies- Changing Psychotherapy Methods  Improving treatment of mental illness: from throwing away the key, to finding the key.  Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Therapy: Bringing the unconscious into awareness.  Humanistic Therapy: nurturing positive growth  Behavior therapies: Changing associations (Exposure Therapy), or Using consequences  Cognitive Therapies: changing unhelpful beliefs and interpretations  Group therapy: mutual support  Family Therapy: changing the interactions  Current Forms of Therapy  Psychotherapy: an interactive experience with a trained professional, working on understanding and changing behavior, thinking, relationships, and emotions  Biomedical Therapy: the use of medications and other procedures acting directly on the body to reduce the symptoms of mental disorders  Combining Therapies (there are various forms of psychotherapy)  An eclectic approach uses techniques from various forms of therapy to fit the client’s problems, strengths, and preferences.  Medications and psychotherapy can be used together, and may help each other achieve better reduction in symptoms.  Influential Schools of Psychotherapy  Psychoanalysis, psychodynamic therapy  Sigmund Freud- release unconscious inner conflict  Humanistic, client- centered therapy  Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow- client centered, personal fulfillment  Behavior Therapy, using conditioning  B.F. Skinner & Ivan Pavlov- counter conditioning fears and unwanted behaviors- exposure, aversion, systematic desensitization, token economies, shaping  Cognitive Therapy, changing thoughts  Aaron Beck & Albert Ellis, reducing errors and distress- attributions  Humanistic vs. Psychoanalytic Therapy  Both therapies seek and promote insight.  Exposure Therapy  A conditioned fear can worsen when avoidance of the feared situation gets reinforced by a quick reduction in anxiety.  Guided exposure to the feared situation can reverse this reinforcement by waiting for anxiety to subside during the exposure.  The person can habituate to (get used to) the anxiety itself, and then the feared situation.  Family Therapy  Having a session with the whole family, at home or in the office, allows therapist to work on the family system  the family’s patterns of alliances, authority, and communication.  A related modality is couples/marital therapy.  Group Therapy  Group Therapy assembles about 6-9 people with related needs into a group, facilitated by a therapist, to work on therapeutic goals together. The benefits include:  Less cost per person.  More interaction, feedback, and support.  Clients realize others share their problems and they are not alone.  Self-Help Groups  Self-help groups are led by group members instead of a therapist.  They can be much larger than group therapy, with less interaction.  The focus is more on support rather than on working on goals during group session.  Comparing Modern Psychotherapies  Evaluating “Alternative” Therapies  When new cures emerge, they are often promoted with testimonials.  Problem: we don’t know if those “cures” were really caused by the intervention. In addition, we don’t know how many people received no benefit from the intervention.  Solution: controlled studies with random assignment to non-intervention conditions.  Challenge: making sure the interventions are performed by people trained in that area.  Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)  In EMDR therapy, the therapist attempts to unlock and reprocess previous frozen traumatic memories. The therapist waves a finger or light in front of the eyes of the client, I order to integrate past and present, ad left and right hemispheres.  Some studies show EMDR is effective and some do not.  Studies which did not show effectiveness were critiqued by the founder as being done without adequate training in EMDR.  Research suggests that the effectiveness of EMDR, even when it does work, may not depend on the eye movement technique.  Light Exposure Therapy  Research supports the idea that daily exposure to bright light, especially with a blue tint, is effective in treating the depressive symptoms of seasonal affective disorder (SAD).  Effective Psychotherapy Styles  Hope: therapists assume the client has resources that can be used for recovery, and that improvement is possible.  A new perspective: new interpretations and narratives (from “victim” to “survivor”) can improve mood and motivate change  The relationship: empathy, trust, and caring provide an environment for healthy growth.  The successful working relationship between therapist and client has been called the therapeutic alliance.  Culture and Values in Psychotherapy  Therapists differ from clients in beliefs, values, cultural background, conversational style, and personality.  Ways to serve diverse clients  Therapists should be receptive, respectful, curious, and seek understanding rather than assuming it.  The therapist and client do NOT have to have similar backgrounds for effective therapy and a good therapeutic relationship. It is more important to have similar ideas about the function and style of therapy.  Selecting a Psychotherapist  How do you choose a psychotherapist?  Specific training and experience in the area of your difficulty may be more important than the general type of license.  What is most important is whether you and the therapist are able to establish an alliance.  Some of this is trial and error. If problems arise, you can try working it out, but switching therapists is okay.  Therapists and their varied Training:  Psychotherapists is not the same as psychologists  Psychologists (PhD, PsyD) do therapy plus intelligence and personality testing.  Psychiatrists (MD, DO) prescribe medicine and sometimes do psychotherapy.  Social workers (MSW) as well as counselors, nurses, and other professionals may be trained and licensed to diagnose and treat mental health disorders.  Types of Drugs (Medications):  Psychopharmacology  Antipsychotic drugs  Antidepressant drugs  Antianxiety drugs  Mood stabilizers  How some medications work at the synapse  Electroconvulsive Therapy  Magnetic Stimulation  Deep-Brain Stimulation  Psychosurgery  Therapeutic Lifestyle Change  Biomedical Therapies  Interventions in the brain and body can affect mood and behavior.  Biomedical therapies refer to physically changing the brain’s functioning by altering its chemistry with medications, or affecting its circuitry with electrical or magnetic impulses or surgery.  But no more drilling holes into skulls anymore.  Types of Medication  Antipsychotic:  What they do: Reduces symptoms of schizophrenia, especially hallucinations  How they work: Block dopamine receptors  Side effects: Obesity, diabetes, and movement problems  Antianxiety:  What they do: Temporarily reduces worried thinking and physical agitation  How they work: Slowing nervous system activity in the body and brain  Side effects: Slowed thinking, reduced learning, dependence, and withdrawal  Antidepressant:  What they do: Improves mood and control over depressing and anxious thoughts  How they work: Increases levels of serotonin (sometimes norepinephrine) at synapses; possible neurogenesis  Side effects: Dry mouth, constipation, and reduced sexual desire and/or response  Mood Stabilizers:  What they do: Reduce the “highs: of mania as well as reduce the depressive “lows”  How they work: Under investigation  Side effect: Various; blood levels must be monitored  ADHD “Stimulants”:  What they do: Help control impulses, and reduce distractibility and the need for stimulation including fidgeting  How they work: Increase levels or effects of dopamine in synapses  Side effects: Decreased appetite  Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)  Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) induces a mild seizure that disrupts severe depression for some people.  This might allow neural re-wiring, and might boost neurogenesis.  Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)  Another option is repeated deep-brain stimulation using implanted electrodes.  Like ECT, these techniques may disrupt depressive electrochemical brain patterns.  Psychosurgery  A lobotomy destroys the connections between the frontal lobes and the rest of the brain. This decreased depression, but also destroys initiative, judgement, and cognition.  Microsurgery might work by disrupting problematic neural networks involved with aggression or obsessive-compulsive disorder.  Therapeutic Lifestyle Change  We can indirectly affect the biological components of mental health problems.  Exercise can boost serotonin levels and reduce stress.  Changing negative thought can improve mood and even rewire the brain.  Mental health problems also can be reduced by meeting our basic needs for sleep, nutrition, light, meaningful activity, and social connection.  Preventing Psychological Disorders  Some people show a trait of resilience: they survive stress without developing mental health disorders.  Some traumatized people have post-traumatic growth, finding strength and a greater appreciation for life.  Community Psychologists and social workers work to reduce the risk of mental health disorders by building healthier environments, with interventions such as:  Support programs for stressed families.  Community programs to provide healthy activities and hope for children.  Relationship-building communication skills training.  Working to reduce poverty and discrimination. Psychology Exam #4 Study Guide- Professor Cate’s Class Highlight = Important People Highlight = Important Idea Highlight = Key Term CHAPTER 11: STRESS, HEALTH, AND HUMAN FLOURISHING  Stress: A Focus of Health Psychology  Many people report being affected by “stress”  Some terms psychologists use to talk about stress:  Stress refers to the process of appraising and responding to events which we consider threatening or challenging.  A stressor is an event or condition which we view as threatening, challenging, or overwhelming.  Examples: poverty, an explosion, a psychology test, feeling cold, being in a plane, and loud noises.  Appraisal refers to deciding whether to view something as a stressor.  Stress reaction refers to any emotional and physical responses to the stressor.  Examples: rapid heartbeat, elevated cortisol levels, and crying.  Appraisal: Choosing How to View a Situation  Questions to ask yourself when facing a possible stressor:  Is this a challenge, and will I tackle it?  Is it overwhelming, and will I give up?  External vs internal locus of control  Stressors  There may be a spectrum of levels of intensity and persistence of stressors.  We can also see stressors as falling into one of four* categories:  Catastrophes  Significant life changes  Chronic daily hassles  Low social status/power.  General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) (Identified by Hans Selye)  Out stress response system defends, then fatigues  Stress Increases the Risk of Illness  Psychoneuroimmunology in action:  Psychological factors  Neurological factors  Immunology  Type A Personality Stress Heart Disease  Type A personality are:  Impatient  Verbally aggressive  Pushing themselves and others to achieve  Type B personality are:  Relaxed  Go with the flow  In one study, heart attacks ONLY struck people with Type A traits  Accomplishing goals is healthy, but compulsion to always be working, with little time spent “smelling the flowers”, is not.  Another problem: ANGER  To reduce stress: defuse anger with exercise, talking, forgiveness, NOT “letting it out” (catharsis) by screaming, punching.  Pessimism and Heart Disease  It can be helpful to realistically anticipate negative events that may happen, and to plan how to prevent or cope with them.  Pessimism refers to the assumption that negative outcomes will happen, and often facing them by complaining and/or giving up.  Men who are generally pessimistic are more likely to develop heart disease within ten years than optimists.  Suppressing negative emotions only worsens the risk of heart disease. Reducing risk comes from a genuine change in attitude and treatment of factors related to negative emotions.  Depression and Heart Disease  Chronic stressors excessive inflammation depressive symptoms/ cardiac disease  The role of this intervening variable may explain why increasing levels of Omega-3 fatty acids seems in some reports to have an impact on the incidence of both depression and heart disease.  Health Consequences of Chronic Stress: The Repeated Release of Stress Hormones  The stress hormone cortisol helps our bodies respond to brief stress.  Chronically high cortisol levels damage the body.  Promoting Health  Some ways to reduce the health effects of stress include:  Address the stressors (problem or emotion focus)  Soothe emotions  Increase one’s sense of control over stressors  Exchange optimism for pessimism  Get social support  Learned Helplessness vs. Personal Control  Normally, most creature try to escape or end a painful situation. But experience can make us lose hope.  Uncontrollable bad events (Experiment by Martin Seligman) Perceived lack of control (Learned Helplessness: Declining to help oneself after repeated attempts to do so have failed.) Generalized helpless behavior (Personal Control: When people are given some choices –not too many- they thrive.)  Aerobic Exercise and Health  Aerobic exercise refers to sustained activity that raises heart rate and oxygen consumption.  Triggers certain genes to produce proteins which guard against more than 20 chronic diseases and conditions.  Reduces risk of heart disease, cognitive decline and dementia, and early death.  A More Positive Psychology  Martin Seligman, who earlier kept dogs from escaping his shocks until they developed learned helplessness.  Developed Positive Psychology, the “scientific study of optimal human functioning”, finding ways to help people thrive.  Focus: building strength, virtue, emotional well-being, resilience, optimism, sense of meaning.  Three pillars of Positive Psychology:  Emotions (ex: engagement)  Character (ex: courage)  Group, cultures, and institutions  Adaptation- level Phenomenon  When we step into sunshine, it seems very bright at first. Then our senses adapt and we develop a “new normal”. If a cloud covers the sun, it may seem “dark” in comparison.  The “very bright” sensation is temporary.  The adaption-level phenomenon: when our wealth or other life conditions improve, we are happier compared to our past condition.  However, then we adapt, form a “new normal” level, and most people must get another boost to feel the same satisfaction.


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